Japan's climate-related support
October 12, 2016
Japan has been supporting developing countries in the field of climate change. Japan has also emphasized in the climate negotiations the importance of extending support on climate change to developing countries. Typical examples of Japan's climate-related support to developing countries are shown below.
The importance of support to developing countries: Japan’s view and policy on supporting developing countries on climate change
There are mainly two strategies to tackle climate change, “mitigation” and “adaptation.” Mitigation refers to the following: efforts on the reduction of industrial, household, and other greenhouse gases (GHG) by diverse sectors in the society; the GHG reduction through energy conservation and the use of low-carbon energy such as renewable energy; and the CO2 absorption done by plants. Adaptation, on the other hand, refers to the prevention and alleviation of negative impacts being brought about by climate change such as sea level rise and drought.
Since there are no national borders for climate change, it is essential for each country to work through mitigation and adaptation. Most developing countries need to achieve economic development, and some of them face difficulty in implementing adequate measures on climate change with their scarce resources and capacity. In the meantime, the clock is ticking especially when it comes to “adaptation.” If no action is taken, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) could face serious situations such as losing their land. The world has to come together to deal with climate change issues, and it is essential for developed countries to reach out their hands to where the support is needed. This is why developed countries devote themselves to assisting developing countries.
The responsibility of developed countries to support developing countries is stipulated in international frameworks. An international treaty called United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992, aiming at stabilization of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in order to prevent global warming. The commitment of developed countries to providing financial resources, the transfer of technology, and enhancement of endogenous capacities are defined in UNFCCC Article 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5. At the 15th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) held in 2009, developed countries set a goal to mobilize jointly 100 billion dollars a year by 2020 from public and private sources to support developing countries.
Japan has been actively supporting developing countries. During the Leaders Event at COP 21 held in Paris in 2015, Prime Minister Abe announced the Action for Cool Earth 2.0 (ACE 2.0), Japan's new set of contribution for reinforcing the world's strategy against climate change. He also stated that, as part of the contribution, Japan will mobilize approximately 1.3 trillion yen of public and private climate finance to developing countries in 2020. The statement lifted the fog and cleared the path toward the goal of 100 billion dollars a year by 2020, which was agreed at COP 15 as mentioned above, and provide the momentum to adopt the Paris Agreement.
Examples of Japan’s climate-related support to developing countries
The following examples are Japan's typical climate-related support to developing countries. The data of implementation in 2013-2014 is shown in the Second Biennial Report, which was submitted to UNFCCC in December 2015. See the Second Biennial Report. (PDF)
- Samoa: The Project for Construction of the Pacific Climate Change Center
- Kiribati, Cook island, Samoa, Solomon, Tuvalu, Tonga, Nauru, Niue, Vanuatu, PNG, Palau, Fiji, Marshal, Micronesia: The Project for Strengthening Multi-hazard Risk Assessment and Early Warning Systems in Pacific Island Countries
- Fiji: Project for Reinforcing Meteorological Training Function of FMS
- Palau: Project for Sustainable Management of Coral Reef and Island Ecosystems: Responding to the Threat of Climate Change
- PNG: Capacity Development Project for Operationalization of PNG Forest Resource Information Management System for Addressing climate Change
- Thailand: Project for Capacity Development on Mitigation/Adaptation for Climate Change in the Southeast Asia Region
- Viet Nam: Support Program to Respond to Climate Change (VI)
- Thailand: Bangkok Master Plan on Climate Change 2013-2023
- Philippine: Project for Enhancing Capacity on Weather Observation, Forecasting and Warning
- Bangladesh: Project for Improvement of Meteorological Rader System in Dhaka and Rangpur (Detailed Design)
- Pakistan: Energy Efficiency Management Program (EEMP) for Industrial Sector in Pakistan
Latin America and Caribbean
- Guyana, Grenada, Jamaica, Surinam, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Lucia, Dominica, Belize: The Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP) (with UNDP)
- Costa Rica: Las Pailas II Geothermal Project
- Antigua and Barbuda: The Project for Improvement of Fishery Equipment and Machinery in Antigua and Barbuda
- Haiti: The Project for Supporting Disaster Resilience (with UNDP)
- Iran: Project on Implementation of pilot project to introduce ESCO for government's buildings
- Jordan: Knowledge Co-Creation Program (Young Leaders) for Jordan/ Renewable Energy Course
- Afghanistan: Project for Enhancing Agriculture Production through Irrigation System Improvement and Strengthening Institutional Capacity (with FAO)
- Afghanistan: Project for Capacity Enhancement on Hydro-Meteorological Information Management in Ministry of Energy and Water
- Turkey: Training Program on Energy Efficiency and Management in Industry
- Mauritius: The Project for Improvement of the Meteorological Radar System (phase 2) Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Chad, Cote d'lvoire,
- Senegal: Training Program for Young Leaders for African Countries (French)/Renewable Energy Course
- Mozambique: Project for the Capacity Enhancement of Meteorological Observation, Weather Forecasting and Warning
- Botswana: The Project for Enhancing National Forest Monitoring System for the Promotion of Sustainable Natural Resource Management
- Seychelles: Project for Formulation of Master Plan for Development of Micro Grid in Remote Islands
- Kenya: Olkaria V geothermal project