Japan's Security Policy

 

April 6, 2016

The Three Principles on Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology

On April 1, 2014, in accordance with the NSS, the Government of Japan set out the Three Principles on Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology as a set of clear principles on the overseas transfer of defense equipment and technology that fits the new security environment. The new Principles replaced the previous “Three Principles on Arms Exports and Their Related Policy Guidelines.”

Three Principles on Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology

First Principle: Cases where transfers are prohibited (clarification of standards)

  1. Cases where the transfer violates obligations under treaties and other international agreements that Japan has concluded
    * Chemical Weapons Convention, Convention on Cluster Munitions, the Anti-Personnel Mines Ban Treaty (Ottawa Treaty), and the Arms Trade Treaty, etc.
  2. Cases where the transfer violates obligations under UN Security Council resolutions
  3. Cases where the defense equipment and technology are destined for a country party to a conflict (a country against which the UN Security Council is taking measures to maintain or restore international peace and security in the event of an armed attack)
Transfers are prohibited

Second Principle: Limitation to cases where transfers may be permitted (securing transparency and conducting strict examination)

  1. Cases where the transfer contributes to active promotion of peace contribution and international cooperation
  2. Cases where the transfer contributes to Japan’s security

Third Principle: Limitation to cases where appropriate control regarding extra-purpose use and transfer to third parties is ensured

The Government of Japan will in principle oblige the Government of the recipient country to gain its prior consent regarding extra-purpose use and transfer to third parties

Strict examination and appropriate control
Through the appropriate overseas transfer of defense equipment and technology, Japan will seek to promote the maintenance of international peace and security more actively through timely and effective implementation of contribution to peace and international cooperation activities such as international peace cooperation, international disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, measures against international terrorism and piracy, and capacity building of developing countries. Additionally, Japan will make an effort to strengthen security and defense cooperation with Japan’s ally, the United States, as well as with other countries.