Diplomatic Bluebook 2020

Chapter 3

Japan's Foreign Policy to Promote National and Global Interests

4 Disarmament and Non-proliferation and the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

(1) Nuclear Disarmament

As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings during wartime, Japan has the responsibility to take the lead in efforts by the international community to realize a world without nuclear weapons.

The global security environment has been severe in recent years. As seen in discussions over the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, adopted in July 2017, there exists an apparent divergence of views on how best to advance nuclear disarmament, a divergence that exists not only between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon states but also among non-nuclear-weapon states that are exposed to the threat of nuclear weapons and those that are not. Considering these circumstances, it is necessary to persistently advance realistic and practical measures with the cooperation of nuclear-weapon states in order to promote nuclear disarmament.

Japan continues to pursue bridge building between nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states with the aim of realizing a world without nuclear weapons. It has done this through such means as holding meetings of the Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament, submitting a draft resolution for the total elimination of nuclear weapons to the UN General Assembly, and utilizing the framework of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) and bilateral consultations. Moreover, Japan intends to carry out realistic and practical measures that also involve nuclear-weapon states, including maintaining and strengthening the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), promoting entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and commencing negotiations on a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT).

A Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)

Japan places great importance on maintaining and strengthening the NPT, which is the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. NPT Review Conferences have been held once every five years with the aim of achieving the goals of the treaty and ensuring compliance with its provisions, and discussions that reflect the international situation of the time have been held since the treaty entered into force in 1970. At the Review Conference held in 2015, discussions failed to arrive at a consensus regarding the establishment of a Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction and other issues, and the Conference ended without a consensus document. Against this backdrop, there is a growing importance for efforts aimed at the next NPT Review Conference.

The third session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, held from April to May 2019 in New York, was attended by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Tsuji Kiyoto, who held a general debate. Meanwhile, the Government of Japan has actively participated in discussions through issuing statements at each cluster; cooperating with NPDI member countries to submit working papers concerning Disarmament and non-proliferation education, and transparency; leading efforts to formulate joint statements on Disarmament and non-proliferation education; and holding side events. (see the Special Feature on page 203).

Initiatives Toward the Convention of the NPT Review Conference

The Review Conference for the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Non-Proliferation Treaty, or NPT) is scheduled to be convened in 2020. It is also a milestone year that marks the 50th year since the NPT entered into force, and the 75th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The NPT aims to realize nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and 191 states are parties to the treaty (as of December 2010), with the exclusion of India, Pakistan, Israel, and South Sudan.

At the 2015 NPT Review Conference, the parties failed to reach an agreement on the issue of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction*1, and the Conference concluded without the adoption of a draft final document. Thereafter, amidst the growing severity of the security environment surrounding Japan, differences in opinion surrounding nuclear disarmament were also observed within the international community. Nevertheless, the NPT has a major role to play in securing peace and security in the international community, and the Government of Japan places great importance on maintaining and strengthening the NPT regime, and is doubling its efforts to that end.

In the three years prior to 2020, the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference was held every year. At the First Session of the Preparatory Committee held in May 2017, discussions were held on the status of compliance with the NPT's three pillars of nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Foreign Minister Kishida attended this meeting, where he appealed for the importance of rebuilding relationships of trust between countries, and announced the launch of the Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament (see 4(1) (b)) to provide recommendations to that end.

At the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee convened in April 2018, Foreign Minister Kono introduced the recommendations submitted by the aforementioned Group of Eminent Persons, and also contributed actively to the theme-based discussions.

Foreign Minister Kono attending the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference (April 2018, Geneva, Switzerland)Foreign Minister Kono attending the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference
(April 2018, Geneva, Switzerland)

At the Third Session of the Preparatory Committee held in April 2019, discussions were held on the proposed recommendations by the chair to the 2020 NPT Review Conference. However, the parties could not bridge the gap in their opinions on matters such as the approach to nuclear disarmament and the regional issues, and failed to reach an agreement on the chair's recommendation. Despite this situation, the Government of Japan held a side event at this session of the Preparatory Committee, on the “Kyoto Appeal”*2 submitted by the Group of Eminent Persons to MOFA, and on enhancing transparency on the status of fulfillment of the obligations and commitments under the NPT by each country. At the same time, under Japan's leadership, 55 countries came together to issue a joint statement on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education*3. As a member of the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) (see 4(1) (c)), Japan also contributed to discussions at the Preparatory Committee for the NPDI through the submission of working papers and holding a side event.

In November 2019, the 10th Ministerial Meeting of the NPDI was convened with Foreign Minister Motegi as co-chair. At this meeting, an NPDI joint ministerial statement was issued, setting forth NPDI's commitment toward maintaining and strengthening the NPT regime.

Foreign Minister Motegi attending the 10th Ministerial Meeting of the NPDI (November 2019, Nagoya)Foreign Minister Motegi attending the 10th Ministerial Meeting of the NPDI (November 2019, Nagoya)

On the other hand, even after a number of such discussions, differences in standpoint remain among countries in the international community, over matters such as the vision for the establishment of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction, and the approach to nuclear disarmament such as the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. The pillar of non-proliferation is also confronted by the question of how to settle the arguments on matters such as the positioning of Additional Protocols (AP) (see 4(2) (a)), and the relationship between non-proliferation measures and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

Despite the considerable number of difficult issues, the Government of Japan has continued to implement practical and concrete initiatives and proposals so as to ensure that the 2020 NPT Review Conference produces a meaningful outcome. As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings during war, Japan will continue to put in place concrete initiatives toward the realization of a world free of nuclear weapons, through means such as the utilization of the outcomes of discussions by the Group of Eminent Persons, resolutions aimed at eliminating nuclear weapons, and the activities of the NPDI.

  • *1 At the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, the Middle East Resolution was adopted through a joint proposal by the three depository states of the U.S., Russia, and the UK. This Resolution aims to establish a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East, including nuclear weapons. However, partly due to differences in views between the Arab nations and Israel, the zone has not been established even to the present day (as of December 2019).
  • *2 At the third session (November 2018, Nagasaki) and fourth session (March 2019, Kyoto) of the Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament, discussions were held on the initiatives that the international community has to implement in order to advance nuclear disarmament under the current conditions. The “Kyoto Appeal,” which summarizes the results of the discussions, was submitted to Foreign Minister Kono in April the same year.
  • *3 Japan has taken the lead in the formulation of the Joint Statement on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education, which aims to call for attention among the parties to the need for disarmament and non-proliferation education in the NPT process and to realistic methods for advancing such education, as well as demonstrate once again Japan's presence in this area. At the Third Session of the Preparatory Committee held in 2019, a joint statement was prepared that emphasizes cooperation between countries and other entities, the further utilization of the Internet and social media, and the importance of greater commitment among young people. This joint statement was approved by 55 countries including the UK, which is a nuclear-weapon state.
B Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament

The “Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament” (EPG; consisting of 17 experts from countries of different positions, including Japan) was launched by Japan in 2017 with the goals of rebuilding trust among countries with divergent views on how to proceed with nuclear disarmament and of obtaining recommendations that will contribute to the substantive advancement of nuclear disarmament. The Group compiled its recommendations based on discussions in the first meeting in November 2017 and the second meeting in March 2018, and the same recommendations were proposed at the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in April 2018. The third and fourth meetings were held in November 2018 in Nagasaki and March 2019 in Kyoto. Based on discussions at these meetings, further discussions were held concerning international initiatives needed to carry out nuclear disarmament under the present circumstances. These latter discussions culminated in the “Kyoto Appeal,” which Prefectural University of Kumamoto Chancellor and EPG Chair Shiraishi Takashi submitted to Foreign Minister Kono in April. Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Tsuji Kiyoto presented the Kyoto Appeal at the third session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. During the fifth meeting, held in July in Tokyo, meeting members agreed to produce a report encompassing all discussions heretofore held at EPG meetings. The “Chair's Report” was submitted to State Minister for Foreign Affairs Wakamiya Kenji by EPG Chair Shiraishi in October.

C The Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)

The NPDI, a group of 12 non-nuclear-weapon states from various regions established under the leadership of Japan and Australia in 2010 has served as a bridge between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon states. It leads efforts in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation through its realistic and practical proposals with the involvement of the foreign ministers of its member states. The NPDI has actively contributed to the NPT review process through realistic and practical proposals, including the submission of 19 working papers to the 2015 NPT Review process and 15 to the 2020 NPT Review6 process.

At the 10th NPDI Ministerial Meeting, co-organized by Japan and Australia and held during the G20 Aichi-Nagoya Foreign Ministers' Meeting in November, an NPDI Joint Ministerial Statement was issued concerning the importance of maintaining and strengthening the NPT framework.

  • 6 In March 2020, the UN announced that States Parties had reached an agreement to postpone the conference that had been scheduled for April but was postponed due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and that, should circumstances permit, the conference would be held no later than April 2021. For convenience' sake, the statement refers to the conference as the “2020 NPT Review Conference.”
D Initiatives Through the United Nations (Resolution on Nuclear Disarmament)

Since 1994, Japan has submitted draft resolutions on the elimination of nuclear weapons to the UN General Assembly. They incorporate issues of the time related to nuclear disarmament, as well as concrete and practical measures toward the total elimination of nuclear weapons. As a means to facilitate the building of a common ground between nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states, the 2019 resolution focused on joint courses of action to be taken immediately by the international community toward nuclear disarmament as well as the importance of future-oriented dialogues. The resolution was adopted with the broad support of 148 countries at the First Committee of the UN General Assembly in November and of 160 countries at the Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly in December. While other resolutions that comprehensively addressed nuclear disarmament were submitted to the General Assembly in addition to Japan's draft resolution on the total elimination of nuclear weapons, Japan has enjoyed support among a larger number of states. For more than 20 years, Japan's resolutions have continued to enjoy the broad support of states with divergent views in the international community.

E Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Japan attaches great importance to promoting the entry into force of the CTBT as a realistic measure of nuclear disarmament where both nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon states can participate. Japan also has continued diplomatic efforts to encourage countries that have not signed or ratified the CTBT, including those countries whose ratifications are required for its entry-into-force. Zimbabwe ratified the CTBT in February. At the 11th Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the CTBT held in September, Foreign Minister Motegi presented Japan's initiatives toward facilitating the entry into force of the CTBT and expressed his hope and determination for the steady advancement of nuclear disarmament efforts.

F Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT: Cut-off Treaty)7

A Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) has great significance for both disarmament and non-proliferation as it would prevent the emergence of new states possessing nuclear-weapons by banning the production of fissile materials such as highly-enriched uranium and plutonium for weapons purposes. At the same time, it limits the production of nuclear weapons by nuclear-weapon states. For many years, however, no agreement has been reached on commencing negotiations for the treaty in the Conference on Disarmament (CD). Consequently, it was decided at the 71st UN General Assembly in December 2016 to establish the FMCT High-Level Experts Preparatory Group. Japan actively participated in the Group's discussions, and through discussions at the 1st meeting (August 2017) and 2nd meeting (June 2018), a report was adopted that includes possible options for the outline of a future treaty and content to consider in negotiations. The report was submitted to the 73rd UN General Assembly. Japan will continue actively contributing to FMCT discussions.

  • 7 A treaty concept that aims to prevent the increase in the number of nuclear weapons by prohibiting the production of fissile materials (such as enriched uranium and plutonium) that are used as materials to produce nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices.
G Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education

As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings, Japan places great importance on education in disarmament and non-proliferation. Specifically, Japan has been actively engaged in efforts to convey the realities of the devastation caused by the use of nuclear weapons to people both within Japan and overseas, through activities such as translating the testimonies of atomic bomb survivors into other languages, invitations for young diplomats from other countries to go to Hiroshima and Nagasaki through the UN Programme of Fellowships on Disarmament,8 providing assistance for holding atomic bomb exhibitions overseas through its overseas diplomatic missions,9 and designating atomic bomb survivors who have given testimonies of their atomic bomb experiences as “Special Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons.” In 2019, the “Under a Mushroom Cloud: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and the Atomic Bomb” exhibition was held in Los Angeles and two other cities in the U.S.

Additionally, as the atomic bomb survivors age, it is becoming increasingly important to pass on the realities of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings across generations and borders. To this end, from 2013 to 2019, Japan conferred the designation of “Youth Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons” for more than 300 youths in Japan and overseas.

  • 8 Implemented since 1983 by the UN to nurture nuclear disarmament experts. Program participants are invited to Hiroshima and Nagasaki and taught the realities of atomic bombing through such means as museum tours and talks by victims about their experiences in the atomic bombings.
  • 9 Opened as a permanent exhibition about the atomic bomb in New York, U.S.; Geneva, Switzerland; and Vienna, Austria, in cooperation with Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City.

(2) Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security

A Japan's Efforts of Non-Proliferation

To ensure Japan's security and to maintain peace and security of the international community, Japan has been making efforts concerning non-proliferation policy. The goal of such policy is to prevent the proliferation of weapons that could threaten Japan or the international community (weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons and biological/chemical weapons, as well as missiles with the ability to deliver said weapons and conventional weapons) and of related materials and technologies used to develop such weapons.

In today's international community, economic growth in emerging countries has enabled a growing capacity to produce and supply weapons in those countries as well as materials that could be diverted to the development of such weapons. Meanwhile, methods for procuring these materials are becoming more sophisticated, due in part to increasing complexity in means of distribution.

Furthermore, the emergence of new technologies is spurring a growing potential for private sector technologies to be diverted to uses for military purposes, and increasing the proliferation risk of weapons that could pose a threat and of related materials and technologies.

Under these circumstances, Japan has been implementing its non-proliferation policies, focusing on maintaining and strengthening international non-proliferation regimes and rules, taking appropriate non-proliferation measures domestically, and promoting close coordination with and capacity building support for other nations.

Japan's three main measures of preventing proliferation are (1) IAEA safeguards, (2) export control, and (3) the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).

Safeguards refer to verification activities conducted in accordance with safeguards agreements between states and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and aim to ensure that nuclear energy will not be diverted from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

As a designated member of the IAEA Board of Governors,10 Japan has made various efforts, including supporting the IAEA. For example, based on the view that the IAEA safeguards are at the core of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, Japan enhances the understanding and implementation capabilities of safeguards of other countries. Japan also encourages other countries to conclude the Additional Protocol (AP)11 to the IAEA safeguards agreements by supporting the IAEA's regional seminars, as well as through other forums. Furthermore, Japan actively contributes to regional and international efforts to strengthen safeguards through efforts such as attending and acting as facilitator in the area of human resources development at the Annual Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) held in August, in which the IAEA participated as an observer and which aims to strengthen safeguards in the Asia-Pacific region.

In the election to determine the next IAEA Director General held following the passing of IAEA Director General Amano Yukiya in July (see the Column on page 209), Argentina-born Mr. Grossi was elected to the first Director General from the Latin American region. Mr. Grossi has expressed his intention to address the problem of nuclear non-proliferation with professionalism and technological expertise. During his visit to Japan as a guest of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in February 2020, he paid a courtesy call on Prime Minister Abe and held a meeting with Foreign Minister Motegi. Japan and the IAEA shared the view that both sides would work together to build a further cooperative relationship. Japan will continue providing utmost support to Director General Grossi, who has extensive knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear non-proliferation, and will continue to work with other member countries to strengthen the role of the IAEA.

Meeting between Foreign Minister Motegi and IAEA Director General Grossi (February 25, 2020, Tokyo)Meeting between Foreign Minister Motegi and IAEA Director General Grossi (February 25, 2020, Tokyo)

Export control is a useful measure in the so-called supply-side regulation toward countries of proliferation concern, terrorist organizations, and other entities attempting to acquire or distribute weapons or related materials or technologies. There are currently four export control frameworks (international export control regimes) in the international community. Japan has participated in all of them since their inception, engaging in international coordination and practicing strict export control. Each of the four regimes, namely the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) for nuclear weapons, the Australia Group (AG) for chemical and biological weapons, the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) for missiles,12 and the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) for conventional weapons, establishes a list of dual-use items and technologies which contribute to weapons development. To ensure the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons, participating countries to the regimes implement export control measures on the listed items and technologies in accordance with their domestic laws. The export control regimes also exchange information concerning trends in countries of proliferation concern and are engaged in outreach activities to non-participating countries to the regimes in order to strengthen their export control. Japan actively engages in such international rule-making and application of rules, and makes various contributions. Additionally, in terms of international contributions in nuclear non-proliferation, the Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna serves as the Point of Contact of the NSG.

Furthermore, Japan seeks to complement the activities of the international export control regimes by actively participating in the activities of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).13 Through efforts such as hosting the maritime interdiction exercise “Pacific Shield 18”14 in July 2018, Japan is working to enhance coordination among countries and concerned institutions.

Ship embarkation during a PSI training organized by Japan (July 25, 2018, off Boso Peninsula)Ship embarkation during a PSI training organized by Japan (July 25, 2018, off Boso Peninsula)

Japan also holds Asia Senior-level Talks on Non-Proliferation (ASTOP)15 and Asian Export Control Seminars16 every year in order to promote a better understanding of the non-proliferation regimes and strengthen regional efforts, mainly in Asian countries. At the 15th ASTOP, held in March, discussions were conducted concerning strengthening export control as well as PSI, the IAEA's safeguards, and the Additional Protocol. 32 countries and regions participated in the 26th Asian Export Control Seminar, held in February. At the seminar, participants held discussions concerning measures to strengthen the effectiveness of export control with a view to capacity building for export control personnel in Asian countries and regions.

Furthermore, with regards to the implementation of UN Security Council resolution 1540,17 which was adopted in 2004 with the aim of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery (missiles) to non-state actors, Japan contributes to maintaining and strengthening international non-proliferation frameworks through Japan's contributions to support the execution of the resolution by Asian nations.

  • 10 13 countries are designated by the IAEA Board of Governors. The designated member states include Japan and other G7 countries with advanced nuclear energy capabilities.
  • 11 An Additional Protocol is concluded in addition to a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement that is applied on all nuclear materials pertaining to the peaceful nuclear activities in that country, and that non-nuclear-weapon NPT States Parties must conclude with the IAEA pursuant to Article 3 Paragraph 1 of the NPT. The conclusion of the Additional Protocol expands the scope of nuclear activity information that should be declared to the IAEA, and gives the IAEA strengthened measures to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. As of October 2019, 136 countries have concluded the Additional Protocol.
  • 12 Apart from export control regimes, the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), which includes the principle of exercising restraint in their development and deployment, addresses the issue of ballistic missiles. 143 countries subscribe to the HCOC.
  • 13 107 countries participate in and support the PSI as of December 2019. In the past, in addition to hosting PSI maritime interdiction exercises in 2004, 2007, and 2018, and air interdiction exercises in 2012, Japan also hosted an Operational Experts Group (OEG) meeting in 2010 in Tokyo. Japan has also actively participated in training and related conferences hosted by other countries. This includes a rotation exercise in the Asia-Pacific region and the High-Level Political Meeting in the U.S. in January 2016. Most recently, Japan took part in a High-Level Political Meeting to commemorate the 15th anniversary of the PSI, held in France in May 2018.
  • 14 Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the ROK, Singapore, and the U.S. contributed assets and personnel to the exercise, which was held in Yokosuka City, off the Boso Peninsula and the Izu Peninsula, and 19 countries from Indo-Pacific region and other countries sent observers.
  • 15 A multilateral Director-General-level meeting hosted by Japan to discuss various issues related to the strengthening of the nonproliferation regime in Asia among the ten ASEAN Member States, China, India, the ROK, as well as the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and France, which have common interests in Asian regional security. The last ASTOP was held in March 2019.
  • 16 A seminar hosted by Japan to exchange views and information toward strengthening export controls in Asia, with the participation of export control officials from Asian countries and regions. It has been organized annually in Tokyo since 1993 and was most recently held in February 2020.
  • 17 Adopted in April 2004, Resolution 1540 obliges all countries to: (1) refrain from providing support to terrorists and other non-state actors attempting to develop weapons of mass destruction; (2) adopt and enforce laws prohibiting the development of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists and other non-state actors; and (3) implement domestic controls (protective measures, border control, export controls, etc.) to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The resolution also establishes, under the UN Security Council, the 1540 Committee, which comprises Security Council members and has a mandate to review and report to the Security Council the level of Resolution 1540 implementation by member states.

Footprints Left Behind by Mr. Amano as Director General of the IAEA

Address at IAEA's 60th anniversary event (Photo: IAEA)Address at IAEA's 60th anniversary event (Photo: IAEA)

Mr. Amano Yukiya, who was the first Japanese to be elected as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in December 2009, and continued to serve as the IAEA's fifth Director General for nearly ten years thereafter, passed away in July 2019, midway through his term. He did his work as Director General of the IAEA with sincerity and left behind many great achievements. Known also for his diligence, joke-loving and friendly nature, Mr. Amano was adored by the IAEA staff and people from all walks of life. On his passing, leading figures from various countries, including U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov, and Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif, and countless others from Japan and abroad, expressed their condolences and honored his achievements.

This column features some of Director General Amano's achievements.

1. Response to the nuclear accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

In response to the nuclear accident that occurred at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, the Government of Japan reported the accident to the IAEA in April as a Level 7 accident (major accident)* on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). One week after the accident, Director General Amano visited Japan to consult with the Government of Japan, and strived to grasp the situation accurately for himself by visiting the sites in July the same year and December the following year. Under his leadership, the IAEA cooperated with Japan on the initial response, including the Director General's visit to the site immediately after the accident and the provision of information to the international community, and through the advices about measures on decommissioning and contaminated water. The IAEA also disseminated objective and science-based information about the accident. After that, Director General Amano prepared “The Fukushima Daiichi Accident – The Report by the Director General,” in which he presented an assessment of the causes and results of the accident. Furthermore, he also worked on the preparation and implementation of an action plan based on the lessons learned from the accident in order to improve nuclear safety in the world, which is one of the important roles of the IAEA.

2. Efforts toward the issue of non-proliferation

The IAEA has the important mission of responding to the issue of non-proliferation, a challenge that the international community is confronted by today.

The start of the implementation (January 2016) of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), agreed in July 2015, was made possible by Director General Amano's personal visit to Iran in September 2015, and the final assessment by the IAEA in December the same year on outstanding issues related to possible military dimensions regarding Iran's nuclear program. Thereafter, Director General Amano took responsibility for directing the important activities of verifying and monitoring Iran's implementation of nuclear-related commitments under the JCPOA, in IAEA's spirit of impartiality and professionalism. Mr. Amano is probably one of the most well-known Japanese people in Iran today.

Although the IAEA is currently unable to conduct activities in North Korea, it regularly publishes reports on North Korea's nuclear issue. Moreover, in the summer of 2017 when there were heightened tensions over North Korea's nuclear and missile issues, the IAEA proactively responded the situation under Director General Amano's leadership, enhancing its capacity by promptly establishing a “DPRK Team” within the IAEA.

3. “Atoms for Peace and Development”

Director General Amano pursued the wide range of possibilities of nuclear technology. Taking the opportunity of IAEA's 60th anniversary in 2017, he changed IAEA's motto from “Atoms for Peace” to “Atoms for Peace and Development,” and made efforts to promote the use of nuclear technology in a wide range of sectors in developing countries, such as medical care and agriculture, as well as the Renovation of the Nuclear Applications Laboratories (ReNuAL) project of the IAEA.

At the IAEA General Conference held in 2019 after Director General Amano's passing, his achievements were commended and a resolution was adopted to name one of the research buildings of the IAEA Seibersdorf laboratories located in the suburbs of Vienna, Austria the “Yukiya Amano Laboratory.” This research building was scheduled to commence operation in the spring of 2020.

We highly esteem Director General Amano's leadership and achievements, and once again express our deep respect for his dedication in life. We will also continue to provide our full support for the efforts of Director General Grossi who succeeded Mr. Amano, and will strive to strengthen the IAEA's role in close cooperation with other member states.

  • *International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES): International indicator was developed jointly by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) in 1990 to communicate the safety significance of accidents and incidents in nuclear facilities, etc. It is classified into seven levels. Use of the scale in Japan began in 1992. In cases where radioactive substances are released into the environment, the incident would basically be rated as INES Level 4 or higher. The criteria, which is calculated as an equivalent dose of iodine, for determining each level is as follows: Level 7: More than several tens of thousands of terabecquerels; Level 6 (serious accident): the order of thousands to tens of thousands of terabecquerels; Level 5 (accident with wider consequences): the order of hundreds to thousands of terabecquerels; Level 4 (accident with local consequences): the order of tens to hundreds of terabecquerels. The level of radioactive substance emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident was approximately 630,000 trillion becquerels at the time of the announcement by the (then) Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission, and about 370,000 trillion becquerels based on the estimate by the (then) Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (both are calculated as an equivalent dose of iodine).
B Regional Non-proliferation Issues

North Korea has not carried out the dismantlement of all weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles of all ranges in a complete, verifiable, and irreversible manner in accordance with a series of relevant UN Security Council resolutions.

The second U.S.-North Korea Summit between the U.S. and North Korea was held in Hanoi, Viet Nam in February. President Trump and Chairman of State Affairs Commission Kim Jong-un met and held negotiation in Panmunjom in June. In the meantime, North Korea frequently and repeatedly conducted launches of ballistic missiles, counting more than 20 from May to November. Under these circumstances, it is important that the international community remains united to support the process between the U.S. and North Korea toward the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

Meanwhile, the IAEA Acting Director General's report in August pointed out activities at some nuclear facilities in North Korea continued or developed further. It also noted that North Korea's nuclear activities remain a cause for serious concern, and that these activities are clear violations of UN Security Council resolutions and that it is regrettable. At the IAEA General Conference in September, a resolution based on the report was adopted by consensus, and IAEA member countries expressed their solidarity on achieving the denuclearization of North Korea.

Japan will continue to coordinate closely with related countries, including the U.S. and the ROK, as well as international organizations such as the IAEA, toward the complete, verifiable, and irreversible dismantlement of all of North Korea's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles of all ranges in accordance with the UN Security Council resolutions. In addition, from the viewpoint of the full implementation of the UN Security Council resolutions, Japan will work on capacity building for export control particularly in Asia.

With respect to Iran, the IAEA has continuously monitored and verified Iran's implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)18 since January 2016. In May 2018, the U.S. announced its withdrawal from the JCPOA, and sanctions against Iran were reapplied in August and November. In response, Iran announced a phased suspension of its commitments under the JCPOA in May 2019. It has taken a succession of steps that include exceeding the limit on the stockpile of low-enriched uranium and level of uranium enrichment, conducting activities related to its centrifuge research and development beyond the limits of the JCPOA and restarting uranium enrichment activities at a fuel enrichment facility in Fordow, located in Qom County in central Iran. In November, the IAEA Director General reported that the IAEA detected natural uranium particles at a location in Iran not declared to the IAEA. In light of this situation, Director General Grossi said he would tackle Iran's nuclear problem in a firm but fair way.

Japan, deeply concerned about Iran's continued reduction of its commitments under the JCPOA, strongly urges Iran to comply with the JCPOA, and to immediately return to its commitments, while also strongly urging Iran to refrain from further measures that may undermine the JCPOA. Japan is also calling upon Iran to fully cooperate with the IAEA based on the JCPOA and in accordance with all its nuclear obligations, in particular its Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA), and the Additional Protocol.

With respect to Syria's implementation of the IAEA safeguards, it is important that Syria fully cooperates with the IAEA and that Syria signs, ratifies and implements the Additional Protocol in order to clarify the facts.

  • 18 Sets forth detailed procedures for imposing constraints on Iran's nuclear activities while ensuring that they serve peaceful purposes, and for lifting the imposed sanctions.
    <Main measures undertaken by Iran>
    ● Constraints on enriched uranium-related activities
     ・Limit on the number of centrifuges in operation to 5,060 unit
     ・Upper limit on enriched uranium at 3.67%, and limit on the amount of stored enriched uranium at 300 kg, etc.
    ● Constraints on the Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor, and reprocessing.
     ・Redesign / remodeling of the Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor so that it is not able to produce weapon-grade plutonium and to transfer spent fuel out of the country.
     ・No reprocessing including for research purposes, no construction of reprocessing facilities, etc.
C Nuclear Security

With regards to nuclear security that aims to prevent acts of terrorism such as those involving the use of nuclear and other radioactive materials, the IAEA, the UN, and like-minded countries have strengthened international cooperation on nuclear security through various efforts. These include the Nuclear Security Summit, which was hosted by then U.S. President Obama and held four times between 2010 and 2016, and the International conference on Nuclear Security, organized by the IAEA. Japan continues to actively participate in and contribute to these efforts.

Based on “the Practical Arrangements between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency on Cooperation in the Area of Support to the Implementation of Nuclear Security Measures on the Occasion of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games,” signed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the IAEA in February 2018, relevant Japanese ministries and organizations conducted a table-top exercise on nuclear security measures for major public events with the participation of experts from the IAEA and the U.S. in October, 2019.

In November 2019, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs organized the International Transport Security Symposium on nuclear and other radioactive materials in collaboration with the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). More than 100 experts from international organizations including the IAEA and relevant countries participated in this symposium, and shared good practices and exchanged views on common challenges related to transport security.

(3) Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

A Multilateral Efforts

Along with nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered to be one of the three pillars of the NPT. According to the treaty, it is the “inalienable right” for any country that meets its obligations to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation to develop research, production, and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Reflecting the increase in international energy demand, many countries use or are planning to use nuclear power.19

On the other hand, these nuclear materials, equipment, and technologies used for nuclear power generation can be diverted to uses for military purposes, and a nuclear accident in one country may have significant impacts on neighboring countries. For these reasons, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it is vital to ensure the “3S”20: that is, (1) Safeguards, (2) Nuclear Safety (e.g. measures to ensure safety to prevent nuclear accidents), and (3) Nuclear Security. As the country that experienced the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, it is Japan's responsibility to share its experiences and lessons learned from the accident with other countries and to contribute to strengthening global nuclear safety. In this regard, Japan and the IAEA have been working in cooperation. The IAEA Response and Assistance Network (RANET) Capacity Building Centre (CBC) in Fukushima Prefecture was designated in 2013 and workshops were held in August and November in 2019, for Japanese and foreign officials to strengthen their capabilities in the field of emergency preparedness and response.

Decommissioning, contaminated water management, decontamination and environmental remediation have been progressing steadily at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Nevertheless, these works are difficult in ways that are unprecedented in the world, and efforts have been made to tackle the challenges by leveraging collective technologies and knowledge of the world. Japan has been cooperating closely with the IAEA since the accident. In June 2019, Japan hosted an expert mission of the IAEA on marine monitoring. In addition, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) published a report in 2014 on the levels and the impact of radiation from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, and the report has been updated since 2018 in order to carry out assessment based on the latest information.

It is necessary to disseminate accurate information in a timely and appropriate manner in order to make progress in the decommissioning works and to promote recovery, with the support and correct understanding of the international community. From this perspective, Japan periodically releases comprehensive reports through the IAEA that cover matters such as progress in decommissioning and contaminated water management at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, results of the monitoring of air dose rate and seawater radioactivity concentration, and food safety. In addition, Japan submits reports on the current situation to all the Diplomatic Missions in Tokyo and to the IAEA every month in principle. Furthermore, Japan has organized more than 100 briefing sessions to all the Diplomatic Missions in Tokyo since the accident, and provided information through overseas diplomatic establishments. With respect to the status of contaminated water management at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan prepared an information sheet in English in order to clearly explain the difference between contaminated water and ALPS-treated water,21 which are often confused, to the international community, and distributed the information sheet at international conferences including the IAEA General Conference held in Vienna in September 2019.22 Japan continues to provide information to the international community in a courteous and transparent manner, based on scientific evidence, and to make explanations securely so as to prevent causing further reputational damage.

Nuclear energy is applied not only to the field of power generation, but also to areas including human health, food and agriculture, environment, and industrial uses. Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in such non-power applications and contributing to development issues are becoming increasingly important as developing countries make up the majority of NPT member states. The IAEA also contributes to technical cooperation for developing countries and to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Against this background, Japan has been providing active support to the IAEA's activities, through such means as the Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI) and IAEA technical cooperation that includes cooperation based on the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development, and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). At the NPT Review Conference held in April 2015, Japan announced that it would be contributing a total of 25 million US dollars over five years to the PUI. In 2019, through the PUI, Japan supported IAEA projects including the renovation project of the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories.

  • 19 According to the IAEA, as of January 2020, 447 nuclear reactors are in operation worldwide and 52 reactors are under construction (see the IAEA website).
  • 20 “3S” is used to refer to the IAEA's efforts toward nuclear safety, nuclear security, and nuclear safeguards, which are typical measures for non-proliferation.
  • 21 ALPS-treated water is water purified using multiple purification systems, including advanced liquid processing systems (ALPS).
  • 22 The most recent English language materials that are distributed at IAEA General Conferences and other assemblies and that concern the differences between polluted water and ALPS-treated water are available on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' website (https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000564692.pdf).
    the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' website
B Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

Bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements are concluded to secure a legal assurance from the recipient country, when transferring nuclear-related material and equipment, that the transferred items will be used only for peaceful purposes. The agreements especially aim to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ensure non-proliferation.

Moreover, as Japan attaches importance to ensuring the “3S,” recent nuclear agreements between Japan and other countries have set out provisions regarding nuclear safety and nuclear security to affirm mutual compliance with international treaties on nuclear safety and nuclear security. They have also facilitated the promotion of cooperation in the field of nuclear safety under the agreements.

Countries in the world continue to express their high expectations to Japan's nuclear technology, even after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Taking into account the situations, intentions, and desires of the partner countries, Japan can continue to provide nuclear-related material, equipment, and technology with the highest safety standards. Furthermore, in bilateral nuclear cooperation, Japan is called upon to share its experience and lessons learned from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident and to continue cooperating on improving nuclear safety with other countries. When considering whether or not to establish a nuclear cooperation agreement framework with a foreign country, Japan considers the overall situation in each individual case, taking into account such factors as non-proliferation, nuclear energy policy in that country, the country's trust in and expectations for Japan, and the bilateral relationship between the two countries. As of the end of 2019, Japan has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with Canada, Australia, China, the U.S., France, the UK, the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), Kazakhstan, the ROK, Viet Nam, Jordan, Russia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and India23 in the order of effective date.

  • 23 Negotiations are currently ongoing concerning the agreement with the UK.

(4) Biological and Chemical Weapons

A Biological Weapons

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)24 is the only multilateral legal framework imposing a comprehensive ban on the development, production, and possession of biological weapons. However, the question of how to reinforce the convention is a challenge as there are neither provisions governing the means of verifying compliance with the BWC nor an implementing organization for the convention.

Since 2006, decisions have been made to establish the Implementation Support Unit (fulfilling the functions of a Secretariat) and to hold intersessional meetings twice a year in between the Review Conferences held every five years. During this time, progress has been made with respect to initiatives aimed at strengthening the regime of the BWC.

Agreement has been reached with regard to discussing the five topics, namely international cooperation, reviews of developments in the field of science and technology, national implementation, assistance for preparedness and response, and institutional strengthening of the convention. The discussions are to be conducted at the inter-sessional meetings up until the ninth Review Conference, scheduled to be held in 2021. Japan actively participated in discussing these themes at the December 2019 Meeting of States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention.

  • 24 Entered into force in March 1975. There are 183 Signatory States as of December 2019.
B Chemical Weapons

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)25 imposes a comprehensive ban on the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons, and stipulates that all existing chemical weapons must be destroyed. Compliance is ensured through a verification system consisting of declarations and inspections, making this convention a groundbreaking international agreement on the disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The implementing body of the CWC is the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is based in the Hague, the Netherlands. Along with the UN, the OPCW has played a key role in the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons. Its extensive efforts toward the realization of a world without chemical weapons were highly acclaimed, and the organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013.

Japan, which has a highly developed chemicals industry and numerous chemicals factories, also accepts many OPCW inspections. Japan also actively cooperates with the OPCW in many other concrete ways, including measures to increase the number of member states and strengthening national implementation measures by States Parties with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the convention. Moreover, under the CWC, Japan aims to complete, as soon as possible, the destruction of chemical weapons of the former Japanese Army abandoned in Chinese territory by working in cooperation with China.

During his visit to Japan in June, OPCW Director-General Arias agreed to continue coordinating with Japan.

  • 25 Entered into force in April 1997. There are 193 Signatory States as of December 2019.

(5) Conventional Weapons

Conventional weapons generally refer to arms other than weapons of mass destruction and include a wide variety of weapons ranging from large weapons such as landmines, tanks, and artillery to small arms and light weapons such as handguns. The problem of conventional weapons, which are used in actual wars and cause injury and death to civilians, is a serious one for both national security and humanitarian concerns. The disarmament agenda presented in 2018 by UN Secretary-General Guterres categorizes disarmament of conventional weapons as one of the three pillars, “Disarmament that Saves Lives.” Japan is making active efforts involving cooperation and support based on international standards and principles concerning conventional weapons.

A Small Arms and Light Weapons

Described as “the real weapons of mass destruction” due to the many human lives they take, small arms and light weapons continue to proliferate due to the ease with which they can be obtained and used. They contribute to conflict prolongation and escalation, hindering the restoration of public security and post-conflict reconstruction and development. Since 1995, Japan has been working with other countries to submit a resolution on the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons to the UN General Assembly, and the resolution has been adopted every year. In areas around the world, Japan has also provided support for projects to address the issue of small arms and light weapons, including training and the collection and destruction of weapons. In 2019, Japan contributed two million US dollars to a mechanism for preventing small arms and light weapons established under UN Secretary-General Guterres' disarmament agenda.

B The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)26

The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), which seeks to establish common standards to regulate international trade in and prevent the illicit trade of conventional arms, entered into force in December 2014. As one of the original co-authors of the UN General Assembly resolution that initiated a consideration of the treaty, Japan has taken the lead in discussions and negotiations in the UN and contributed significantly to the establishment of the treaty. Even after the treaty entered into force, Japan has actively participated in discussions at Conferences of States Parties and other opportunities. In August 2018, Japan hosted the 4th Conference of States Parties to the Arms Trade Treaty in Tokyo as the first chair country elected from the Asia-Pacific region.

  • 26 As of January 2020, there are 105 states and regions that are parties to the ATT. Japan signed the Treaty on the day that it was released for signing and became a State Party in May 2014.
C Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW)27

The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) prohibits or restricts the use of conventional weapons that are deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects. It comprises a framework convention that sets forth procedural and other matters, as well as five annexed protocols that regulate individual conventional arms. The framework convention entered into force in 1983. Japan has ratified the framework convention and annexed Protocols I to IV, including the amended Protocol II. Prompted by concerns in the international community about the rapidly advancing military applications of science and technology, meetings of the Group of Governmental Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) have been held under the CCW framework since 2017. At meetings of the Group held in March and August 2019, Japan again actively participated and contributed to discussions.

  • 27 As of November 2018, 125 countries and regions are parties to the CCW.
D Anti-personnel Mines

2019 marks the 20th anniversary of the entering into force of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Treaty).28 To date, Japan has continued to promote comprehensive measures with a focus on the effective prohibition of anti-personnel mines and strengthening of support for mine-affected countries. Along with calling on countries in the Asia-Pacific region to ratify or accede to the Convention, since 1998 Japan has provided support worth over 78 billion Japanese yen to 51 countries and regions to assist them in dealing with the consequences of landmines (for example, landmine clearance and victim assistance).

In November 2019, Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Asako Omi attended the 4th Review Conference of the Convention, held in Oslo, Norway. At the conference, Japan looked back on its initiatives and achievements in supporting mine action. It also expressed Japan's continued resolve toward playing an active role in achieving a mine-free world.

  • 28 The Convention, which entered into force in March 1999, bans the use and production of anti-personnel mines while mandating the destruction of stockpiled mines and the clearance of buried mines. As of January 2020, there are 164 states and regions that are parties to the Convention, including Japan.
E Cluster Munitions29

The international community takes very seriously the humanitarian consequences brought about by cluster munitions. Japan is therefore taking steps to address this issue via victim assistance and unexploded ordinance clearance,30 while also continuing its efforts to increase the number of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM).31 At the September 2019 Meeting of States Parties to the Convention, Japan again participated in discussions concerning these issues.

  • 29 Generally speaking, it refers to bombs or shells in the form of large containers that open midair and release submunitions that spread over a wide area. They are said to be highly likely to not explode on impact, leading to the problem of civilians being accidentally killed or injured.
  • 30 See the White Paper on Development Cooperation for specific efforts on international cooperation regarding cluster munitions and anti-personnel mines.
  • 31 Entered into force in August 2010, it prohibits the use, possession, or production of cluster munitions, while mandating the clearance of cluster munitions in contaminated areas and the destruction of stockpiled cluster munitions. As of November 2019, there are 107 states and regions that are parties to the Convention, including Japan.