Diplomatic Bluebook 2022

Chapter 3

Japan Strengthening Its Presence in the International Community

Section 2 Japan's International Cooperation (Development Cooperation and Response to Global Issues)

1 Development Cooperation

(1) Development Cooperation Charter and Japan's ODA Performance

More than 65 years have passed since Japan started its Official Development Assistance (ODA)1 in 1954. Japan's development cooperation policy including ODA has greatly contributed to securing peace, stability and prosperity of the international community and consequently the national interests of Japan for many years.

In recent years, the situation surrounding development is transforming, as indicated by the growing diversity and complexity of the issues facing developing countries and the growing roles of non-ODA funds and support. In response to the transformation, in February 2015, the Development Cooperation Charter was decided by the Cabinet to replace its previous ODA Charter. Under the Development Cooperation Charter, taking into account its philosophy toward development cooperation cultivated over many years and from the perspective of further evolving this philosophy, Japan has established the basic policies of (1) contributing to peace and prosperity through cooperation for non-military purposes; (2) promoting human security; and (3) cooperation aimed at self-reliant development through assistance for self-help efforts as well as dialogue and collaboration based on Japan's experience and expertise. Japan promotes development cooperation under these basic policies, with (1) “quality growth” and poverty eradication through such growth; (2) sharing universal values and realizing a peaceful and secure society; and (3) building a sustainable and resilient international community through efforts to address global challenges.

Under this Development Cooperation Charter, in 2020, Japan provided approximately 16.26 billion US dollars (+4.3% year on year) in ODA2, based on the grant equivalent system (GE system)3. Japan ranks fourth among the member states of the DAC, following the U.S., Germany, and the UK (a provisional value for 2020 is used for countries other than Japan). The ODA/GNI ratio based on the GE system was 0.31%, placing Japan in 13th place among member states of the DAC (a provisional value for 2020 is used for countries other than Japan).

  • 1 Official Development Assistance (ODA): For details on Japan's international cooperation, refer to “White Paper on Development Cooperation: Japan's International Cooperation.”
    “White Paper on Development Cooperation: Japan's International Cooperation.” qrcode
  • 2 The main modalities of ODA from Japan are: grant aid, loan aid, namely, loan for development in developing regions; technical cooperation; and contributions and subscriptions to multilateral institutions. Of these, loan aid accounts for the largest share. Loan aid is typically repaid with interest.
  • 3 Grant Equivalent System (GE system) was introduced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) in 2018 as the standard method for calculating ODA loans. The grant equivalent of the loan aid is calculated as ODA flows. The grant equivalent is calculated by applying the terms of the loan, such as amount disbursed, interest rate and maturity, to a formula. The softer the terms of the loan are, the larger the amount will be. Compared to the net flow system (the full amount of loan disbursement is included, but the amount repaid is calculated as a negative figure) that has conventionally been used as the standard method of the OECD/DAC, the GE system reflects Japan's loan aid more accurately. (https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/files/100053766.pdf).
    Grant Equivalent System qrcode

(2) Development Cooperation in 2021

In 2021, Japan engaged mainly in the following (A to D below) in order to promote strategic and effective development cooperation, with the Development Cooperation Charter positioned at the core of these actions.

A Countermeasures against COVID-19

First, combating the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has continued to be a major challenge for the international community in 2021. Countermeasures were conducted with the cooperation of the international community to combat the pandemic, which crossed national borders and became a global crisis. Specifically, Japan has provided health and medical equipment as well as vaccine-related assistance. Japan has also offered technical cooperation for reinforcing capacities in the health and medical fields at an unprecedented speed in order to build a resilient medical and health system from a medium-to long-term standpoint in developing countries with vulnerable medical systems, through bilateral cooperation and international organizations. In particular, as part of the efforts to ensure equitable access to vaccines, the Government of Japan co-hosted the COVAX AMC Summit in June, in which Prime Minister Suga as a co-chair called for further solidarity and commitments from the international community in the fight against COVID-19. As a result, we were able to secure funding well beyond the target. Furthermore, Japan has been providing the COVID-19 Crisis Response Emergency Support Loan up to 700 billion yen over two years to contribute to maintaining and revitalizing economic activities in developing countries. Japan's assistance has been highly appreciated by recipient countries.

Japan will continue to provide vaccines, treatments and diagnostics related assistance for overcoming the current COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, Japan will also offer assistance for health security in a broad range of fields including water and sanitation and for improving health and medical systems in developing countries in preparation for future health crises.

B Achievement of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)

Second, Japan is promoting concrete initiatives utilizing ODA strategically in order to achieve a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) in the Indo- Pacific region which is a focal point of the world's vitality.

Over the years, Japan has developed “quality infrastructure” for building regional connectivity, assisted in legal system development, offered training on public debt and risk management for ensuring debt sustainability, and capacity building for debt management and macroeconomic policy, and for maritime law enforcement agencies for securing safety at sea (provision of patrol vessels and coastal monitoring radars as well as human resources development, etc.). Japan will continue to offer these in the future.

The development of quality infrastructure is an important foundation for achieving FOIP and is particularly necessary in the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. From this standpoint, it is important to continue to disseminate and implement the G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment, endorsed at the G20 Osaka Summit of 2019 as an international standard, including such principles as openness, transparency, economic efficiency in view of life-cycle costs, and debt sustainability.

C Addressing Global Issues

Third, Japan is working to address global challenges such as achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including combating COVID-19, based on the concept of human security.

Japan will continue to actively promote development cooperation in fields such as health, food, nutrition, women (gender), education, disaster risk reduction, water and hygiene, climate change and global environmental issues. In doing so, Japan will promote visible development cooperation while utilizing collaboration with NGOs working on international cooperation. In addition, Japan will continue to promote humanitarian assistance including support for refugees, peace building and nation building assistance based on the concept of “humanitarian-development-peace (HDP) nexus” to reinforce responses to fundamental causes of conflict, in addition to humanitarian assistance and development.

D Diplomatic Efforts in Support of Japan's Economy

Fourth, Japan seeks to revitalize its own economy through the development of developing countries and Japan is promoting initiatives for achieving the growth of both. The “Infrastructure System Overseas Promotion Strategy 2025” approved in December 2020 and “Follow-up on the Growth Strategy” approved in July 2021 call for utilizing ODA strategically to further encourage the overseas expansion of Japanese companies.

Specifically, in order to have Japan's leading technologies utilized for development in developing countries, Japan will promote the acquisition of business rights and operation rights of Japanese corporations through means such as the provision of grant aid for public projects implemented through public-private partnership and offer technical cooperation that contributes to quality infrastructure investment, such as trade facilitation and securing debt sustainability. Additionally, to encourage the overseas expansion of private companies including SMEs and local governments, Japan will increase the visibility of products and equipment that can help resolve issues in developing countries through Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)'s private sector partnership in conducting surveys and verification on business models as well as continuously generate demand for these, and promote overseas expansion assistance for micro-, small-and medium-sized enterprises in the construction industry, including in local regions. Through human resource development, Japan will also contribute to advancing the improvement of the business environment, thereby promoting investment and overseas expansion by corporations.

(3) Safety Measures for Personnel Engaged in International Cooperation Projects

In March 2020, many of the personnel engaged in international cooperation projects were temporarily returned home due to the spread of COVID-19. However, since mid-July of the same year, JICA-related personnel have been resuming their travel in order from countries where conditions were met. As of March 2022, the number of JICA-related personnel staying overseas had recovered to 70% of that before the repatriation (except JICA Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers).

Japan will continue to strengthen safety measures for personnel engaged in international cooperation projects to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infections. Japan will also further strengthen safety measures for international cooperation projects while implementing measures based on the final report of the Council on Safety Measures for International Cooperation Projects (August 2016) which have been done against terrorism.

(4) Initiatives in Major Regions

A East and Southeast Asia

The achievement of peace, stability, and prosperity in the East and Southeast Asia regions is important to Japan, which has a close relationship with the region. Through development cooperation, Japan has helped these regions to resolve various development issues including poverty reduction, by promoting economic growth and human security and contributed to the development of these regions.

Above all, as member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are keys to achieving a Free and Open Indo-Pacific, Japan not only provides support for overcoming the issues faced by ASEAN and to further promote integration, but also places a strong emphasis on cooperation on development of quality infrastructure and training of industrial human resources to strengthen regional connectivity and develop industrial foundation. Since there is the large number of Japanese companies doing business and a large resident population of Japanese nationals in the East and Southeast Asian regions, Japan has provided intensive support against COVID-19 in the region. Specifically, Japan provided a total of approximately 38 billion yen in health- and medical-related equipment to 11 countries and provided support for improving health and medical systems in these countries through technical cooperation. Additionally, Japan has provided COVID-19 emergency financial support yen loans totaling approximately 220 billion yen to five countries to offset the economic impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, as part of its support to ASEAN during the pandemic, Japan is also conducting training for public health officers of ASEAN countries geared toward the operation of the ASEAN Centre for Public Health Emergencies and Emerging Diseases, which Japan is fully supporting.

Furthermore, Japan is actively providing support for capacity building for maritime law enforcement to ASEAN countries positioned along Japan's sea lanes such as the Philippines and Viet Nam, with the aim of building the free and open international order. Such efforts include providing equipment such as patrol vessels and coastal monitoring radars, as well as human resource development through the dispatch of experts. In addition, Japan is providing consistent support to eradicate domestic and regional disparity, and support for the creation of a sustainable society in areas such as disaster risk reduction, environment and climate change, and energy. At the Japan- ASEAN Summit Meeting held in November 2020, the Joint Statement of the ASEAN-Japan Summit on Cooperation on the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP) was announced. Based on the fact that it was confirmed that the principles of the AOIP and FOIP match one another, Japan plans to continue strengthening Japan-ASEAN cooperation going forward in terms of maritime cooperation, connectivity, the SDGs and economy, which are priority fields of the AOIP. In 2021, Japan has conducted countermeasures against infectious diseases, as well as training on topics such as logistics, marine waste, and treatment of offenders based on the Japan-ASEAN Technical Cooperation Agreement concluded in 2019.

With regard to Myanmar, in response to the worsened humanitarian condition following the coup d'état in February, Japan has been providing humanitarian assistance (food, medical supplies, etc.) directly benefitting the people in Myanmar through international organizations.

In the Mekong region, steady progress has been made with cooperation under the “Tokyo Strategy 2018,” a set of guidelines for Japan-Mekong cooperation. At the Mekong-Japan Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in August, Foreign Minister Motegi discussed the support Japan has provided thus far against COVID-19, including 5.6 million doses of vaccine, approximately 750 million yen in support of the cold chain, and supply of oxygen concentrator, and stated Japan will support the Mekong region in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The Mekong region is located at the core of the Indo-Pacific region. Japan will continue its assistance to aid the development of each Mekong country through the Japan-Mekong cooperation framework.

With regard to China, Japan's ODA to China that first began in 1979 ceased adopting new projects in FY2018, and all current projects are to end in March 2022.

“Last One Mile Support” Handover Ceremony in collaboration with UNICEF (November, Philippines)“Last One Mile Support” Handover Ceremony in collaboration with UNICEF (November, Philippines)
B Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia holds strategic importance as a marine transportation hub that connects East Asia with the Middle East, and is also a region with immense economic potential, such as India, where economic growth and massive infrastructure demand are anticipated in the future. On the other hand, the region still faces many unresolved challenges such as undeveloped infrastructure, poverty and natural disasters. Japan provides a range of assistance through ODA to assist the region in overcoming these challenges, bearing in mind the improvement of the investment environment for Japanese companies, and ensuring human security. The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has also had a substantial impact on Southwest Asia due to its social and economic vulnerabilities along with an underdeveloped medical system. As a measure against COVID-19 in Southwest Asian countries, Japan has provided a total of 160 billion yen in fiscal assistance yen loans to three countries, as well as health-and medical-related equipment to seven countries, totaling over 8.6 billion yen. In addition, Japan has provided 2.5 billion yen to six countries in support of the development of a cold chain system as part of the Last One Mile Support, an initiative to establish vaccination system. Japan has also provided support for improving health and medical systems through technical cooperation.

Japan has been providing support to India, which has the largest population in Southwest Asia. As part of its support for the development of economic and social infrastructure including electricity and transportation infrastructure that contribute to enhancing connectivity and strengthening industrial competitiveness, Japan has assisted with the construction of high-speed railways, subways in a number of cities and road construction in India's northeast. In addition, Japan has supported India's sustainable and inclusive growth through such projects as those in the forestry sector including afforestation activities as well as those in the health sector that help strengthen the medical system including measures against infectious diseases. With regard to Bangladesh, Japan, under the Bay of Bengal Industrial Growth Belt (BIG-B) initiative, is providing support that contributes to strengthening domestic and regional connectivity, developing infrastructure, and improving the investment environment. Since August 2017, a large-scale influx of displaced persons from northern Rakhine State, Myanmar, and prolonged evacuation have resulted in the deterioration of humanitarian situations in camps for displaced persons and has also had a severe impact on the living environment of the surrounding host communities. In response to this situation, Japan provided support through international organizations and NGOs in the areas of water and hygiene, health and medical care, food security, livelihood assistance, etc.

Train set for Dhaka Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Line 6 procured from Japan. The cars carry a motif featuring the Japanese and Bangladesh flags. (November 16, Dhaka, Bangladesh)Train set for Dhaka Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Line 6 procured from Japan. The cars carry a motif featuring the Japanese and Bangladesh flags. (November 16, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
C Pacific Island Countries

Not only being Japan's “neighbors” connected by the Pacific, but also the Pacific Island countries have deep historical connections with Japan. Moreover, as these countries possess a vast exclusive economic zone (EEZ, or areas where a country's economic right reaches), they are a key region for maritime transportation for Japan, and also provide vital fishing grounds for Japan's distant-water bonito and tuna fisheries. Therefore, the stability and prosperity of the Pacific Island countries are of great importance to Japan.

The Pacific Island countries have common issues that are unique to small island states, such as smaller economies, scattered territories in a wide sea area, difficulty in breaking into the international market, and vulnerability to damages by natural disasters. In light of these circumstances, Japan, as a good partner of the Pacific Island countries, is providing support to boost their autonomous and sustainable development.

At the Ninth Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM9) held via video conference in July, discussions were held focused on the five priority areas, which are, (1) COVID-19 Response and Recovery, (2) Sustainable Oceans based on the Rule of Law, (3) Climate Change and Disaster Resilience, (4) Strengthening Foundation for Sustainable and Resilient Economic Development, and (5) People-to-People Exchanges and Human Resource Development. Japan announced its commitment to promote people-to-people exchanges and human resource development for more than 5,500 people and summarized the specific initiatives for the next three years in the annexed document of the “The Ninth Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM9) Leaders Declaration” under the title Joint Action Plan. The Joint Action Plan outlines specific initiatives based on the five priority areas such as provision, management and support for the administration of vaccines, supply of high quality medical equipment and development of medical facilities, provision of quality infrastructure such as ports and airports, surveillance to eradicate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, disaster prevention, waste management that also includes marine plastic waste, and climate change. The Pacific Island countries stated their strong praise to PALM for the role it has played thus far and deep appreciation to Japan for implementation under the commitment at PALM8 as well as for new commitment based on the five priority areas.

In response to the damages caused by the volcanic eruption and tsunami that occurred on January 15, 2022, Japan has provided emergency relief supplies through JICA for Tonga, which was delivered by the Japan Disaster Relief Team (Self-Defense Forces) in light of humanitarian perspective and its amicable relations with the Kingdom of Tonga. Furthermore, Japan is providing Emergency Grant Aid of approximately 2.44 million US dollars for Tonga.

Port Vila Lapetasi International Wharf constructed with assistance from Japan (Vanuatu)Port Vila Lapetasi International Wharf constructed with assistance from Japan (Vanuatu)
Hon. Hu'akavameiliku, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tonga, welcoming the arrival of the Self-Defense Forces transport aircraft carrying emergency relief supplies (January 22, 2022, Tonga)Hon. Hu'akavameiliku, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tonga, welcoming the arrival of the Self-Defense Forces transport aircraft carrying emergency relief supplies
(January 22, 2022, Tonga)
D Latin America and the Caribbean

Latin America and the Caribbean is a region with which Japan has enjoyed friendly relations for a long time. The region also has deep historical ties with Japan, as demonstrated by the fact that around 2.13 million Japanese immigrants and their descendants, known as “Nikkei,” reside in the region. The region is a major supplier of resources and food, as well as a potential emerging market with gross regional production of around 5 trillion US dollars. On the other hand, as many countries in the region are facing challenges such as rectification of income inequality within country, response to natural disasters, and achievement of the SDGs, Japan is engaged in various cooperative efforts while also taking into account the circumstances of each country in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Japan has provided fiscal loans to two countries in Latin America, totaling 30 billion yen, and health-and medical-related equipment to 25 countries, totaling 9.1 billion yen, to help combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, Japan has provided approximately 1.5 billion yen to seven countries in support of the development of a cold chain system as part of the Last One Mile Support initiative. Moreover, Japan has also provided assistance to 17 countries through JICA's technical cooperation for the improvement of health and medical systems in those countries.

Additionally, in response to the hurricane-related damages in November 2020, Japan provided emergency relief supplies (tents, sleeping pads, blankets, etc.) and equipment needed for recovery (excavators, bulldozers, etc.) to Colombia, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala. Japan also provided support based on the needs of each country; for example, Japan offered El Salvador opportunities to send its young public servants to study specialized knowledge and obtain graduate degrees in Japan for the development and growth of their home country. In recent years, there have been concerns over the increase in the number of migrants from Central American countries to the U.S. Japan is providing support to address issues such as poverty, public security and natural disasters in Central America, which are some of the root causes for migration.

In addition, recent deterioration in social and economic conditions in Venezuela has resulted in approximately six million refugees fleeing to neighboring countries, which has affected the whole surrounding region. As stated by Uto Takashi, State Minister for Foreign Affairs at the International Donors' Conference in Solidarity with Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants in June 2021, Japan has continued its support on civil welfare of Venezuelan citizens, including refugees and migrants, and support for affected neighboring countries. In 2021, Japan provided assistance to Venezuelan refugees and migrants and host communities in Peru and Colombia through international organizations and NGOs.

Last One Mile Support Equipment Delivery Ceremony (November 8, Asunción, Paraguay)Last One Mile Support Equipment Delivery Ceremony
(November 8, Asunción, Paraguay)
E Central Asia and Caucasus

Central Asia and Caucasus are surrounded by Russia, China, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The stability and development of this region are also important for the development and stability of the whole of Eurasia, including Japan. Japan supports nation building in a free and open Central Asia and the Caucasus region that allows international orders based on the rule of law to take root and improve, and also sustainable development to progress, while also taking into account broad-based views covering neighboring regions including Afghanistan and Iran.

Japan is providing health-and medical-related equipment to eight countries, totaling 3.2 billion yen, as a measure against COVID-19 in Central Asia and Caucasus. In addition, Japan is providing support for enhancing border control capabilities in the region where countries share a border with Afghanistan through international organizations.

JICA experts providing instruction on handicrafts to female farmers (July 20, Bishkek, Kyrgyz; Photo: JICA/Suzuki Kaku)JICA experts providing instruction on handicrafts to female farmers (July 20, Bishkek, Kyrgyz; Photo: JICA/Suzuki Kaku)
F The Middle East and North Africa

Middle East and North Africa regions are geopolitically key areas as the crossroads of Europe, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and securing peace and stability in those areas is crucial not only for the energy security of Japan but also for the stability of the world. From this point of view, Japan has provided support to achieve peace and stability in the regions.

In 2021, Japan provided COVID-19-related support to the Middle East and North Africa regions by using ODA. Specifically, Japan earmarked a total of around 29.1 billion yen for support through international organizations, and provided health-and medical-related equipment as bilateral assistance.

With regard to Syria, where civil war has been prolonged, Japan has provided more than 2.9 billion US dollars and neighboring countries since 2012 based on the policy of providing humanitarian assistance to all Syrians facing difficulties. State Minister for Foreign Affairs Washio Eiichiro participated in Supporting the future of Syria and the region, Brussels V Conference, co-organized by the EU and UN in March. He stated that Japan decided to provide an additional contribution of about 200 million US dollars for assistance in 2021 and will continue to fulfill the role in improving the humanitarian situation in Syria. Furthermore, in order to foster human resources who could contribute to Syria's future reconstruction, 111 Syrian students have been accepted in Japan since 2017.

In regard to Palestine, based on the Corridor for Peace and Prosperity initiative with the aim of promoting economic and social development for Palestine promoted through cooperation between Japan, Israel, Palestine and Jordan, Japan assists the development of Jericho Agro-Industrial Park (JAIP). On the visit to Palestine by Foreign Minister Motegi in August, the opening ceremonies of the Palestinian Business Prosperity Center at JAIP and Protective Shelter of the Great Bath at Hisham's Palace were held. Furthermore, State Minister for Foreign Affairs Suzuki Takako attended the International Ministerial Conference on UNRWA in November, where she stated the importance of support activities for Palestinian refugees and their fiscal stabilization, and Japan's consistent support.

In Yemen, where a severe humanitarian crisis is still ongoing, Japan has provided more than 300 million US dollars in support since 2015. At the High-Level Pledging Event for the Humanitarian Crisis in Yemen held in March, State Minister for Foreign Affairs Washio stated that Japan decided to provide a total of approximately 49 million US dollars at least for assistance in 2021, and would continuously make efforts to realize peace and stability in Yemen. In 2021, Japan offered humanitarian assistance in the field of mental healthcare, livelihood support for small fishery households, capacity building, and education in collaboration with international organizations.

Since the Taliban took over Kabul in August, the humanitarian conditions have worsened in Afghanistan, where nearly half of the population are in need of humanitarian assistance such as food items, and new refugee influx to its neighboring countries is concerned. Given this situation, Foreign Minister Motegi announced at the virtual Foreign Minister's Meeting on Afghanistan in September that Japan is prepared to provide a total of approximately 200 million US dollars (around 22 billion yen) in 2021, including 65 million US dollars (about 7.1 billion yen) in new assistance in areas such as shelter, health care, water and sanitation, food, agriculture, and education through international organizations.

Human resource development is vital to realize stability in the Middle East in the medium-to long-term. As an example, through the technical cooperation project “Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) Project Phase 3,” Japan is providing support for the human resource development in the field of industry, science and technologyin Egypt, the Middle East and the Africa region. In addition, Japan has supported school management and teaching staff's capacity building by providing the yen loan “Egypt-Japan School Support Program (Egypt-Japan Education Partnership).” As of October 2021, 48 schools following the Japanese education model opened.

State Minister for Foreign Affairs Suzuki attending the International Ministerial Conference on UNRWA (November 16, Tokyo)State Minister for Foreign Affairs Suzuki attending the International Ministerial Conference on UNRWA
(November 16, Tokyo)
Lecture on safety and risk management at E-JUST (January, Egypt; Photo: JICA)Lecture on safety and risk management at E-JUST
(January, Egypt; Photo: JICA)
G Africa

Africa has been gradually recovering from the economic depression caused by the rapid drop in natural resource prices around 2014, and continues to attract the attention and anticipation from the international community for its potential, backed by its abundant natural resources and a rapidly growing population. On the other hand, the COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on Africa's fragilities in various areas including healthcare and medical sectors. In these circumstances, Japan has provided healthcare and medical equipment totaling 6.8 billion yen to African countries through bilateral arrangements and collaborations with international organizations. Japan has also conducted technical cooperation to strengthen the healthcare and medical systems in Africa. Through the longstanding process of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), Japan has actively implemented programs to support the healthcare and medical system in Africa from medium-and long-term perspectives. These efforts have been recognized anew amidst the spread of COVID-19 in Africa. For example, the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in Ghana for which Japan has supported the establishment and the development of laboratory technicians, plays a major role in carrying out the PCR tests in the country. Likewise, other healthcare and medical research institutes that Japan has supported such as the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), play the role of the centers for countermeasures against COVID-19 throughout Africa.

COVID-19 also has a widespread impact on the African society and economy. Japan is implementing measures under each of the three pillars of TICAD 7 held in August 2019: economy, society, and peace and stability, making contributions to respond to the various social and economic issues in Africa.

In the pillar of Economy, Japan has promoted industrial human resource development through the African Business Education Initiative for Youth (ABE initiative) 3.0 and other means, in order to promote African businesses. Since TICAD V (2013), JICA has provided opportunities to study at graduate schools in Japan, to take part in internships at Japanese companies, Japanese language training and business programs including entrepreneur cultivation training for 1,600 youths under the initiative. Furthermore, with a view to strengthening connectivity, Japan will also promote investment in quality infrastructure with a focus on the three priority regions (Northern Corridor (East Africa), Nacala Corridor and West Africa Growth Ring). In September, Exchange of Notes on the Project for Improvement of the Tema Motorway Roundabout (Phase 2) and The Project for Rehabilitation of National Trunk Road N8 (Phase 2) was conducted in Ghana.

Under the pillar of Society, Japan is further promoting initiatives toward promoting universal health coverage (UHC). In addition, Japan is providing assistance for developing science and mathematics education and improving the learning environment, in order to help provide high-quality education.

Under the pillar of Peace and Stability, Japan is providing support to Africa-led efforts aimed at establishing peace and stability via support for provision of security equipment and human resource development, under the New Approach for Peace and Stability in Africa (NAPSA) (see Chapter 3, Section 1 3 (6) (b) b on page 210).

Ceremony of PCR Test Kits Donation to Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) (June, Kenya)Ceremony of PCR Test Kits Donation to Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) (June, Kenya)
The Third Country Training Program at KEMRI (November, Kenya; Photo: JICA)The Third Country Training Program at KEMRI (November, Kenya; Photo: JICA)

(5) Approaches to Appropriate and Effective Implementation of ODA

A Approaches to Appropriate Implementation of ODA

In the implementation of ODA, efforts are made to enhance transparency and quality by listening to the views of external experts at each phase and formulating projects based on these opinions. In the phase prior to preliminary studies for the implementation of ODA, MOFA holds the Development Project Accountability Committee in public, exchanges views with independent committee members that have knowledge of the relevant field, and affirms the validity of the project. Furthermore, JICA publishes ex-post evaluation results for all projects valued at 200 million yen or more (2,795 projects published as of the end of December 2021) on the “ODA Mieru-ka Site” after the implementation of the projects in view of enhancing the transparency of the projects. Ex-post evaluations for projects valued at 1 billion yen or more are conducted by third parties. MOFA conducts third party evaluations at the policy level (such as country assistance evaluations, thematic evaluations and aid modality evaluations) and ex-post evaluations on grant aid projects implemented by MOFA to improve ODA management and ensure accountability. Efforts are made to utilize the lessons drawn from the evaluation results for the policy formulation and project implementation of future ODA. MOFA also publishes the evaluation results on its website.

As part of its effort to ensure the appropriateness of development cooperation, JICA has adopted the JICA Guidelines for Environmental and Social Considerations and strives to implement ODA projects with due consideration for human rights, the environment and social impacts.

B Approaches to Effective Implementation of ODA

ODA is implemented through three frameworks corresponding to the needs of the partner country and the scale of the project: grant aid, loan aid and technical cooperation. In order to utilize the limited budget efficiently and achieve a high level of development effectiveness, MOFA formulates a development cooperation policy for each country that defines the priority areas and policies of ODA, taking into account comprehensively the development plans and development challenges of respective partner counties. Moreover, the Rolling Plan is formulated as an appendix to the Country Development Cooperation Policy, with a summary for quick reference on how each individual ODA project is associated with a specific priority area. Through these efforts, the policy of development cooperation in each country is clearly identified, enabling more strategic projects to be formed across the confines of each framework.

C Efforts with regard to International Discussions on ODA

Japan also contributes actively to international discussions on ODA. At OECD/DAC, discussions are underway on the revision of measurement methods for the appropriate assessment of each country's ODA disbursement, approaches to utilize ODA as a catalyst for mobilization of development finance from the private sector, responses to COVID-19, and assistance for climate change related issues. In addition, OECD/DAC is working to provide opportunities for mutual learning such that development assistance provided by emerging donors will be accountable and transparent in a manner consistent with international standards and practices.

D Efforts toward Promoting Understanding of ODA

It is vital to have the understanding and support of the people inimplementing development cooperation. To that end, efforts are made to promote understanding among the citizens through the effective dissemination of information. MOFA has enhanced the ODA website contents with brand new information, as well as aims to disseminate information on Japan's development cooperation activities among a wider range of targets in an easy-to-understand manner through the ODA Twitter account, e-mail subscriptions, and other tools. In addition, MOFA has expanded on the short animation series “Go! ODA-Man” based on the popular anime “Eagle Talon,” and created new videos on the introduction of ODA, a documentary on development cooperation, etc. It also hosted the international cooperation event, Earth Camp, which welcomes general participation, virtually for the first time. Furthermore, with this year marking the 30th anniversary of the event, Global Festa Japan was held both online and in person as a hybrid event, which attracted more than 10,000 participants in person and online in two days. In FY2021, MOFA has continued actively to conduct “ODA Delivery Lectures” by ministry officials as a part of its efforts to promote understanding of development cooperation via virtual lectures online. In addition, MOFA makes active efforts in overseas publicity, including site-visit tours with the aim of developing local media coverage of Japan's development cooperation, and issues PR pamphlets and materials in English and local languages.

Videos featuring famous and highly influential persons have been published.Videos featuring famous and highly influential persons have been published.