Diplomatic Bluebook 2020

Chapter 3

Japan's Foreign Policy to Promote National and Global Interests

3 Global Security

(1) Regional Security

The security environment surrounding the Asia-Pacific region is becoming increasingly severe for various reasons such as the shift in the global power balance. Meanwhile, it would be difficult to say that the framework of regional security cooperation is sufficiently institutionalized because of the diversity of political, economic, and social systems in the region. Therefore, Japan has been making efforts to realize a desirable regional security environment for Japan, by strengthening the Japan-U.S. Alliance, and combining bilateral and multilateral security cooperation at multifaceted and multilayered levels. Japan is also striving to achieve a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” from the perspective of promoting the stability and prosperity of the extensive region stretching from the Asia-Pacific, passing through the Indian Ocean, to the Middle East and Africa, by treating this region as an integrated whole and securing the free and open international maritime order in the Indo-Pacific.

Japan works to further strengthen the deterrence and response capabilities of the Japan-U.S. Alliance as well as to enhance security cooperation with various other countries in addition to the U.S. In relation to ASEAN Member States, Japan pursues synergy between the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP) which was announced by ASEAN in June 2019, and a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP), and contributes to stability and prosperity throughout the Indo-Pacific region. For instance, Japan offers continuous assistance for improving maritime security including through providing the Philippines, Malaysia, Viet Nam, Indonesia, and other countries with patrol boats.

In relation to India, at the first Japan-India Foreign and Defence Ministerial Meeting (“2+2”) in November, recalling their commitment toward a shared vision of a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific region, both sides welcomed the significant progress made in the negotiations of Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) and expressed their desire for an early conclusion of the negotiations.

In relation to Australia, regarding the realization of FOIP, the leaders concurred at the Japan-Australia Summit Meetings in June and August to collaborate further in the field of aid for capacity building in maritime security and infrastructure in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Island countries, as well as to promote cooperation on security issues, including the negotiations of the Japan-Australia Reciprocal Access Agreement.

In relation to the UK, at the Japan-UK Summit Meeting in January the leaders welcomed the UK's further involvement in the Indo-Pacific region and concurred on making greater efforts to strengthen cooperation in maritime security and other areas toward achieving FOIP. This was reaffirmed in December during the Japan-UK Summit telephone call following Prime Minister Johnson's victory in the UK general election.

In relation to France, the ministers at the fifth Japan-France Foreign and Defense Ministers' Meeting (“2+2”) in January concurred that Japan and France, which are both maritime and Pacific nations, would promote concrete cooperation toward maintaining and strengthening a free and open Indo-Pacific. Additionally, the Roadmap on Japan-France Cooperation for Opening New Horizons between Japan and France under an “Exceptional Partnership” was issued at the Japan-France Summit Meeting in June. The Roadmap, which was centered on promoting cooperation in a variety of areas, placed maritime security as one of the three pillars of Japan-France cooperation and confirmed both countries' intent to deepen concrete cooperation in the areas of defense and security. Furthermore, the Japan-France ACSA entered into force in June.

In relation to Canada, at the summit meeting in April, the leaders shared the view on strengthening their strategic partnership under the vision of FOIP. In addition, the Japan-Canada ACSA entered into force in July.

In relation to the ROK, based on the recognition of the importance of Japan-ROK support for the U.S.-North Korea process and of Japan-ROK as well as Japan-U.S.-ROK cooperation, the two countries held, inter alia, a Japan-ROK Summit Meeting (December), Japan-ROK Foreign Ministers' Meetings (January, February, May, twice in August, September, November, and December), a Japan-U.S.-ROK Foreign Ministers' Meeting (August) and Meetings of Japan-U.S.-ROK Leading Officials to the Six-Party Talks (March, August, and October). The two sides confirmed that Japan and the ROK, as well as Japan, the U.S. and the ROK, would work closely together.

In addition to strengthening the bilateral cooperation mentioned above, Japan has also been promoting cooperation in the following various frameworks in order to build a network for peace and prosperity in the region: Japan-U.S.-India Summit Meeting (June), a Japan-U.S.-ROK Foreign Ministers' Meeting (August), a Japan-U.S.-Australia Ministerial Meeting of the Trilateral Strategic Dialogue (August), and a Japan-U.S.-Australia-India Ministerial (September).

Furthermore, it is also important to enhance the relationship of trust with China and Russia for the stability of the security environment surrounding Japan. The Japan-China relationship is one of the most important bilateral relationships, and Japan is striving to develop stable friendship and cooperation from a comprehensive perspective. As China's military trend is a major concern for Japan, Japan is making efforts to build multilayered channels for dialogue and exchanges in the field of security with China, including the Japan-China Security Dialogue. Alongside such efforts to communicate effectively in the policy aspect, Japan is also encouraging China to improve transparency. The Maritime and Aerial Communication Mechanism between the defense authorities of Japan and China signed in May 2018 has great significance in the sense of promoting mutual understanding and confidence and avoiding unexpected collision. At the same time, Japan is striving to promote mutual relations of trust through high-level dialogues, including between leaders and foreign ministers. Regarding Japan-Russia relations, while holding political dialogues at various levels, including three summit meetings and seven foreign ministers' meetings in 2019, Japan has been energetically continuing negotiations to conclude a peace treaty through the resolution of the issue of attribution of the Four Northern Islands. In the area of security, Security Consultations took place in March and the Japan-Russia Foreign and Defense Ministerial Meeting (“2+2”) was held in May. The two countries held candid discussions on defense and security on such occasions as the visit to Japan by the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation Patrushev in September.

Peace and stability in the Middle East region is vital to the peace and prosperity of the international community including Japan. The Middle East is one of the world's key energy suppliers and approximately 90% of Japan's crude oil imports rely on the region. It is therefore extremely important to ensure the safety of navigation of Japan-related vessels in this region. Under the rising tensions in the Middle East, attacks on vessels have occurred, including the case in which a Japan-related vessel was damaged in June 2019, and each country is reinforcing its efforts to ensure the safety of navigation by utilizing naval vessels, etc. In light of this, as Japan's independent efforts toward ensuring peace and stability in the Middle East region and the safety of Japan-related vessels, the Government of Japan has made a Cabinet decision on (1) making further diplomatic efforts toward easing tensions and stabilizing the situation in the Middle East, (2) taking thorough measures for ensuring safety of navigation including robust information sharing with relevant stakeholders, and (3) utilizing vessels and aircraft of the SDF for strengthening its information gathering posture. Information gathering activities using SDF vessels and aircraft in the waters of the Middle East began in 2020.

Japan held the first Politico-Military (PM) Dialogue with Jordan (July), as well as the 7th PM Dialogue with Pakistan in June, the 8th PM Dialogue with the Philippines in June, the 17th PM Dialogue with the UK in February, the 17th PM Dialogue with Germany and the 5th PM Dialogue with Cambodia in December. Japan also held the 16th Japan-China Security Dialogue (February) and the seventh Japan-Viet Nam Strategic Partnership Dialogue at the deputy minister level in June.

In addition, Japan has actively participated in and contributed to multilateral frameworks in the region, including the East Asia Summit (EAS), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting-Plus (ADMM-Plus), in order to strengthen security cooperation in the region. The ARF aims to improve the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region through dialogues and cooperation on political and security issues. The ARF is an important security dialogue framework in which various entities participate including North Korea and the EU and which focuses on confidence building through various initiatives. At the 26th ARF Ministerial Meeting held in August, where participating ministers candidly exchanged views mainly on regional and international affairs, including the issues of North Korea and the South China Sea. Japan is also making a proactive contribution through, for example, serving as the co-chair of the Inter-Sessional Meetings (ISM) on Maritime Security twice to date.

Furthermore, in addition to government-to-government dialogues (track 1), Japan actively utilizes frameworks where participants from both public and private sectors (track 1.5) exchange opinions and explain their security policies. Japan participates in various conferences, including the IISS Asia Security Summit (Shangri-La Dialogue) (Singapore). Also, State Minister for Foreign Affairs Suzuki Keisuke attended the Regional Security Summit (Manama Dialogue) (Bahrain) in November, and Foreign Minister Motegi attended the Munich Security Conference (Germany) in February 2020, as part of Japan's efforts to promote other countries' understanding of Japan's security policies, and to facilitate cooperation and confidence-building in the region.

(2) Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding

A On-the-Ground Initiatives
(A) UN Peacekeeping Operations (UN PKOs)

As of December 31, 2019, 13 UN PKO missions are on active duty, primarily in the Middle East and Africa, to handle a wide range of duties that include monitoring ceasefires, promoting the political process, and protecting civilians. More than 90,000 military, police, and civilian personnel have been deployed to these missions. In response to the increasing complexity and scale of the mandates and the associated shortages of personnel, equipment, and financial resources, discussions on more effective and efficient implementation of UN PKOs are underway in various forums, primarily within the UN.

Based on the Act on Cooperation with UN Peacekeeping Operations and Other Operations (PKO Act), since 1992 Japan has dispatched more than 12,500 personnel to a total of 28 missions, including UN PKOs. More recently, since 2011 Japanese staff officers have been dispatched to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), while engineering units used to be deployed there from 2012. The engineering units in the South Sudanese capital of Juba and the surrounding areas have undertaken such activities as developing infrastructure that includes roads, supporting displaced persons through the provision of water supplies, as well as site preparation, and concluded their activities in May 2017. As of December 31, 2019, four SDF officers are on active duty at the UNMISS Headquarters, who continue to work toward peace and stability in South Sudan. Additionally, since April 2019, Japan has been conducting activities contributing to peace and stability in the Middle East by dispatching two SDF officers to the Force Headquarters for the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), which is stationed in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. Under the banner of “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” by building on the past experiences of peacekeeping operations and making use of its own strengths, Japan will continue to contribute proactively in the field of international peace cooperation in the future by means such as enhancing capacity building support and dispatching units and individuals.

(B) ODA and Other Cooperation to Facilitate Peacebuilding

Japan attaches importance to peacebuilding as part of its international cooperation and positions it as one of the priority issues in Japan's Development Cooperation Charter.

For addressing humanitarian crises, it is effective to combine peacebuilding and conflict prevention with a coordination between humanitarian assistance and development cooperation. It is important to fundamentally enhance measures to address the root causes of conflict, not only by taking post-conflict responses but by focusing more on the prevention of conflicts and their recurrence through nation-building and social stabilization measures during peacetime. Japan places great importance on this “humanitarian-development-peace nexus” and has been providing support for peacebuilding particularly in the following countries and regions.

a Middle East

Japan has provided comprehensive support for peace and stability in the Middle East. This includes providing food and refugee assistance in collaboration with international organizations for countries affected by conflicts, including Syria and neighboring countries, Yemen and Afghanistan. In 2019, Japan accepted 30 people from Afghanistan, including government officials, expected to contribute to such fields as agricultural, rural, and infrastructure development for the reconstruction of the country. Japan also accepted 22 students from Syria to offer education to young people who were deprived of opportunities to attend school due to the Syrian crisis. In Jordan, amid growing urgency for tighter border control in response to a worsening regional situation in recent years, Japan is providing support for the enhancement for customs security in Aqaba, the only city in Jordan that abuts an ocean. Enhanced customs search capability made possible through this support should help prevent the inflow of such things as narcotics, guns and explosives, and contribute to the stability and safety of Jordan and its surrounding areas.

b Africa

At the Seventh Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD7) in August 2019, Japan put Peace and Stability as one of the three pillars of its cooperation policy. At the conference, Prime Minister Abe advocated the New Approach for Peace and Stability in Africa (NAPSA), expressing Japan's intent to take concrete measures, under the principles of respecting Africa's ownership in conflict resolution and addressing the root causes that hamper peace and stability. Japan is in fact contributing to achieving peace and stability in Africa in various ways.

For example, Japan has conducted criminal justice training since 2014 for police officers, prosecutors, judges and others from Francophone African countries, and has supported stabilization of the Sahel region by strengthening the capabilities of investigative and judicial bodies. Japan also provides support for elections. During the presidential election in Guinea-Bissau at the end of 2019, Japan contributed to consolidating peace through fair election, working with the UN Development Programme (UNDP) to purchase and ship voting machines. Japan is also providing security equipment to strengthen countries' ability to maintain security against frequent terrorist attacks and transnational crimes. In 2019, Japan made a decision to provide equipment to such countries as Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, and Mali. In South Sudan, along with dispatching Headquarters staff to UNMISS, Japan has been supporting peace negotiations and ceasefire monitoring through the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a regional organization in East Africa to help fulfill the Revitalised Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS1 ). Furthermore, Japan has been supporting Peacekeeping Training Centers operated by African countries. In collaboration with the UNDP, Japan has disbursed a total of 54 million US dollars between 2008 and 2019 to the centers in 13 countries, contributing to strengthening Africa's capacity for peacekeeping activities.

  • 1 R-ARCSS: Revitalised Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan
    An agreement concluded in response to the sluggish implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan issued in 2015 by IGAD. Provides for matters such as a schedule for fulfilling the agreement, including bringing together concerned individuals in South Sudan to observe ceasefires.
B Initiatives within the UN (Peacebuilding)

Based on the understanding that many regional conflicts and civil wars are rekindled even after the conflict has ended, and that it is extremely important to provide appropriate support in the post-conflict period, the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) was established in 2005 with the aim of offering consistent advice on assistance, from conflict resolution to recovery, reintegration, and reconstruction. The PBC conducts discussions to identify priority issues and formulate peacebuilding strategies in the agenda countries.2 Japan has served as a member of the Organizational Committee since the PBC's establishment and contributed to its activities.

Two resolutions were adopted in April 2016: the UN General Assembly resolution (A/ RES/70/262) on the “Review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture” including the PBC, and the UN Security Council resolution 2282. These resolutions recommended the improvement of the efficiency and flexibility of the PBC, along with the strengthening of cooperation between the PBC and the UN Security Council, as well as other organizations. In accordance with the General Assembly resolution, the UN Secretary-General issued a report on peacebuilding and sustaining peace (A/72/707-S/2018/43) in February 2018. The report makes a variety of proposals for, inter alia: enhancing financing for peacebuilding; increasing operational and policy coherence of the PBC; strengthening UN leadership, accountability, and capacity; and boosting partnerships with international organizations and civil society.

At the High-Level Meeting of the General Assembly on Peacebuilding and Sustaining Peace held in April 2018, Japan expressed support for the Secretary-General's initiatives in the area of peacebuilding. At the meeting, the General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/72/276), which included a request to the Secretary-General to present an interim report regarding his proposals to the General Assembly during its 73rd session (Security Council resolution 2413 with the same content was also adopted).

Japan has contributed proactively to the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) since its establishment in 2006. Announcing its aim to allocate 10 million US dollars in September 2016, Japan has contributed a total of 52.5 million US dollars (2 million US dollars in 2019) and ranks sixth among the major donor countries as of December 2019.

  • 2 Four countries of Guinea-Bissau, Central Africa, Liberia, and Burundi
C Human Resource Development
(A) The Program for Global Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding and Development

While civilian experts with a high level of skill and expertise have a substantial role to play in the field of post-conflict peacebuilding, the number of those who are capable of fulfilling the role is insufficient, and therefore, the development of relevant human resources remains a major challenge. Japan has been implementing programs for human resource development in order to cultivate civilian experts who can play a leading role in the field of peacebuilding and development. As of the end of the FY2019, a total of about 800 people have been trained. The trainees who completed the programs have gone on to play an active role in the field of peacebuilding and development worldwide in such countries as South Sudan and Afghanistan, and have received high acclaim from both the UN and other countries.

In the FY2019 program, a training course for entry level human resources and a training course for mid-career practitioners with experience in the fields of peacebuilding and development were conducted. In addition, a course was conducted to assist those with certain professional and transferable experience in this field in order to start building up their new careers at international organizations.

(B) Training for United Nations Peacekeepers of Various Countries

Japan has been supporting peacekeepers from various countries participating in UN PKOs to enhance their capabilities. Since 2015, in conjunction with cooperative efforts among the UN, supporting member states, and personnel-dispatching countries, Japan has provided support for the Triangular Partnership Project (TPP), a framework for innovative cooperation aimed at addressing the urgent need to improve the capabilities of PKO personnel. For example, Japan has sent 172 SDF personnel and other individuals to Kenya and Uganda as instructors and conducted training on the operation of heavy engineering equipment for 277 people from eight African countries that expressed intentions to dispatch engineering units to UN PKOs. Additional regions have been added to this project, which now includes Asia and surrounding regions. Along with carrying out trial training in 2018 and full-scale training in 2019, Japan has dispatched 39 SDF and other personnel to Viet Nam and conducted training on the operation of heavy engineering equipment for 36 people from nine countries. Additionally, in October 2019 a buddy-first-aid program was begun in the medical field, a considerably problematic area for UN PKOs. Separate from this project, Japan also dispatches instructors and other personnel to Peacekeeping Training Centers in Asian and African nations while also providing them with financial assistance.

Military, security, and headquarters personnel dispatched to UN missions
UN Triangular Partnership Project (TPP) training for Asia and its surrounding regions (Viet Nam)UN Triangular Partnership Project (TPP) training for Asia and its surrounding regions (Viet Nam)

Furthermore, Japan provides financial support for a training course that is conducted by UN Women and that is offered to female military officers from different countries who are expected to be dispatched to UN PKOs.

(3) Initiatives to Combat Security Threats

A Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism Measures

While operations against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) carried out in Iraq and Syria had at one time effectively liberated the areas dominated by ISIL, the threat of terrorism and violent extremism is now spreading throughout the world, including Asia, as a result of the return or relocation of foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs), who were under the influence of ISIL, to their home countries or to third countries. In the terrorist attack that occurred in Christchurch, New Zealand in March, a mass shooting brought about an unprecedented incident where the live video was streamed by the perpetrator on social media as he committed the act and it went viral. In Sri Lanka, which was seen to have achieved stability in public safety and the consolidation of a peaceful environment 10 years after the civil war, the largest series of terrorist attacks in Asia in recent years occurred in April, claiming the lives of 250 people, including a Japanese national. In the face of such incidents, which represent an increasing diversity in the form and background of the terrorist attacks being perpetrated in recent years, there is a need to further strengthen measures to counterterrorism and violent extremism. At the same time, building social environments that will prevent people being drawn to violent extremism is an urgent issue.

Based on the “G7 Action Plan on Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism” compiled at the G7 Ise-Shima Summit in 2016, Japan has implemented the following actions (1) concrete counterterrorism measures, which includes utilizing Interpol databases and passenger name records (PNR), (2) cultivation of tolerance in communities to prevent violent extremism, and (3) capacity building assistance to developing countries. In 2019, following the two aforementioned terrorist attacks, Japan expressed its firm commitment to combat terrorism in cooperation with New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and the international community. The Osaka Leaders' Statement on Preventing Exploitation of the Internet was formulated at the G20 Osaka Summit in June under Japan's Presidency and we have been steadily implementing the statement through public-private partnership.

Cutting off the funding of terrorism is of great importance to preventing and eradicating it. As such, March saw the unanimous adoption of UN Security Council resolution 2462, which focuses on the technical aspects of the financing of terrorism. Japan co-sponsored the resolution, which is a timely response to a perceived need to address the dangers of terrorists exploiting new financial technologies being constantly developed. Furthermore, in accordance with UN Security Council resolution 1373, Japan has implemented asset freezing measures against terrorists or terrorist organizations in cooperation with the U.S. and the other members of G7. Japan designated five additional entities in November to the sanction list set out in this resolution.

With respect to the issue of returning and relocating FTFs, there are two very important issues: (1) taking measures that include properly prosecuting, de-radicalizing, rehabilitating, and socially integrating former terrorists and their families, and (2) strengthening awareness programs and communities at the grassroots level to prevent people from being drawn to violent extremism, especially young people and women. In addition, Japan is implementing projects through providing financial contribution to international organizations to address imminent issues, including strengthening maritime security, preventing violent extremism and treating prisoners properly in prisons.

Japan provided contributions in the amount of 2.8 billion Japanese yen (supplementary budget for FY2018) to the projects implemented by international organizations and funds, including the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), and Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund (GCERF), by using their respective strengths and expertise effectively.

As an initiative that Japan has carried out continuously for 16 years, Japan also runs an exchange program that invites Islamic school teachers to come engage in interfaith dialogue and visit places of Japanese culture and education. Japan will continue to implement such initiatives in future, in order to help promote moderation and the creation of more tolerant societies that are receptive to different values.

Japan also holds bilateral and trilateral counterterrorism consultations aimed at exchanging information on terrorism situations and enhancing coordination. In 2019, the Japan-UK consultation, Japan-U.S.-Australia consultation, and, as a consultation with a regional framework, Japan-ASEAN consultation were held.

The Government of Japan has promoted counterterrorism measures in collaboration with relevant countries and organizations. Based on the view that information gathering is critical for combating terrorism, the Government established the Counter Terrorism Unit - Japan (CTU-J) in December 2015 and has been making concerted efforts to gather information with the Prime Minister's Office serving as the control tower. Regarding the incident in which a Japanese national being detained in Syria was safely released in October 2018, this outcome is owed to CTU-J playing a key role in requesting the cooperation of the countries concerned and handling the situation by leveraging Japan's information network. Following the series of terrorist bombings that occurred in Sri Lanka in April 2019, the Director General in charge of the region and others from CTU-J were immediately dispatched to the area to gather information. Close coordination between the Consular Affairs Bureau and CTU-J had played an important part in executing their critical responsibility of securing the safety of Japanese nationals overseas. Japan will continue to further enhance its information gathering through the CTU-J and take all possible measures to counterterrorism to ensure the safety of Japanese nationals overseas.

B Criminal Justice Initiatives

The UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (“Congress”) and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice are in charge of shaping policy on crime prevention and criminal justice in the international community. Japan prepared for the 14th Congress, which was scheduled to be held in April 2020 in Kyoto, by coordinating with relevant countries, organizations, ministries, and agencies. The Kyoto Congress has been postponed due to the situation over the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In accordance with the overall theme, “Advancing crime prevention, criminal justice and the rule of law: towards the achievement of the 2030 Agenda,” the Kyoto Congress will adopt a political declaration setting measures on crime prevention and criminal justice, as well as approaches for international cooperation. To lead discussions on the content and structure of this declaration, Japan invited representatives of each regional group to Kyoto in September 2019 and held the Governmental Expert Meeting on Preparation for the Kyoto Congress. Japan, as the chair, has also led discussions over a draft political declaration in Vienna since October.

Furthermore, Japan provides support to improve the prosecution capabilities of law-enforcement authorities in Southeast Asia and to enhance capacities related to measures against cybercrime by providing financial contributions to UNODC and through financial contributions from the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund (JAIF).

In July 2017, Japan concluded the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), which establishes a global legal framework for promoting cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crime such as terrorism more effectively. In accordance with the UNTOC, Japan advances international cooperation that includes investigation assistance.

C Anti-corruption Measures

As a State Party to the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which sets out provisions for international cooperation and measures to tackle acts of corruption such as bribery and embezzlement of property by public officials, Japan has actively participated in discussions for the effective implementation of the UNCAC and strengthening international cooperation on preventing and eradicating corruption at opportunities such as the eighth Conference of the States Parties to UNCAC, held in December 2019. In addition, Japan has been conducting trainings for anti-corruption authorities in developing countries with the aim of strengthening their investigation and prosecution capabilities through financial contributions to UNODC. In 2019, Japan contributed approximately 50,000 US dollars to UNODC in order to support the operation of the UNCAC Implementation Review Mechanism, which reviews the status of implementation of the Convention by each state party, as well as the effective implementation of the Convention. Japan also held seminars to assist the improvement of the protection of whistleblowers by the States Parties.

Within the context of the G20, as the co-chair of the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, Japan focused on promoting integrity and transparency in infrastructure development and strengthening whistleblowers protection as priority issues for the group. It also led discussions on the development of the G20 Compendium of Good Practices for Promoting Integrity and Transparency in Infrastructure Development and the G20 High Level Principles for Effective Protection of Whistleblowers, which lay out the G20 member states' commitment to strengthening initiatives in these areas. These documents, adopted under Japan's initiative, were ultimately published as documents accompanying the G20 Osaka Leaders' Declaration.

Japan is an active participant in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Working Group on Bribery, which verifies the implementation of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions by each state party to prevent and combat the bribery of foreign public officials. Japan has also supported the ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative jointly promoted by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the OECD as part of its contributions toward enhancing anti-corruption measures in the region.

D Measures to Combat Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism

Regarding measures to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an international framework that establishes the international standards that countries should implement and conducts peer reviews to assess levels of implementation. As a founding member, Japan has actively participated in these discussions. In recent years, the FATF has been engaged in initiatives to prevent financing for the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and has issued the FATF statement that calls for the eradication of illegal financial activities by North Korea. In the Fourth Round of Joint FATF/APG Mutual Evaluations of Japan, conducted in 2019, Japan, under cooperation between the Government and the private sector, provided explanations on its measures to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism to the FATF's assessors.

Furthermore, in order to support international initiatives to stamp out money laundering and block terrorism financing flows, Japan works with the UNODC to provide assistance for capacity building that includes the development of legal systems in countries and regions such as Mongolia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

E Measures to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Japan has strengthened its domestic mechanisms to combat trafficking in persons while proactively providing assistance to developing countries in accordance with “Japan's 2014 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.” This Action Plan was developed in order to effectively tackle trafficking in persons, which involves increasingly sophisticated and latent methods. For example, in 2019, Japan continued to conduct training programs through JICA to deepen mutual understanding on human trafficking countermeasures (especially prevention, protection and support to restore the autonomy of victims) of stakeholders in Asian countries, including Japan, and to promote more effective regional cooperation. With respect to cooperation with international organizations, in 2019, through funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Japan continued to provide assistance for the safe repatriation of foreign victims of trafficking in persons protected in Japan and to carry out social rehabilitation support programs to prevent the repetition of trafficking after they return to their countries. Japan also funded training programs for law-enforcement authorities in Southeast Asian countries through projects organized by UNODC.

As a state party to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Japan has also further deepened its cooperation with other countries with a view to eradicating trafficking in persons.

F Measures to Combat Illicit Drug Trafficking

Japan works in cooperation with UNODC to investigate and analyze synthetic drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants and new psychoactive substances in the Asia-Pacific region, provide support for improving the container control capacity of regulatory authorities at air and sea ports, and put in place measures against illicit drug trafficking, which is spreading across borders (see the Column below). In relation to Afghanistan, the world's largest region for the illegal cultivation of opium poppy, Japan has contributed 5.3 million US dollars to UNODC in order to strengthen border controls, promote alternative development to drug crop cultivation, and enhance capacity building of narcotics agents in cooperation with neighboring countries. Furthermore, at the ministerial segment held during the 62nd session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) in March 2019, a general debate statement was made by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Yamada Kenji, who attended as the head of the governmental delegation. The statement mentioned the threat posed by the world drug problem to public health and social security and the urgent issue of international organized crime countermeasures, including for narcotics, in the context of counterterrorism measures in the case of Japan, which is expecting major international events. It also touched on the necessity of the international community taking a multifaceted and multilayered approach to new challenges in preventing the worsening of the narcotics problem while maintaining existing frameworks. Additionally, as an ongoing member of the CND, which comprises 53 members, Japan was reelected to the Asia-Pacific Group (eight seats) in the election held in April. Japan will serve a new term as a member from 2020 to 2023.

Maritime Law Enforcement Capacity Building Project for Coastal Countries of the Indian Ocean

Mitsuhashi Kazuyo

Project Officer, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

Training in a communications operations room (Photo: Paolo Film & TV, Denmark)Training in a communications operations room (Photo: Paolo Film & TV, Denmark)

If we open a world map and look at the Indian Ocean, we would see that the Indian Ocean is a dynamic environment which has the coastlines of Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries. This vast ocean area plays an important role as a lifeline for global logistics and the economy. On the other hand, it comprises various types of trafficking routes running from Asia to Eastern Africa and Southern Africa which provide an illicit drug trafficking channel for countries around the world. In addition, as we face the increasing challenges posed by the sea routes, such as the rising number of refugees and migrants in recent years, and the movement of arms and terrorists from unstable region to the other. In this regard, it is a great challenge for the international society how we ensure the maritime safety and security in the region.

To tackle these issues, the Global Maritime Crime Programme (GMCP) under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is implementing a maritime law enforcement capacity building project for countries along the coast of the Indian Ocean, and Japan is one of the donor countries of this project.

The project provides comprehensive supports to the respective agencies for developing their maritime law enforcement capacity. For example, in policy making and skills needed for law enforcement and prosecution. The goal of the project is to strengthen the criminal justice system necessary for maintaining maritime security in the area. In addition, we conduct trainings and workshops at the regional level to promote inter-regional cooperation among the recipient countries.

As maritime crimes are cross-border issues, it is important to provide an environment that enables practitioners from each country to share their common knowledge and expertise. To meet such needs, this project seeks to benefit people from Africa to Asia who have various cultural backgrounds and levels of capacity. For this reason, more careful and detailed preparation is required.

On the other hand, it is an excellent example of support for experts across countries and regions, as we gather human resources from various countries with one purpose of combatting maritime crime.

Scene of VBSS training (Photo: UNODC)Scene of VBSS training (Photo: UNODC)

My involvement in this project is mainly related to coordination with the Government of Japan.

In particular, VBSS (Visit, Board, Search and Seizure) training is an area in which the UNODC and the Japan Coast Guard have been cooperating.

During the training conducted in Sri Lanka and Seychelles, the Japan Coast Guard dispatched two instructors for one month, and it resulted in satisfying more needs of the participants as a joint program of the UNODC and the Japan Coast Guard.

Our collaboration with the Japan Coast Guard is strengthened every year. Most recently, an officer from the Japan Coast Guard participated as an observer in a workshop conducted for prosecutors from Southeast Asia, and it contributed to connecting the law enforcement officers with the judicial officers.

Participants exchanging opinions at VBSS training (Photo: Paolo Film & TV, Denmark)Participants exchanging opinions at VBSS training (Photo: Paolo Film & TV, Denmark)

My work in the GMCP includes such collaboration with Japan and monitoring support. The job scope covers a wide range of duties and there are many difficult moments. However, it gives me exceptional joy when I am able to provide support successfully while experimenting with what works and what does not work.

In addition, while the partnership between relevant countries and organizations is expanding, I am so honored to have the opportunity to be a part of such partnership and to witness Japan's active role such as the training conducted by the Japan Coast Guard.

I will continue to work hard to contribute to enhancing global criminal justice and security from the seas through delivering heartfelt support from Japan and other donor countries to the beneficiaries.

(4) The Oceans and Seas

Japan is a maritime nation that has achieved economic growth through maritime trade and development of marine resources, and has pursued “Free, Open and Stable Seas.” For Japan, maritime rights and interests are of great importance to securing its peace, stability, and prosperity. They are the basis for economic survival and include freedom of navigation and overflight and the development of marine resources. To safeguard these maritime rights and interests in the long term and in a stable manner, it is essential to maintain and strengthen maritime order and ensure safe maritime transport.

Furthermore, “Free, Open and Stable Seas,” which are upheld by maritime order governed by law and rules rather than force, are essential for the peace and prosperity not only of Japan but also of the international community as a whole. To maintain and develop “Free, Open and Stable Seas,” Japan contributes actively to maintaining and strengthening maritime order and ensuring safe maritime transport toward achieving a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific.”

However, in recent years, there has been an increasing number of cases where the interests of countries clash with each other from the perspective of securing resources and national security. In particular, in the seas of Asia, there has been an increasing number of cases of tension arising from friction between countries, and the international community is closely monitoring these cases with much interest. Against this background, at the 13th Asia Security Summit (Shangri-La Dialogue) held in Singapore in May 2014, Prime Minister Abe stated that it was necessary to fully uphold the “Three Principles of the Rule of Law at Sea” (see 6(2)). Recently, at the G7 Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in Dinard, France, in April 2019, Japan and other G7 countries expressed their serious concerns over the situation in the East and South China Seas and expressed their commitment to maintaining international rules-based maritime order, combating illegal activities at sea, including acts of piracy, and supporting regional maritime security through such means as comprehensive capacity building assistance including maritime domain awareness (MDA). Outside the framework of the G7, Japan has also utilized forums that are related to the East Asia Summit (EAS) including the Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (EAMF) as well as the ARF Inter-Sessional Meeting on Maritime Security to actively show the importance of “Free, Open and Stable Seas” and Japan's stance and initiatives, as well as the importance of international cooperation in the area of maritime security. For example, at the EAS held in November 2019, Prime Minister Abe expressed full support for the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP) that ASEAN announced, and stated Japan's willingness to cooperate with ASEAN toward materializing AOIP by achieving synergy with the “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” (FOIP) concept advocated by Japan.

Combining various assistance programs by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defense, Self Defense Forces and the Japan Coast Guard, including capacity building assistance, defense equipment and technology cooperation, and MDA, Japan seamlessly supports coastal states mainly in Asia and Africa to enhance maritime law enforcement capabilities through providing patrol vessels, technical cooperation, and human resource development, among other forms of assistance. In this way, Japan has been contributing to establishing and promoting the rule of law at sea.

A Order at Sea
(A) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Related Japanese Initiatives

Also known as the “Constitution for the Seas,” UNCLOS is the very basis of maritime order governed by the rule of law. Japan regards maritime order with the Convention at the core as the cornerstone that safeguards Japan's maritime rights and interests while facilitating its maritime activities across the international community. As such, Japan actively contributes to discussions among concerned international organizations at conferences that include the Meetings of States Parties to the Convention, as well as to the sharing of ideas for achieving stability in the maritime legal order, in order to ensure that the convention will be even more widely applied and implemented appropriately (see 6(2)on page 224).

(B) Challenge to Maritime Sovereignty (Situation Surrounding the East China Sea) (see Chapter 1, 1(2) and Chapter 2, Section 1, 3 (1) (D))

In the East China Sea, Chinese Government vessels have continued to intrude into Japan's territorial sea around the Senkaku Islands in 2019, and active operations by Chinese military vessels and aircraft have been observed. In addition, China has been continuing unilateral resource development in areas where the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the continental shelf are pending delimitation. In recent years, Japan has found numerous research projects being conducted by China in the waters surrounding Japan, such as the East China Sea. Much of the research was carried out without Japan's consent or in a manner which Japan did not consent to. Given China's continued attempts to change the status quo unilaterally in the East China Sea, Japan will carefully monitor the trends and movements around its air and sea spaces, continue to respond in a firm but calm manner while making claims that should be made, and at the same time, promote cooperation with the relevant countries including the U.S. in order to achieve peace and stability in the East China Sea.

Uotsuri Island of the Senkaku Islands
(C) Challenge to the Maritime Order and Response by Japan and the International Community (Problems Surrounding the South China Sea) (see Chapter 1, 1(2) and Chapter 2, Section 1, 7 (2))

In the South China Sea, China has been further conducting unilateral actions that aim to change the status quo and that increase tensions. These include the large-scale and rapid building of outposts and the use of them for military purposes, as well as attempts to create a fait accompli. The international community, including Japan, has expressed serious concerns over these actions. Japan has consistently supported the full enforcement of the rule of law in the South China Sea, while focusing on ensuring freedom of navigation and overflight and ensuring the safety of sea lanes. Japan has also emphasized the importance of all parties involved with the South China Sea to work toward the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with international law. With regard to dialogues between China and ASEAN concerning issues surrounding the South China Sea, Japan maintains that the easing of tensions through such initiatives should lead to demilitarization of the area and to a peaceful and open South China Sea.

Large-scale, rapid outpost building in the South China Sea by China

In the arbitration proceedings instituted by the Government of the Philippines on the dispute between the Philippines and China regarding the South China Sea under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Arbitral Tribunal rendered the final arbitral award3 on July 12, 2016. Japan issued a statement by the Foreign Minister on the same day, stating that as the Tribunal's award is final and legally binding on the parties to the dispute under the provisions of UNCLOS, the parties to this case are required to comply with the award, and that Japan strongly expects that the parties' compliance with this award will eventually lead to the peaceful settlement of disputes in the South China Sea.

The issue with regard to the South China Sea is directly related to the peace and stability of the region and constitutes a legitimate concern of the international community. The issue is also an important matter of concern for Japan, which depends on marine transport for much of its resources and energy and which is a stakeholder that utilizes the South China Sea. Cooperation within the international community is of great importance in maintaining and developing “Free, Open and Stable Seas.” For this reason, Japan supports the U.S. Freedom of Navigation Operations.4

  • 3 Based on the judgment that historic rights would not, under international law, be considered a legal basis for the “Nine-dash Line” claimed by China, the Arbitral Tribunal ruled that the Scarborough Shoal and Spratly Islands do not generate EEZs or continental shelves. The ruling also found China's land reclamation and public vessel navigation to infringe on the sovereign rights of the Philippines and to violate obligations under international law, including environmental mandates.
  • 4 The U.S. Government explains its “freedom of navigation” operations as efforts to challenge excessive claims that can infringe freedom of navigation and overflight, and the right of lawful uses of the sea. One example of this is the navigation of the U.S. Navy's Montgomery littoral combat ship through the waters around the Spratly Islands on January 25, 2020.
B Ensuring Safe Maritime Transport

Japan actively contributes to ensuring freedom of navigation and overflight and safe maritime transport through anti-piracy measures in Asia and Africa as well as close partnership and cooperation with other countries.

(A) Anti-piracy Measures in Asia

To encourage regional cooperation in coping with incidents such as acts of piracy in Asia, Japan took the initiative in formulating the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP), which entered into force in 2006. Each of the contracting parties provides information and cooperates on incidents such as acts of piracy in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore and other regions, via the Information Sharing Centre (ReCAAP-ISC) established in Singapore under the Agreement. Japan supports the activities of ReCAAP-ISC through personnel (dispatching the Executive Director and an Assistant Director) and financial contributions. Moreover, Japan is carrying out programs to enhance maritime law enforcement and surveillance capabilities in Asia, which have been highly acclaimed in the international community.

According to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the number of piracy cases in the seas of Southeast Asia was 60 in 2018 and 53 in 2019. In recent years, there have been some incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships in the Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea in Southeast Asia, posing a threat to vessels navigating in these waters. In light of this situation, Japan will continue to actively support maritime safety capacity building through efforts such as providing patrol boats and maritime safety equipment as well as dispatching experts to maritime safety agencies of Southeast Asian countries located along Japan's sea lanes.

(B) Anti-piracy Measures Off the Coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden
a Current status of piracy and armed robbery cases

According to the IMB, the number of piracy and armed robbery cases (hereinafter referred to as “piracy cases”) off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden was 237 at its peak in 2011 but has since declined to a low level (zero in 2015, two in 2016, nine in 2017, three in 2018, and zero in 2019). Despite sustained efforts such as maritime operations of the navies and self-defense measures by merchant ships, the root causes of piracy off the coast of Somalia remain unresolved. Pirates off the coast of Somalia still have the intention and capability to carry out acts of piracy, which requires a careful watch on the situation.

b Extension of anti-piracy operations and record of escort activities

Since 2009, Japan has been conducting anti-piracy operations, without any interruption, by deploying Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyers (with coast guard officers on board) and P-3C maritime patrol aircraft off the coast of Somalia and to the Gulf of Aden. On November 12, 2019, the Government of Japan decided to extend anti-piracy operations based on the Act on Punishment and Countermeasures against Piracy for another year. The deployed destroyers protected 38 merchant ships on 30 escort operations between January and December 2019, while the P-3Cs carried out 240 mission flights, in which they conducted surveillance, gathered information, and provided information to the naval vessels of other countries.

c Promotion of international cooperation in anti-piracy measures

To solve the root causes of piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden, Japan has been making multi-layered efforts that include support for enhancing the maritime law enforcement capacity of Somalia and its neighboring countries and ensuring the stability of Somalia. Japan has supported the establishment of Information Sharing Centres in Yemen, Kenya, and Tanzania, as well as the construction of the Djibouti Regional Training Centre (DRTC), by contributing 15.1 million US dollars to a fund established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Japan and France co-organized a seminar on maritime security at the DRTC in October 2017. Japan has also supported seminars at the DRTC aimed at capacity building for maritime law enforcement authorities and other organizations. Moreover, Japan has contributed 4.5 million US dollars to a trust fund to support the enhancement of piracy prosecution capacity, which assists Somalia and its neighboring countries in establishing courts and training judicial officers as well as in repatriating to Somalia those found guilty of piracy in its neighboring countries such as Seychelles. In addition, Japan provided two patrol vessels to the Djibouti Coast Guard in 2015 and has been supporting the enhancement of its capacity to secure maritime safety and security through JICA's technical cooperation. With a view to promoting the stability of Somalia, Japan has provided a total of 480 million US dollars since 2007 aimed at supporting improvement in basic services and public security through support for the police, as well as revitalization of the domestic economy through vocational training and job creation, among other measures.

(5) Cyber

With the advent of new technologies such as 5G (fifth-generation mobile communications system) and the IoT (Internet of Things), cyberspace has become indispensable for social and economic activities. At the same time, however, cyber attacks are growing in scale and impact every year, and cybersecurity is a matter of urgent priority as the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020 draw near.

Against this backdrop, Japan has promoted cyber diplomacy based on the three pillars of “Promotion of the rule of law in cyberspace,” “Development of confidence-building measures,” and “Cooperation on capacity building” in accordance with the Cybersecurity Strategy, revised in July 2018 (see the Special Feature on page 196).

“Promotion of the rule of law in cyberspace” maintains that existing international law is applicable to cyber activities, and Japan is therefore taking active roles in discussions in the international community through the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (UNGGE) and other forums. Having been selected to be a member of the sixth UNGGE, which was established in 2019, Japan leads discussions concerning the application of international law in cyberspace and norms of responsible state behavior. Japan also actively contributes to discussions held by the UN Open-ended Working Group, established in 2019, with attention paid to complementing discussions had by the UNGGE. In addition, Japan collaborates with other likeminded countries in taking initiatives to deter malicious cyber activities. In December 2018, Japan issued a statement resolutely condemning the long-running, widespread attacks perpetrated against private organizations, academic institutions, and other organizations by the China-based hacking group APT10. Japan participated in a ministerial-level meeting on cybersecurity hosted by the U.S. in September 2019. At the meeting, Japan expressed its support for a joint statement on cooperation toward encouraging the acceptance of responsibility by states acting against frameworks on responsible state behavior in cyberspace. Concerning countermeasures against cybercrime, as the first country from Asia to become a party to the Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest Convention), which is the only multilateral treaty on the use of cyberspace, Japan has actively participated in the Plenaries of the Cybercrime Convention Committee and the preparation of a draft Additional Protocol to the Budapest Convention that seeks to improve the effectiveness of investigative cooperation. In line with Japan's efforts to add more nations to the treaty, especially nations in Asia, Japan explained the importance of the Budapest Convention to Asian nations, and encouraged their participation in the convention, at The ASEAN-Japan Cybercrime Dialogue in January and November meeting of the Council of Europe.

Regarding “Development of confidence-building measures,” gaining a better understanding of one another's views and enhancing mutual confidence are critical to prevent unforeseen situations stemming from cyber activities. With this purpose in mind, Japan has held consultations and dialogues with 14 countries and regions, and in 2019 held bilateral cyber policy consultations with Australia, the EU, France, India, Russia, and the U.S., as well as a trilateral dialogue with China and the Republic of Korea. Within the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) framework, Japan has also led discussions at inter-sessional meetings on cybersecurity as co-chair, and in 2019 made progress on efforts such as proposing new confidence-building measures (CBM) related to establishing contact points.

Regarding “Cooperation on capacity building,” due to the nature of cyberspace, the lack of incident handling capacity of some countries and regions may pose a risk to the entire world. Therefore, capacity building in developing countries is important for ensuring Japan's security, as well. Japan has been providing support, including the capacity building of the Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)5 and the relevant administrative and investigative agencies, mainly in ASEAN countries. For example, Japan provides lectures, exercises, facility tours, and other opportunities to policy advisors, criminal justice practitioners, and others in regions such as Asia, the Middle East, and Africa as part of the JICA's Group and Region-focused Trainings. Japan also conducts “Cooperation to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Crime” with INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) through the Japan-ASEAN Integration Fund (JAIF). Within the framework of the ASEAN-Japan Cybersecurity Policy Meeting, Japan has been engaging in efforts that involve trainings in cybersecurity exercises, critical information infrastructures protection, and awareness raising. Japan will continue to provide strategic and effective assistance through the efforts of the entire Government.

  • 5 A general term which refers to a group that deals with computer security incidents. In order to minimize the damage caused by computer security incidents, they collect and analyze incident-related information, vulnerability information and predictive information of cyber attacks, consider solutions and measures, and cope with the incidents.

Toward a Free, Fair, and Secure Cyberspace

Advances and improvements in technology and services in cyberspace, including the popularization of the Internet and smartphones as well as the development of Big Data and cloud technology, have brought our global society closer than ever before and enriched our lives in every way. On the other hand, the use of cyberspace by malicious actors, including those whose involvement is suspected to be state-sponsored, poses new security challenges.

Against this backdrop, a “free, fair, and secure cyberspace” has become even more important for ensuring peace and security in the international community. In order to promote the realization and development of a free, fair, and secure cyberspace, it is necessary to clarify that existing international law, which has been established over a long period of time, is applicable to the rapidly-developing cyberspace, and at the same time, it is also essential to ensure stability and predictability in the international community by formulating norms of responsible state behavior in cyberspace. Furthermore, with regard to “invisible” activities in cyberspace that cross national borders easily, it is also essential to put in place confidence building measures to deepen trust and mutual understanding between countries on their legislations and strategies, and to support capacity building to respond to cyber attacks.

Japan has been contributing to international discussions through the UN's Group of Governmental Experts (GGE*1) on cybersecurity, as a part of the UN's efforts to advance and achieve these aims. The GGE has engaged in discussions on topics such as Existing and potential threats, International laws, rules, norms, and principles, confidence-building measures, and capacity building. Japan has participated in three sessions from 2012 to 2013 (third session), 2014 to 2015 (fourth session), and 2016 to 2017 (fifth session). The GGE Report for 2015 recommended 11 norms for the responsible state behavior in cyberspace, and at the same time, reaffirmed the application of existing international law, including the whole of the UN Charter, to cyberspace. Through a General Assembly Resolution thereafter, all member states are required to act in accordance with the report. Japan was elected as a member of the sixth session of the GGE, newly established in 2019, and has contributed actively from the standpoint of advancing discussions upon the basis of the GGE Reports drawn up to date.

Japan is also actively involved in the Open-ended Working Group (OEWG*2) established for the first time under the auspices of the UN in 2019, as a space where all UN member states can participate in discussions. Japan contributes to discussions while also paying attention to mutual complementarity with discussions in the GGE.

Japan will continue to work more actively on addressing security challenges in cyberspace in cooperation with the international community, through discussions on the application of international law and code of responsible conduct for states.

  • *1 The GGE is a space for discussions by experts, established based on a UN General Assembly Resolution. Members comprised experts from 15 countries from the first to third sessions, 20 countries for the fourth session, and 25 countries for the fifth session. Members from 25 countries are participating in the sixth session from 2019 to 2020, and a report will be submitted to the UN General Assembly in 2021 after four meetings have been convened.
  • *2 The official title is “Open-ended Working Group on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security.”

(6) Outer Space

In recent years, outer space has become congested due to the diversified use of outer space and increasing number of countries using space. In addition, the increase of space debris due to factors such as Anti-Satellite (ASAT) tests and satellite collisions poses a growing risk to the sustainable and stable use of outer space.

In order to cope with this situation, Japan has been engaging in mission assurance for space systems while working on international rule-making and international space cooperation, which includes cooperative efforts with other countries, notably its ally, the U.S.

A Realizing and Strengthening the Rule of Law in Outer Space

Based on environmental changes concerning outer space, the international community has been discussing international rule-making concerning outer space activities in a variety of ways. Japan has also been actively involved in these discussions with the aim of establishing and strengthening the rule of law in outer space. After nine years of discussions, the Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities (LTS Guidelines) were adopted, which were built on the momentum gained by a joint proposal by four countries, namely Japan, the U.S., Canada, and France, at the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in June 2019. The decision was also made to establish a five-year working group, under the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, which will hold discussions on implementing the adopted guidelines. Moreover, a Japanese space law expert will be serving as Chair of the COPUOS Legal Subcommittee in 2020 and 2021. Through efforts such as these, Japan is actively participating in and contributing to discussions at international conferences and other meetings while playing a significant role in international rule-making (see the Special Feature on page 198).

With regard to the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS), a Group of Governmental Experts was established by a resolution submitted to the UN General Assembly in 2017. Meetings of the Group were held in January 2018 and March 2019 and attended by experts from 25 countries, including Japan. However, recommendations issued by the Group were not adopted.

Japan's Efforts in the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS)

United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) (Vienna, Austria)United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) (Vienna, Austria)

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) is a permanent committee established through the UN General Assembly Resolution on international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, adopted in 1959. There are the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee and the Legal Subcommittee under COPUOS, each of which reviews various issues surrounding space activities from technical and legal perspectives respectively. In COPUOS, member States actively discuss rules applied in outer space, while various space treaties and guidelines, such as the Outer Space Treaty, also known as the “Constitution of Outer Space,” have been drafted. Japan is actively involved in such discussions with a view to realizing and strengthening the rule of law in outer space.

A recent highlight is the adoption of the Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability (LTS) of Outer Space Activities by the 62nd session of COPUOS held in June 2019. With the aim of realizing the long-term sustainability of outer space activities such as space debris mitigation and the safety of space objects, the LTS Guidelines summarize best practices that member states should implement on a voluntary basis.

The LTS Guidelines were discussed in a working group established under the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of COPUOS in 2010, but the working group was concluded in June 2018 without the adoption of the Guidelines.

On the first day of the 62nd session of COPUOS convened in June 2019, Japan, in cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and France, jointly proposed the establishment of a new working group for the LTS Guidelines and emphasized the importance of the Guidelines, thereby contributing actively to advancing the discussions. As a result, the LTS Guidelines were adopted unanimously by 92 member states (95 member states as of March 2020) on the final day of the session. At the same time, it was decided that a working group would be established under the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee to discuss matters such as the implementation of the Guidelines, marking the culmination of nine years of discussions. The unanimous adoption at the UN of wide range of international rules related to outer space activities, such as space debris mitigation and the safety of space objects, carries great significance, and represents Japan's significant contribution to rule-making in COPUOS.

Furthermore, Professor Aoki Setsuko of Keio University Law School will be appointed as the chair of the Legal Subcommittee of COPUOS, which engages in discussions on legal matters related to outer space activities, for 2020 and 2021.

In these ways, Japan continues to contribute actively to international rule-making, with a view to securing the sustainable and stable use of outer space.

B International Dialogues and Consultations on Outer Space

Japan conducts bilateral and trilateral dialogues and consultations on outer space with primarily major space-faring nations and nations in the Asia-Pacific region.

At the first meeting of the Japan-India Space Dialogue held in Delhi in March 2019, the two countries exchanged information on their space policies and held discussions on space security, cooperation between relevant agencies, space industry, and international norms on outer space. The parties also decided to conduct the dialogue on a regular basis to enhance their cooperation. At the fourth meeting of the Japan-EU Space Dialogue, held in Tokyo in March, the two parties exchanged information on the latest space policy of each side and held discussions on matters such as the possibility of cooperation in civil uses. At the sixth meeting of the Japan-U.S. Comprehensive Dialogue on Space, held in Washington DC in July, the two sides engaged in a comprehensive exchange of views from a broad perspective on civil and security topics toward ensuring the continuous, safe, and stable use of outer space, and issued a joint statement as an outcome document. Furthermore, regarding Japan-U.S. cooperation in this field, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan, Minister of Defense of Japan, Secretary of State of the U.S. and Secretary of Defense of the U.S. confirmed in April that Japan will host U.S. space situational awareness (SSA) sensors (as hosted payloads) on the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System scheduled to be launched in FY2023.

With respect to multinational meetings, the 26th Session of the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) was held in Nagoya in November, co-organized by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to further enhance the framework for space cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.

At the G20 Osaka Summit in June, Prime Minister Abe stated the need for cooperation by the international community to address the risk to the stable use of space posed by the increase in space debris, as well as expressed Japan's plan to begin a large-scale debris removal project in 2019 as the first nation and its intention to play a leading role in this area.

C Space Science and Exploration, Overseas Development of Japanese Space Industry, and Contributions to Addressing Global Challenges

The progress of space exploration and application for peaceful purposes is a common benefit for all humankind, and is also significant in terms of diplomacy. In particular, the International Space Station (ISS) is an epic project in which 15 countries participate and has become a symbol of international cooperation regarding outer space. The Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo” is capable of deploying cube satellites, and is also used to deploy satellites on behalf of many emerging and developing countries with the aim of providing support for capacity building in the space field. Plans call for the deployment of RWASAT-1, Rwanda's first satellite, in November 2019, to be followed by Guatemala's first satellite, Quetzal-1, in the spring of 2020.

Meanwhile, Japan's participation in a program proposed by the U.S. to conduct moon exploration, including the development of a human outpost in the lunar vicinity (Gateway) on the basis of international cooperation, was decided at a meeting of the Strategic Headquarters for National Space Policy in October, in light of the fact that at the Japan-U.S. Summit Meeting in May, 2019 the view to accelerate discussions on cooperation regarding moon exploration was shared between the two leaders. Japan will coordinate with partners to participate in this program strategically in areas where Japan has advantages.

Leveraging the growth of the expanding markets of space development and utilization, largely in emerging nations, is important for the Japanese space industry. The public and private sectors are working together to promote the entry of Japan's commercial space industry into overseas markets by such means as high-level campaigns, mobilizing diplomatic missions, and the promotion of the utilization of Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) “Michibiki,” which commenced operations in November 2018, in the Asia-Pacific region, including support for overseas demonstrations of autonomous driving agricultural machineries using the QZSS. In addition, through international cooperation using space technologies, Japan has been addressing global issues in such fields as climate change, disaster management, forest conservation, marine fisheries resource management, and energy and resources to contribute to achieving the SDGs, as well as supporting capacity building regarding space in developing countries. For example, with countries such as Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Japan has begun cooperation aimed at operating a forestry monitoring system that will utilize JJ-FAST (JICA-JAXA Forest Early Warning System in the Tropics), tropical forest monitoring through the Daichi 2, also known as the Advanced Land Observation Satellite.

(7) Emerging Security Challenges

Due to the development of technological innovations such as the IoT, 5G, AI, and quantum technology that could bring about fundamental changes in the very fabric of society and people's lives, the scope of security has broadened to encompass the field of the economy and technology.

Each country is going head-to-head over the development of these technologies, which directly impact a country's competitiveness, while stepping up moves to apply these technologies to the security domain. It is foreseen that the success of innovation would greatly impact the security environment.

For example, the U.S. is working to maintain its military superiority in all domains through technological innovation and other means, with the goal of developing military forces to respond to the emerging challenges. In the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020, with the largest defense budget to date, the U.S. lays out a policy for large-scale investment in research and development into emerging technologies such as 5G, AI, quantum technology, hypersonic technology, and unmanned technology. China, meanwhile, pursues its “Military-Civil Fusion” strategy, which aims at multifaceted development of both military and civil sectors. With a focus on research and development of advanced technologies, China is also working to recruit high-level foreign personnel through its “Thousand Talents Plan” and other initiatives. The 2019 national defense white paper entitled “China's National Defense in the New Era” mentioned the military sector applications of advanced science and technologies such as AI, quantum information, big data, cloud computing, and IoT, and expressed its intention to promote innovation and development of science and technology for national defense. Russia, in addition to modernizing its nuclear capability, continues to modernize its military capability through such efforts as developing new weapons utilizing emerging technologies including hypersonic speed.

Given these circumstances, there is a growing awareness about the importance of sensitive technology control that goes beyond the frameworks of conventional security trade control. In the U.S., for example, discussions are being held about adding emerging technologies and fundamental technologies such as AI and quantum technology that are at risk of diversion to military use to the list of regulations, in addition to general-purpose technologies regulated under conventional security trade control protocols. Furthermore, measures are taken to prevent leakage of sensitive technologies for security reasons. This is in response to the diversified leakage channels of technology information and personnel, including the transfer of researchers and other personnel enabled by globalized research and corporate activities, corporate acquisitions, and cyber attacks enabled by increasingly sophisticated ICT.

Japan's advanced technological capabilities, while being the base for its economic and defense capabilities, serve as a valuable resource that the international community expects of Japan. While broadly assessing trends of research and development, and the application of science and technology being developed faster than ever before, the Government of Japan continues to combine its efforts of the Government, industry, and academia, aiming for the effective use of technologies. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs will continue to conduct these efforts as government activities and to work closely with the allies and like-minded countries to take stock of trends and programs of science and technology in other countries, and to actively promote the development of international norms, in order to promote diplomacy over addressing the emerging security challenges.