Diplomatic Bluebook 2016

Chapter 3

Japan’s Foreign Policy to Promote National and Worldwide Interests

3.Global Security

(1) Regional Security

The security environment surrounding the Asia-Pacific region is becoming increasingly severe due to various reasons such as the shift in the global balance of power. Meanwhile, it would be difficult to say that the framework of regional security cooperation is sufficiently institutionalized because of the diversity of political, economic and social systems in the region. At least at the moment, it would be unrealistic to establish a framework for collective defense, in the Asia-Pacific region, which, for instance, is similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe. It is necessary to realize a regional security environment desirable for Japan, by strengthening the Japan-U.S. Alliance, and by combining bilateral and multilateral security cooperation at multiple levels mainly in the Asia-Pacific region.

Based on this recognition, Japan is working to strengthen cooperative relationships in the security field with other countries sharing strategic interests. In relation to Australia, Japan-Australia Joint Foreign and Defense Ministerial Consultations were held (November), and negotiations on making an agreement that would reciprocally improve administrative policy and legal procedures to facilitate joint operations and exercises are underway. In relation to the ROK, the issue of comfort women is resolved finally and irreversibly through a Japan-ROK Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in December, 2015. In light of this agreement, Japan will move toward developing a new era of future-oriented Japan-ROK relations including in the security field. Japan is steadily advancing cooperation with ASEAN countries. The security dialogues with ASEAN countries are strengthened: for example, Japan-Indonesia Foreign and Defense Ministerial Meeting was held for the first time in December. In February 2016, Japan signed the Agreement concerning the Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology with the Philippines, and initiated the negotiations for a similar agreement with Malaysia in May 2015, and with Indonesia in February 2016. Furthermore, Japan supports the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, etc., in enhancing maritime capabilities through the provision of patrol vessels, etc. Japan is also steadily advancing the cooperation with India, including the eighth Japan-India Foreign Ministers’ Strategic Dialogue (January), the Third Vice Ministerial Level 2+2 Dialogue (April), and signing of the Agreement concerning the Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology and the Agreement concerning Security Measures for the Protection of Classified Military Information.

Furthermore, in addition to strengthening bilateral cooperative relations with countries mentioned above, Japan is also promoting cooperation in the trilateral frameworks, such as the Japan-Australia-India vice-ministerial level talks (June, 2015 and February, 2016), the Senior Directors Officials’ Meeting of Japan-U.S.-Australia trilateral Strategic Dialogue (September, 2015), Japan-U.S.-India Foreign Ministerial Meeting (September, 2015) and the Japan-U.S.-ROK Trilateral Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (September, 2015), to build a network for the peace and prosperity of the region with the Japan-U.S. Alliance as a linchpin.

For the stability of the security environment surrounding Japan, it is also necessary to promote relationship of trust with China and Russia. Japan-China relationship is one of the most important bilateral relationships, and Japan will further promote “Mutually Beneficial Relationship Based on Common Strategic Interests”. On the other hand, China’s rapid move to strengthen its military capabilities in a wide range of areas lacking transparency and its expanded and intensified activities at sea and in the air, are matters of concern for the region. Taking various opportunities, Japan encourages China to improve the transparency of its defense policy and comply with the international code of conduct. Also, both governments have shared the view that the early implementation of the “Maritime and Air Communication Mechanism between Japan-China defense authorities” is important, and have been working to achieve it. In 2015, Japan promotes political dialogues actively with Russia including two Summit Meetings, and Foreign Minister’s visit to Russia in September, 2015, which marked the resumption of negotiations for the conclusion of a peace treaty.

With respect to the relations with European nations, Japan held the 14th and the 18th Politico-Military Dialogues with the United Kingdom (September, 2015) and with France (September, 2015) respectively. With regard to the countries of the Middle East, Japan had the first Politico-Military Dialogue with Egypt (October, 2015), the first Security Dialogue with Saudi Arabia (March, 2015) and with the United Arab Emirates (December, 2015), and the second Security Dialogue with Bahrain (December, 2015).

In addition, Japan has actively participated in and contributed to multilateral frameworks, including the East Asia Summit (EAS), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the ASEAN Defense Ministers’ Meeting-Plus (ADMM-Plus) in order to strengthen cooperation in the security area in the region. Among these, ARF aims at improving the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region through dialogues and cooperation on political and security issues. It is an important forum for promoting security cooperation with a large number of participating countries and regions, including North Korea and the EU. In August, Foreign Minister Kishida attended the ARF Ministerial Meeting, to explain Japan’s efforts under the banner of “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” and to candidly exchange views, primarily on regional and international affairs including the South China Sea and North Korea. In addition, ARF has not only been evolving as a framework for candid discussion, but also for concrete cooperation on such issues as disaster relief, counter-terrorism, maritime security, and non-proliferation and disarmament. Japan is making a proactive contribution through, for example, taking a leading role as a co-chair in the Inter-Session Meeting (ISM) on maritime security and disaster relief. In addition, Japan hosted the meeting on Confidence Building Measures and Preventive Diplomacy as a co-chair in Tokyo in May, 2015.

Furthermore, in addition to official level dialogues (track 1), Japan actively utilizes frameworks which include the private sector level participants (track 1.5) as forums for exchanges of opinions concerning security issues. Japan participates in various conferences, including the Munich Security Conference (MSC), the Asia Security Summit (Shangri-La Dialogue), the Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue (NEACD), and the Berlin Foreign Policy Forum, to promote understanding of other countries on Japan’s security policy, and to promote cooperation and confidence-building.

(2) Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding

A. On-the-Ground Initiatives
(a) UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs)

Traditionally, UN PKOs are positioned between the parties to a dispute, monitoring ceasefires and the withdrawal of troops in order to help calm the situation or prevent the recurrence of hostilities, with the aim of supporting the settlement of the dispute through dialogue between the parties involved. However, with the change in the international environment since the end of the Cold War, including an increase in civil wars, UN PKOs have multifaceted mandates in addition to its traditional mandates such as monitoring of ceasefires. These new mandates include support in Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants, security sector reform, elections, human rights, and the rule of law, as well as the promotion of the political process and the protection of civilians. As of November 2015, 16 UN PKO missions are deployed, primarily in the Middle East and Africa, with a total of over 124,000 military, police and civilian personnel deployed to these missions. In response to the increasing complexity and scale of the mandates and the associated shortages of personnel, equipment and financial resources, discussions on more effective and efficient implementation of UN PKOs are underway in various forums, primarily within the UN.

Japan places a high priority on cooperation with UN PKOs under the policy of “Proactive Contribution to Peace” based on the principle of international cooperation. Based on the Act on Cooperation with UN Peacekeeping Operations and Other Operations (PKO Act), Japan has dispatched approximately 10,000 personnel on a total of 13 UN PKO missions since 1992. Japanese Staff Officers have been dispatched to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) since 2011, while Engineering Units have been dispatched there since 2012. The Engineering Units in the South Sudanese capital, Juba, undertake activities such as supporting displaced persons through the provision of water supplies, as well as site preparation. In January 2015, the Cabinet decided to dispatch one more Staff Officer there (Staff Officer - Air Operation). Due in part to the fact that the situation has become increasingly unstable since December 2013, South Sudan still faces political turmoil and other major issues even now, four years after independence. Accordingly, efforts to promote peace and stability there through the activities of UNMISS continue to be important.

(b) ODA and other cooperation to facilitate peacebuilding

Japan attaches importance to peacebuilding as part of its international cooperation, and it is positioned as one of the priority issues in Japan’s Development Cooperation Charter.

As well as prevention of conflict and emergency humanitarian aid, peacebuilding requires seamless manner including support for end of conflict, consolidation of peace, and nation-building. Based on the viewpoint of human security, Japan is providing support for peacebuilding particularly in the following countries and regions.

(1) Afghanistan

One of the most important issues for the peace and security of both the international community and Japan is to support Afghanistan’s self-reliance and the stability of the region including Afghanistan, and to prevent Afghanistan from stepping back to a hotbed of terrorism. Since 2001, Japan has provided a total of approximately 6.2 billion US dollars in development assistance in such fields as (1) enhancement of security capabilities; (2) reintegration of ex-combatants including Taliban into society; and (3) education, basic health care, development of agriculture and rural communities, improvement of basic infrastructure, and support for elections.

At the London Conference on Afghanistan in December 2014, the Government of Afghanistan and the international community reaffirmed the commitments that had been made by both the international community and Afghanistan at the Tokyo Conference in 2012. The first transfer of power through democratic elections was realized in 2014 and, at the London Conference, the new administration clearly demonstrated a strong determination to achieve reform. In light of this, Japan will continue to support Afghanistan’s efforts to implement its reform.

(2) Africa

The Islamic militant group, Boko Haram, has been increasingly active in Nigeria and the surrounding countries. At the same time, the threat of transnational organized crime has been increasing as well. Japan has actively provided efforts for the peace and stability in the Africa region.

Specifically, Japan has been providing “Training on Criminal Justice in French-Speaking African Countries” for human resources in the criminal justice system in eight French-speaking African countries (Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania) since 2014. This training aims to improve the investigation capabilities of the states concerned, protection of the rights of suspects, and to deepen knowledge about investigations, legal actions, judiciary, and counter-terrorism. It contributes to strengthen human resource development and capacity building in the concerned countries. Through the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC), Japan has provided assistance to seven Sahel countries (Senegal, Nigeria, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad), contributing to the development of counter-terrorism laws and the enhancement of law enforcement/execution body capabilities.

In 2015, the Government of Japan provided equipment to Mauritania, Mali, Tunisia and Morocco as a measure to combat the growing threat of terrorism in order to improve their border management capacities and security functions. This support is in line with “Peace and Stability”, one of the priority fields included in the TICAD V Yokohama Action Plan. Japan will continue to contribute to this field at TICAD VI in 2016.

B. Initiatives within the UN
(1) UN Peacekeeping Operations

Japan gives back to the international community its experience and expertise that it gains from UN PKOs. In order to support UN PKOs, which face myriad challenges, despite its growing importance in maintaining peace and security of the international community, Japan, as in the year before, co-hosted the 2nd PKO Summit meeting (New York, U.S.) at the end of September 2015. The summit was attended by heads of government, cabinet ministers and representatives from 49 major financial contributing countries, and troop contributing countries as well as four organizations (the UN, NATO, EU and AU), including U.S. President Obama, who had proposed the meeting. Participants engaged in a lively discussion on measures to support UN PKO and issued a joint statement. As one of the co-hosts, Prime Minister Abe announced the following specific contributions: (1) readiness to expand its contribution to the UN PKOs, as the range of activities in which Japan can participate in was broadened, due to the recent revision of the International Peace Cooperation Act; (2) expansion in cooperation with diverse partners, as seen in the case of the “United Nations Project for African Rapid Deployment of Engineering Capabilities (ARDEC)”, whose trial training was held in Kenya as a triangular partnership model between Japan, UN and Africa; and (3) support for improvement in the capability of UN PKO personnel through varieties of trainings, and assistance to develop human resources in the areas of peacebuilding, promotion of women’s participation to PKO, and support for the victims of sexual exploitation/abuse.

Training scene from the “UN Project for Africa Rapid Deployment of Engineering Capabilities (ARDEC)Training scene from the “UN Project for Africa Rapid Deployment of Engineering Capabilities (ARDEC)"

The High-Level Panel, which was established by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, submitted a report in June 2015. This was to provide a strategic review on UN Peace Operations, including PKOs and Special Political Missions (SPM). Based on this report, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon presented a Secretary-General’s Report to the member states in September. This report pointed out the priority issues for the UN, including strengthening conflict prevention and mediation capability, reinforcing of partnerships, and capacity building for personnel, as well as an action plan towards implementation of these priorities. With regard to the review of UN PKOs, it is expected to be discussed at such fora as the UN General Assembly, PKO-related committees of the UN Security Council, and the G7 Peacekeeping/Peacebuilding Experts Meeting.

(2) UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)

As the majority of regional conflicts and civil wars relapse into conflicts, it is crucial to provide appropriate support in post-conflict period. Based on this understanding, the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) was established in 2005, with the aim of providing consistent support and advice from conflict resolution through restoration, reintegration, and reconstruction of post-conflict society. Working closely with the UN Security Council, the General Assembly, and other UN institutions, the PBC has provided advice to six countries (Burundi, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, the Central African Republic, Liberia, and Guinea) in order to specify the priorities and design their strategies in peacebuilding, as well as offer support for their implementations.

Japan has been a member of the PBC since its establishment, and has contributed to the activities of the Commission through chairing the Working Group on Lessons Learned (WGLL) since 2011. In 2015, Japan led discussions concerning institution building, the most important challenges faced by post-conflict countries, which were taken up as one of the topics at the PBC’s session.

In 2015, the review of the UN Peacebuilding architecture, including the PBC, was started. The need to further reinforce cooperation between the UN Security Council and the PBC was emphasized. As from 2016, Japan belongs to both the PBC and UN Security Council, and is expected to act as a bridge between them and contribute to both organizations.

Japan has contributed a total of 42.5 million US dollars to the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) established at the same time as the PBC, making it the fund’s fifth-largest major donor (as of December 2015).

C. Human Resource Development
(1) Program for Global Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding/development

While civilian experts equipped with a high level of skill and expertise have a substantial role to play in post-conflict peacebuilding, the number of those capable of fulfilling that role is inadequate- consequently the development of personnel is a major issue. Japan runs the program for human resource development in order to cultivate civilian experts who can play a leading role in peacebuilding and development in the field. As of the end of FY 2015, a total of approximately 540 people has been trained. The trainees who have completed the program have gone on to play an active role in the field worldwide, assisting peacebuilding in such countries as South Sudan and Afghanistan, and have received high acclaim from both the UN and other countries.

Japan’s efforts in the field of peacebuilding
Peacekeepers for military and police units under the UN mission

At the 2nd PKO Summit held in September, Prime Minister Abe expressed his intention to produce more civilian experts. In response to this, the FY 2015 program provided career development support, as well as training courses for younger personnel and for practitioners.

(2) Training for United Nations Peacekeepers

Japan has been supporting UN peacekeepers from various countries participating in UN PKOs to enhance their capabilities. In October, the first training course for instructors for UN PKOs was held in Japan. In addition to financial support, it also engages in dispatching instructors and other personnel to PKO Training Centers in Asia and African nations.

Prime Minister Abe addressing the 2nd PKO Summit (September 28, in New York, U.S.; Photo: Cabinet Public Relations Office)Prime Minister Abe addressing the 2nd PKO Summit (September 28, in New York, U.S.; Photo: Cabinet Public Relations Office)

(3) Initiatives to Combat Security Threats

A. Counter-terrorism Measures

The year 2015 turned out to be a year during which the threat of terrorism has extended to the regions including Europe and North America with the shooting terrorism incident on a magazine publisher in Paris, a series of terror attacks in Paris (November), and the shooting terrorism incident in California, U.S. (December). In the Middle East and Africa regions, many ordinary citizens fell victim to terrorist attacks, such as the terrorist incident regarding the murder of Japanese in Syria (January and February), the terrorism shooting incident in Tunisia (March) that claimed Japanese lives as well the shooting attack at a University in Kenya (April), the shooting terrorism incident at a resort in Tunisia (June), and the bomb attack in Ankara, Turkey (October). In addition, the fact that a large number of young people, including those from developed countries, were inspired by ISIL’s propaganda through social media, and entered Iraq and Syria as foreign fighters. This remains to be a major issue. Regarding the threat to Japan, ISIL uploaded a video clip which seems to show two Japanese men being killed by ISIL in Syria. Besides, in its bulletin, the terrorist group referred to Japanese diplomatic missions and other organizations as attack targets. Threat of terrorism against Japan is becoming real, as more and more Japanese were embroiled in terrorist attacks, including the shooting terrorism incident in Tunisia. In response to these situations, the Government of Japan has been working on a comprehensive approach after Foreign Minister Kishida announced in February the “3-Pillar Foreign Policy”: (1) strengthening counter-terrorism measures including the provision of 15.5 million US dollars for counter-terrorism capacity building assistance in the Middle East and Africa; (2) enhancing diplomacy toward stability and prosperity in the Middle East; and (3) assistance in creating societies resilient to radicalization. More efforts of the international community to counter-terrorism were made at the United Nations and other occasions, which resulted in the adoption of the resolution 2253 in the UN Security Council in December to call for further strengthening counter-terrorist financing measures against ISIL.

The G7 Leaders’ Declaration following the Summit in Schloss Elmau in June also stated that the fight against terrorism and violent extremism will have to remain a priority for the whole international community. In particular, under the leadership of the United States, a ministerial meeting in February (in Washington D.C., U.S.), a regional ministerial meeting in June (in Sydney, Australia), and a Summit meeting in September (in New York, U.S.) were held to discuss countering violent extremism. During these meetings, Japan expressed its gratitude to the countries for their cooperation in dealing with the terrorist incident where Japanese hostages had been murdered by terrorists in Syria, and introduced multifaceted efforts related to counter-terrorism measures. New efforts in countering violent extremism were announced in the Sixth Ministerial Plenary Meeting of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF)1 in September (New York, U.S.).

With regard to efforts in Asia, the 13th Senior Officials Meeting on Transnational Crime Plus Three (SOMTC+3 (Japan, China and ROK) ) were held in June, together with the 12th SOMTC+Japan. In September, the 7th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC+3 (Japan, China and ROK)) and the 2nd AMMTC+Japan were held, attended by Eriko Yamatani, Chairperson of the National Public Safety Commission. In the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) process, the 13th Inter-Sessional Meeting on Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime (ISM on CTTC)2 was held in China in May, focusing on the use of Internet for terrorist purposes and the issue of foreign terrorist fighters.

It was reported that ISIL, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other terrorist organizations were still active in North Africa and the Sahel region in 2015. Therefore, Japan engaged in counter-terrorism capacity-building projects by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other international organizations, as a part of concrete measures to realize “Strengthening counter-terrorism measures” which is one of the three pillars of Japan’s foreign policy in the field of counter-terrorism.

In the area of bilateral and trilateral cooperation, the meetings held include: the Japan-U.S.-Australia Trilateral Strategic Dialogue in April (in Washington D.C., U.S.), the Japan-China-ROK Trilateral Counter-Terrorism Consultations (in Beijing, China), and the Japan-Russia Counter-Terrorism Consultations (in Tokyo) in May, the Japan-U.K. Counter-Terrorism Dialogue in October (in Tokyo), and the Japan-India Joint Working Group on Counter-Terrorism in November (in Delhi, India). Through these meetings, Japan is strengthening its partnerships with other countries in such areas as the information exchange concerning the terrorism situation and consultations in the international arena.

To prevent developing countries and other nations that do not have adequate capacities for counter-terrorism from becoming a hotbed of terrorism, Japan attaches a high priority to support capacity building of these countries. For example, Japan utilizes Official Development Assistance (ODA) to provide technical assistance and equipment to countries mainly in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa in various fields, including: (1) immigration control; (2) aviation security; (3) port and maritime security; (4) customs cooperation; (5) export controls; (6) law enforcement cooperation; (7)countering terrorist financing; (8) counter-terrorism measures focused on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats; and (9) the implementation of the International Counter-Terrosim Conventions and Protocols3.

In the fight against terrorism, it is essential to stop the flow of funds to terrorists, and limit their movements. Therefore Japan implements freezing of assets of terrorists and their organizations, including restrictions on the money transfer in and out of the country and on the deposit contracts under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act and the International Terrorist Asset-Freezing Act. Furthermore, the Government of Japan has taken measures to prevent those with frozen assets from entering or transiting Japan based on the Foreign Exchange Act and the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act. These measures are taken in concert with the efforts made by the international community.

  • 1 Proposed by the U.S., the GCTF was established in September 2011, as a new multilateral framework for anti-terrorism measures. It aims at sharing experience, findings, and best practices (successful cases), and implementing capacity building projects in such fields as “the rule of law,” border control and countering violent extremism. It consists of 29 countries (including the G7) and the EU (the United Nations is its partner).
  • 2 The meetings are held during the ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum) Ministerial Meeting, which is convened every summer as part of ASEAN Related Foreign Ministers’ Meeting.
  • 3 For more information on the International Counter-Terrorism Conventions and Protocols, please refer to the website of MOFA. Japan has concluded the 13 International Counter-Terrorism Conventions and Protocols.
B. Criminal Justice Initiatives

The UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice are the core bodies in shaping policy on crime prevention and criminal justice in the international community. It was decided that Japan will host the 14th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in 2020 at the 13th Congress held in Qatar in April. In 2015, in cooperation with the UN Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI), Japan supported criminal judicial reform in Myanmar by funding the UN Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund of the UNODC. This program was highly evaluated by the Myanmar Government, and will be continued in 2016. With regard to measures against cybercrime, Japan, the United States, Australia and the UNODC are working together to organize a capacity building workshop for law-enforcement authorities from ASEAN countries.

Furthermore, Japan is undertaking deliberations concerning the conclusion of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplementary protocols, in order to prevent and encourage cooperation in the fight against transnational organized crime by developing an international legal framework to tackle transnational organized crime.

C. Anti-corruption measures

In 2015, Japan cooperated in an asset recovery initiative, mainly within the context of the G7 framework, seeking to confiscate and repatriate to the country of origin the proceeds of corruption that have found their way overseas. In December, Japan participated in the 4th Arab Forum on Asset Recovery held in Hammamet (Tunisia), and presented its asset recovery efforts. Under the G7 presidency in 2016, Japan will continue its efforts in relation to the Arab Forum. Japan’s activities within the G20 framework were mainly focused on the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, developing Japan’s Action Plan to implement the G20 High-Level Principle on Beneficial Ownership Transparency. It also joined development of the G20 High Level Principles on Private Sector Transparency and Integrity.

The OECD Working Group on Bribery monitors the “Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials In International Business Transactions” to prevent and combat the bribery of foreign public officials. Japan also participates in this program.

In addition, Japan is undertaking deliberations concerning the conclusion of the UN Convention against Corruption, which prescribes measures to effectively address such corruption as bribery and embezzlement of property by public officials, as well as international cooperation. In 2015, Japan provided assistance through the UNODC in developing a handbook on international cooperation concerning foreign bribery cases. It also funded a UNODC project worth about one million U.S. dollars in efforts to support Afghanistan to enhance anti-corruption measures, strengthen the criminal justice system and stabilize security in the country.

D. Measures to Combat Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism

In terms of measures to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism, Financial Action Task Force (FATF)4has been leading global discussions concerning the international standards that countries should implement, as well as examining measures from new perspectives. As a founding member, Japan has actively participated in these discussions. To promote international efforts to stop the flow of funds to terrorists, Japan supported West African nations with capacity building in cooperation with the UNODC.

  • 4  It is an international framework established by the G7 Arche Summit (in France) in 1989 for the purpose of promoting effective measures to combat international money laundering. 34 countries and regions, including the G7, and two international organizations participated. FATF Recommendations are recognized as the international standards that the states shall implement for combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism and of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The FATF also monitors the progress of its members in implementing measures, and identifies jurisdictions that have deficiencies and risk of money laundering and financing of terrorism.
E. Measures to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Japan has strengthened its domestic mechanism to combat trafficking in persons, and also proactively provides assistance to developing countries based on “Japan’s 2014 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons”. This Action Plan was developed for the first time in five years in order to tackle the increasingly sophisticated and latent methods used for trafficking in persons in recent years. In January, a Government Delegation on Anti-Human Trafficking Measures was dispatched to Thailand. Taking that opportunity, the 5th Japan-Thailand Joint Task Force on Counter Trafficking in Persons was held, reaffirming collaboration between the two countries. Continuing in the year 2015, Japan is assisting the repatriation and social rehabilitation program for foreign victims of trafficking in persons protected in Japan, through funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Japan also funded training programs to law-enforcement authorities in Southeast Asian countries and Nigeria through projects organized by the UNODC.

Training of peacekeeping personnel in Africa via the Project for African Rapid Deployment of Engineering Capabilities ~ Transferring skills and experience~

On the ground of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UN PKOs), which play an important role in facilitating international peace and stability, it has been revealed that there are big challenges in deploying personnel rapidly and launching missions quickly in recent years when establishing new missions and enlarging existing ones. In many of the proactive troop contributing countries (TCC) for PKOs, often there is a lack of equipment and skills even though personnel are available for dispatch.

The UN, expecting that countries, in particular developed ones with adequate equipment and skills, will carry out capacity building for Engineering Units in African countries and provide heavy equipment needed for UN PKO, launched the Triangular Partnership Project scheme among the UN, African TCCs and countries with specialized skills and the will to make contributions.

Japan has dispatched Engineering Units on a number of missions, beginning with the PKO in Cambodia (UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)) in 1992. In addition, Japan recently has played a leading role in the development of UN Peacekeeping Missions Military Engineer Unit Manual. Accordingly, Japan has enough experience and expertise. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, at the request of the UN, expressed support for the Project for African Rapid Deployment of Engineering Capabilities at the first PKO Summit held in September 2014. In response to this, a trial training for the project was carried out in Kenya (Nairobi) over a 6-week schedule from September to October 2015. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs cooperated financially in organizing the training and heavy engineering equipment to the UN, and the Ministry of Defense dispatched instructors to the training. 11 instructors were dispatched from the Ground Self-Defense Forces, and training was provided to 10 trainees from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda, with regard to operation and maintenance of heavy engineering equipment such as bulldozers. As a result of the trial training, all trainees became capable of implementing basic facility work in a safe manner using 4 types of heavy machinery. The trial training was completed successfully. This training was also introduced by Prime Minister Abe in his speech at the 2nd PKO Summit held in September 2015.

Instructor from the Ground Self-Defense Force giving a lecture on heavy engineering equipment operationInstructor from the Ground Self-Defense Force giving a lecture on heavy engineering equipment operation
Instructor from the Ground Self-Defense Force explaining to trainees about the function of gradersInstructor from the Ground Self-Defense Force explaining to trainees about the function of graders

Sergeant First Class Takahashi of the Ground Self-Defense Force, who participated in the training as instructor, is proud of the training, saying, “The trial training was a series of trial and error. We held many discussions through the training and I am confident that we have done our very best. In addition, it provided great confidence and encouragement for my future career as a self-defense officer to see the training materials in whose development I was involved will continue to be used in the future UN-led training. I would like to actively take part if another chance of that kind is available. It is my dream to do engineering activities in actual PKO, together with those trainees, when they are qualified enough. ”

Scaled-up trainings are scheduled for 2016, and Japan continues to contribute.

F. Measures to Combat Illicit Drug Trafficking

The Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) is a central policy making body of the UN system on drug-related matters. Japan has continuously been elected as a CND member state. In the election held in April, Japan was elected with the highest vote in the Asia-Pacific group and reassigned for the term 2016-2019. Synthetic drugs such as New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and methamphetamine have been spreading worldwide, posing an increasing threat. To tackle this issue, Japan has insisted on strengthening international efforts.

In 2015, Japan assisted the Asia-Pacific countries in analyzing the trend of synthetic drugs problem and conducted a monitoring of illicit poppy cultivation in Myanmar under the cooperation with the UNODC. In West African regions, Japan provided technical assistance to law-enforcement authorities in order to prevent the illicit flow of precursors (which are used for manufacturing synthetic narcotics). As for Afghanistan and neighboring countries (Iran and Central Asia), Japan provided around 3.5 million US dollars to the UNODC, and proactively supported the efforts of these countries, through strengthening border control, supporting cultivation of alternative crops, helping women suffering from drug addiction, and combatting smuggling.

(4) The Oceans and Seas

“Open and Stable Seas” based on maritime order governed by law and rules and not by force, are essential for peace and prosperity not only of Japan, but also of the international community as a whole. It is therefore necessary to maintain and promote them.

In recent years, there are an increasing number of cases where interests of countries clash with each other from the perspective of securing resources and national security. In particular, maritime disputes have occurred among coastal states in the South China Sea and there is growing concern about unilateral attempts to change the status quo by force.

Against this background, Japan has been making every effort to stabilize and maintain order at sea, and to ensure the freedom and safety of navigation and overflight; for instance, at the Shangri-La Dialogue in May 2014, Prime Minister Abe advocated the “Three Principles on the Rule of Law at Sea.” Utilizing Official Development Assistance (ODA), Japan assists coastal states in Asia in order to strengthen capacity building on maritime safety by providing patrol vessels and developing human resources for capacity building of maritime law enforcement agencies.

A. Order at Sea
(a) The importance of order at sea for Japan

Japan is a maritime nation surrounded by the sea and depends on marine transport for almost all of its imports of energy and resources, such as petroleum and minerals. Moreover, for Japan as is an island nation with few natural resources, marine living resources and mineral resources lying on the continental shelf and deep seabed of surrounding waters present economic significance. Thus, it is necessary for Japan to actively contribute to stabilizing and maintaining order at sea.

(b) The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and related Japanese initiatives

Also known as the “Constitution for the Seas,” UNCLOS is the very basis of maritime order governed by law and rules. The Convention comprehensively provides principles governing uses of the sea, including the freedoms of navigation and overflight over the high seas. It also stipulates the rights and obligations under international law on the development of marine resources and so on. Furthermore, this Convention led to the establishment of international organizations such as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS), the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), and the International Seabed Authority (ISA). This Convention has been ratified by 166 countries (including some not recognized by Japan), including Japan and by the EU.

As a leading maritime state, Japan regards maritime order with the Convention at the core as the cornerstone by ensuring Japan’s maritime rights and facilitating maritime activities. As such, Japan actively contributes to discussions at conferences including the Meetings of States Parties to the Convention and to the activities by international organizations in order to ensure that the Convention will be even more widely applied and implemented appropriately. Furthermore, Japan has done its utmost to build, maintain, and develop fair order at sea under the Convention, by various means such as holding international symposiums on the law of the sea where eminent Japanese and foreign experts are invited. (see 3-1-6).

(c) A Challenge to the Maritime Order and Response by Japan and International Community (see 1-1(2), 2-1-2(1) and 2-1-6)
a. Situations surrounding the East China Sea

In the East China Sea, Chinese government-owned vessels have continued to intrude into Japan’s territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands at the same frequency in 2015 as in the past. Furthermore, Chinese Coast Guard vessels apparently equipped with cannons have repeatedly intruded into Japan’s territorial waters since the end of December 2015. In addition, China has been continuing unilateral resource development in Exclusive Economic Zone and on continental shelves in areas pending delimitation. In November 2015, there also occurred an incident where intelligence-gathering vessels had repeatedly navigated outside the southern part of the contiguous zone around the Senkaku Islands.

Given that the situation in the East China Sea is deteriorating, Japan continues to respond in a firm but calm manner while making claims that should be made in dealing with China’s intrusions into Japan’s territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands and its unilateral resource development in areas pending delimitation.

b. Issues surrounding the South China Sea

In the South China Sea, China has been further conducting unilateral actions that change the status quo and increase tensions such as large-scale and rapid land reclamation, building of outposts as well as their use for military purposes, and attempts to create faits accomplis. Many countries including Japan have expressed concern over such China’s actions. With regards to the dispute over the South China Sea between the Philippines and China, the Philippines started arbitral proceedings in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The Arbitral Tribunal decided on the issue of jurisdiction, ruling that it has jurisdiction over a part of the submissions by the Philippines in October. In November, the hearing on the merits was held. However, China continues its non-participation in the arbitral proceedings.

Uotsurishima island, Senkaku islands (Photo: Cabinet Public Relations Office)Uotsurishima island, Senkaku islands (Photo: Cabinet Public Relations Office)

Japan has a high interest regarding the issues over the South China Sea as it relies on marine transportation for most of resources and energy, and attaches importance to freedom of navigation and overflight in South China sea, as well as the security of sea lanes of communication. The international community is called upon to cooperate in order to protect open, free and peaceful sea.

B. Maritime Security

Japan actively contributes to ensuring safety and freedom of navigation and overflight through anti-piracy measures in Asia and Africa, as well as close partnership and cooperation with other countries.

(a) Anti-piracy measures off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden
(Current status of piracy and armed robbery cases)

According to figures released by the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the number of piracy and armed robbery cases (hereinafter referred to as the “piracy cases”) off Somalia and the Gulf of Aden was 237 at its peak in 2011, but then dropped to zero in 2015. It is due to maritime law-enforcement activities of respective navies and self-defense measures adopted by merchant ships. However root causes of piracy off the coast of Somalia remain unresolved. Thus, the situation could easily revert if the international community were to reduce its involvement.

(Extension of anti-piracy operations and record of escort activities)

Since 2009, Japan has been conducting anti-piracy operations by deploying two Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyers (with coast guard officers on board) and two P-3C maritime patrol aircraft to the Gulf of Aden. On July 7, 2015, the Government of Japan decided to continue anti-piracy operations based on the Act on Punishment and Countermeasures against Piracy for another year.

The deployed destroyers protected 147 merchant ships on 78 escort operations between January and December 2015, while the P-3C maritime patrol aircrafts carried out 227 mission flights, in which they conducted surveillance, information gathering and provided information to naval vessels of other countries.

(Promotion of international cooperation in anti-piracy measures)

Japan has been making multi-layered efforts, including support for enhancement of maritime law enforcement capacity of Somalia and neighboring countries as well as for stability of Somalia, in order to solve root causes of piracy off the coast of Somalia.

Japan has assisted the establishment of Information Sharing Centers in Yemen, Kenya, and Tanzania, as well as the construction of a training center in Djibouti for capacity building of the region through contributing 14.6 million US dollars to a fund established by the IMO. Moreover, Japan has contributed 4.5 million US dollars to an international trust fund managed by the UN Development Programme (UNDP), through which it assists Somalia and neighboring countries in improving courts and training judicial officers, as well as repatriation to Somalia of those found guilty of piracy in the neighboring countries including Seychelles. In December 2015, Japan provided two patrol vessels to the Djibouti Coast Guard, to which the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has extended technical assistance for capacity building.

With a view to promoting stability in Somalia, Japan has provided a total of 371.37 million US dollars since 2007 aimed at improvement of public security, humanitarian aid, employment creation, and support for the police.

(b) Anti-piracy measures in Asia

To encourage regional cooperation in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea, Japan was at the forefront of efforts to formulate the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Privacy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP), which entered into force in 2006. Each of the Contracting Parties provides information regarding piracy and armed robbery at sea and cooperate via the Information Sharing Center (ReCAAP-ISC) established in Singapore under the Agreement. Japan supports the activities of ReCAAP-ISC by sending its Executive Director and an Assistant Director, in addition to the provision of financial support.

Japan’s efforts for anti-piracy measures in Asia are highly praised in the international community.

(5) Cyber

Year by year, as cyber space is becoming an essential part of platform for people’s socioeconomic activities, the scale and the influence of malicious cyber activities including cyber attacks are expanding. Moreover, it is pointed out that some of sophisticated cyber attacks that are thought to have been carried out for a particular purpose were state-sponsored.

Japan is increasingly exposed to the cyber threats: for instance, in June 2015, the Japan Pension Service suffered cyber attacks, in which approximately 1.25 million cases of pension information were stolen. With the G7 Ise-Shima Summit in 2016, and the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympics Games to be held in 2020, the cybersecurity issue proves to be an urgent priority for Japan.

Cyber attacks are characterized as being highly anonymous, causing a significant impact in a short period of time, being less affected by geographical constraints and easily crossing national borders. It is difficult for a single country to address this issue alone. As such, coordination and cooperation of the international community are essential.

As a result, based on the “National Cyber Security Strategies”, which was adopted by the Cabinet in September, 2015, the Government of Japan has advanced efforts, including contributing to the making of international rules, promoting cooperation and confidence-building among other countries, enhancing countermeasures against cybercrimes and supporting capacity building.

In respect of developing international rules, from its standpoint that “existing international law is applicable to cyber activities,” the Government of Japan, together with actors in the Japanese private sector, has taken active roles in discussions in the international community through the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts (UN-GGE) and the Global Conference on Cyberspace held in April at Hague, etc.

Regarding promoting cooperation and confidence-building, Japan has had bilateral dialogues and discussions with the U.S., Australia, the U.K., France, India, Israel, Estonia, Russia, EU, NATO and ASEAN, as well as within the trilateral framework of Japan-China-ROK. Through these talks, Japan exchanges information about cyber-related policies and initiatives, deepens mutual understanding, enhances cooperation and fosters confidence-building with other countries. Japan has been proactively engaging in the promotion of multilateral cooperation in the field of cyberspace by, for instance, participating in the Workshop on Confidence-Building Measures in Cyberspace held in October in Singapore within the framework of the ARF.

Regarding countermeasures against cybercrime, as the first member country in Asia of the Convention on Cybercrime, which is the only multilateral treaty on the use of cyberspace, Japan proactively takes part in related dialogues in efforts to increase the number of contracting countries to this Convention. Due to the nature of cyberspace, the lack of incident handling capacity of some countries and regions may pose risk to the entire world. Therefore, capacity-building support for developing countries is important for ensuring Japan’s security as well. Japan has been providing support including the capacity-building of CSIRT (Computer Security Incident Response Team)1 and law enforcement agencies in various countries, mainly, ASEAN member states.

  • 1 In order to minimize the damage caused by computer security incidents, we collect and analyze incident related information, fragility information and predictive information of any cyberattack, and consider solutions and responses to the incidents.

(6) Outer Space

In recent years, outer space has become congested due to the diversified use of outer space and increasing number of countries using space. In addition, by increase of space debris caused by such as Anti-Satellite (ASAT) tests, collisions of satellites soon has posed a growing risk to the sustainable and stable use of outer space.

In order to cope with this situation, Japan has been proactively participating in discussions on the international progress in development of international rule-making for outer space, and also promotes dialogues and consultations on outer space with other countries, to contribute to the efforts to ensure security in outer space.

Amid new technologies and services with regard to space utilization and applications, Japan proactively engages in space science and exploration such as the International Space Station (ISS), the overseas development of Japanese space industry, resolution of global challenges by utilizing space technologies, and support for capacity building in the field of outer space in developing countries.

A. International Rule-making for Outer Space

In order to ensure the sustainable and stable use of outer space, it is important to restrict actions that create space debris such as ASAT tests and to formulate rules with regard to transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBM) which will promote information exchange on outer space activities between countries. From these points of view, Japan has been proactively contributing to discussions on the development of the International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities (ICOC) led by EU. In July, the first multilateral negotiation was held in New York.

At the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), Japan has been proactively contributing to discussions on the peaceful use of outer space, including draft Guideline for “Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities”. In October, the first joint meeting of the 1st and 4th Committees of UN General Assembly on the agenda of outer space was held.

B. International Dialogues and Consultations on Outer Space

Increasing number of various bilateral and multilateral dialogues and consultations on outer space have been held, reflecting a growing interest of the international community concerning outer space. It is worthwhile to share information and promote cooperation among other countries utilizing outer space, from a broader perspective, with regard to sustainable and stable use of outer space. Japan promotes dialogues in the fields of security, science and industry with major space-faring nations and other countries in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Japan conducted dialogues as follows: Japan-U.S. Space Security Dialogue (Tokyo) in February, the Third Japan-U.S. Comprehensive Dialogue on Space in September, the Sixth Japan-U.S. Civil Space Dialogue, Civil and Commercial Uses in September (Tokyo), the Fifth Japan-U.S.-Australia Trilateral Space Security Dialogue (in Canberra, Australia) in September, the Third ARF Space Security Workshop (Beijing, China) in November.

C. Space Science and Exploration, Overseas Development of Japanese Space Industry and Contribution to Global Challenges

The progress of space exploration and application for peaceful purposes is a common benefit for all humankind, and is also of significant in terms of diplomacy. In particular, the ISS is an epic project in which 15 countries participate, and has become a symbol of international cooperation in the field of outer space. From its point of view, Japan and the U.S. signed a document on the new Japan-U.S. cooperation in terms of the ISS program in December, and decided the participation in the extended operation of the ISS until 2024.

To acquire internationally increasing demand for satellites and launching services is an important challenge for the Japanese space industry. The Government of Japan has been promoting overseas development of its space industry through top-level sales and diplomatic missions overseas. Furthermore, Japan has been contributing to issues of climate change, disaster risk reduction, forest conservation, resources/energy, and other global issues by utilizing space technologies. Japan also supports developing countries for capacity building in the field of outer space.