Chapter II. Striving for a More Secure, Prosperous and Humane World
Section 2. Toward the Construction of a New International Framework
3. Groping for a More Humane World
Genuine peace does not simply mean that there is no conflict, but it must ensure freedom, human rights and democracy in which each person can enjoy a humane life. Moreover, the global-scale problems such as the environment, refugees and drugs, not only transcend borders to affect other countries, but have inherent dangers of threatening the very basis of the existence of humankind. In today's world where international interdependence is ever deepening, it is impossible for individual countries acting separately to find the solution to these problems. Instead, it is necessary that the international community enhance policy coordination to solve these problems.
3-1. Promoting Introduction of Freedom, Democracy and a Market Economy
In the post-Cold War world, there are countries in transition such as Russia and Central and Eastern European countries, which are making efforts to introduce democracy and a market-oriented economy to their political, economic and social systems. Success of those efforts is not only necessary for their own stability and development but also indispensable for building a future framework for peace and prosperity of the entire world. Their success depends primarily on each country's own efforts, but the reform process is not an easy one, and there are risks of political and economic confusion or rollback by conservatives and nationalist groups in these countries. In particular, if such risks turned into realities in a big country like Russia, it would be a great impediment to world peace and prosperity. Therefore, in the present unstable international situation, it is important for the international community to concert support and assistance to these reform efforts in order to consolidate world peace and prosperity based on universal values.
Efforts to introduce democracy and a market economy are under way also in Asia, Latin America and Africa, but the results are mixed.
In Asia, the first direct presidential election was held in Mongolia in June as a part of the reform toward democracy and a market economy which had begun in March of 1990. Moreover, in Cambodia, as mentioned in Chapter I, major progress in democratization and full scale efforts to introduce a market economy have been made. In Vietnam also, favorable moves such as further progress in the Doi Moi reform (economic liberalization and open-door policy) have been seen.
In Latin America, Peru held peacefully a national referendum on the adoption of a new constitution in October, thereby putting an end to a temporary suspension of the constitution invoked since April 1992, and is steadily making progress in democratization. On the other hand, Haiti increasingly suffers from confusion, as the repatriation of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide has been hindered by an anti-president armed group in spite of an agreement in July concerning a return to a democratic system including his repatriation.
In Africa, as a result of inter-party negotiations undertaken in South Africa since 1989 toward the abolition of Apartheid, an agreement was reached in July to hold a constitution promulgation assembly in April 1994. In December, the first meeting of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) was held, enabling all races in South Africa to participate in the national government for the first time in its history. In response to these moves, economic sanctions on South Africa were removed at the U.N. General Assembly in October. In addition, in Madagascar, a democratic cabinet was formed at the end of August, establishing the third republic both in name and reality. Progress and democratization was made in Ghana also, where transition to a civilian government was completed in January. On the other hand, moves against democratization took place in Nigeria, which had been scheduled to change over to civilian rule in August.
Under the situation, efforts in international cooperation led by Japan, the United States and Europe are in progress to assist moves toward introduction of democracy and a market economy. For example, the G-7 Joint Ministerial Meeting on Assistance to the Russian Federation was held in April, and a specific assistance package was agreed upon. On the other hand, there is a need for the international community to assist countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa, besides countries of the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe, in their efforts toward introduction of democracy and a market economy.
Japan, through its Official Development Assistance (ODA) in particular, has been assisting those efforts of developing countries and countries in transition. This policy is indicated clearly in its ODA Charter. Moreover, in order to support such efforts, Japan is playing a leading role in establishing a framework for a multilateral coordination, and in extending effective cooperation within the framework. For example, on Mongolia's efforts to introduce democracy and a market economy, Japan hosted the third Mongolia Assistance Meeting in September in cooperation with the World Bank in order to outline international assistance. Furthermore, as for Cambodia, Japan hosted and chaired the first meeting of the International Committee for the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC) in September. As for the three countries in Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos), Japan hosted and chaired in December the preparatory meeting of the Forum for Comprehensive Development of Indochina to discuss the direction of socio-economic development and introduction of a market economy. For Africa, Japan hosted in October, the Tokyo International Conference on African Development in which it announced the intention to provide active support for self-help efforts toward democracy and sustainable economic development, while, at the same time, encouraging such self-help efforts. Concerning Latin America, Japan participated in the election verification team of the Organization of American States (OAS) to the national referendum on the newly drafted constitution in Peru in October. In addition, Japan co-chaired the economic development working group of the Partnership for Democracy and Development in Central America (PDD) launched in 1990 at the suggestion of the United States, and hosted in March the Special Session of PDD in Tokyo.
(1) Basic Recognition
The global environment issues are one of the most important issues to be tackled by the international community in building a new framework for peace and prosperity in the post-Cold War world. Their importance in foreign policy can be explained by their three outstanding characteristics; global-scale, multifaceted effects and the high degree of international interest.
First, the global environment issues have global scale effects transcending national borders and there is a need for the international community to take concerted action. Japan needs to take active initiatives in the efforts of the international community at the United Nations and the OECD on the problems of climatic changes, depletion of the ozone layer, deprivation of bio-diversity, destruction of forests, desertification and various endangered species.
Second, the global environment issues are multifaceted issues that are closely related to important diplomatic issues such as the North-South problems, international trade and security issues.
Third, being a country which has achieved high economic growth and overcome pollution problems, Japan is expected to show clear leadership concerning the global environment issues in building a framework for world peace and prosperity in the post-Cold War world.
(2) Trend in the International Community
At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) of 1992, it was confirmed as the consensus of the international community that the pursuit of sustainable development and environmental preservation in tandem is important. As the result of UNCED, the "Rio Declaration on Environment and Development," and "Agenda 21" were adopted, and the U.N. Framework Convention on Climatic Changes and the Convention on Biological Diversity were signed.
Major moves of the international community after the UNCED are as follows:
First, in order to ensure a steady implementation of the items agreed at UNCED, the Committee on Sustainable Development (CSD) was established under the U.N. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) at the 47th Session of the U.N. General Assembly. CSD is composed of 53 elected countries. The first substantive meeting of the CSD was held in June 1993 and financial problems and the issue of promotion of technology transfers were identified as important issues in following up on the UNCED. The second substantive meeting is scheduled to be held in May 1994.
Second, at the Munich and Tokyo Summit meetings, the industrialized countries pledged to draft and make public by the end of 1993 an action program to implement the "Agenda 21" which is the comprehensive summation of UNCED agreements. Japan was the first of the G-7 that completed its action program by incorporating the views from a wide spectrum of sectors in Japan. What is noteworthy is that the United States completed its action program on climatic changes in 1993 under the Clinton Administration.
Third, the Convention on Biological Diversity which was signed at UNCED took effect in December 1993 as the required number of countries had ratified the Convention. The Framework Convention on Climatic Changes is also to take effect in March 1994.
In order to grapple with the global environment issues from the financial perspective, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) was established. This fund aims to support projects which are recognized as being useful in bringing about global benefits and solving global environmental problems rather than domestic environmental problems of developing countries. Specifically, the fund stipulates financial assistance for the four sectors of global warming, biological diversity, international waters, and ozone layers.
In addition, discussions concerning the relationship between trade and environment at the OECD and the GATT, as well as new regional moves in the EU, NAFTA and APEC merit attention.
(3) Japan's Contribution
Based on such a basic recognition and the trend of the international community, Japan is actively participating in multilateral consultations including the United Nations and environmental policy consultations with major countries including the United States and the countries in the EU in the following five sectors.
(a) Strengthening the International Legal Framework
Japan attaches importance to strengthening the international legal framework in preserving the global environment and is making efforts to draft new rules as well as to ensure the observation of the existing rules.
The first category of such efforts is the coordination of positions between developing and industrialized countries in drafting conventions. In the drafting process of the conventions, developing countries tend to blame environmental problems on the economic activities of industrialized countries and to argue that the industrialized countries should fulfill their responsibilities by providing funds and transferring technology. Japan continued to negotiate with perseverance, taking into consideration the position of both the developing and industrialized countries in the preparatory process of UNCED and contributed greatly to the drafting of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climatic Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Moreover, in the negotiations to elaborate the International Convention to combat Desertification which is to be completed in June 1994, Japan has been playing a central role in the negotiations.
Second is the assistance to cover the costs of developing countries in participating in negotiations for the conventions. With a dramatic increase in the number of environment-related conventions, the number of inter-governmental conferences for their negotiations have also surged. Japan, taking a view that participation of a large number of countries including developing countries is indispensable to make the conventions effective, has actively provided assistance for the participation of developing countries.
Third is the efforts to ensure the implementation of the conventions. After the UNCED, Japan immediately proceeded to the ratification process enabling it to become the fourth industrialized country to submit the instrument of acceptance of the U.N. Framework Convention for Climatic Change, and the second for the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, the conventions which have already taken effect are the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and Japan is the second largest donor following the United States to the Multilateral Fund which provides the required funds for the implementation of the Protocol.
(b) Strengthening and Enhancing Environment-related ODA
At the UNCED, Japan pledged to strengthen and enhance Japan's ODA for the environment by allocating between 900 billion yen and 1 trillion yen during the five years starting from FY 1992, and received high praise from participating countries. Japan's ODA for the environment in FY 1992 was about 280 billion yen, already achieving more than one quarter of the five-year target. There is a further necessity to draft a fine-tuned development assistance policy through future dialogues with developing countries. Particularly, it is essential to promote the self-help efforts of developing countries, and to assist improvement of the social infrastructure and human resources development which are necessary for the long-term sustainable development. Moreover, it is also important to cooperate in environmental problems of the Asian region which has close relations with Japan. The progress in the plan to establish an environmental center in Indonesia and China with the help of Japan's environmental ODA follows this policy.
(c) Environment-related Technology Development and its Transfer to Developing Countries
The role of technology in solving environmental problems is significant, and the development of environmental technology to reconcile environmental conservation and economic growth as well as its transfer to developing countries are major issues. Japan is taking an initiative in this field as well, and the main objective of the establishment of the "UNEP International Environmental Technology Center" in Osaka and Shiga is to transfer technology to developing countries. Activities, such as providing environmental technology and information to developing countries, dispatching of experts, accepting trainees in environmental areas from developing countries, are under way.
(d) Reforming the "Global Environmental Facility (GEF)"
Japan considers it appropriate to concentrate the funds required for the solution of environmental problems to the GEF, and to formulate an effective strategy on provision of financial support which takes into account the relative importance of each environmental problem on the planet. Taking such a view, Japan supports the GEF as an ace card for the financial problems in following-up on the UNCED. Toward this end, Japan has already paid into the GEF trust fund a total of $34 million and has announced its intention to provide approximately $180 million in the form of ODA loans through co-financing. Starting in mid-1994, the GEF II is scheduled to start to cover the next three years, and meetings are being frequently held among the participating countries to discuss the reform and capital increase of the GEF, with a view to reaching, in the end, consensus on how GEF II ought to function.
(e) Changing Lifestyles
Of the five priority issues of the follow-up on UNCED, the crucial issue which requires the most long-term efforts is that of establishing among the Japanese lifestyles and ways of thinking that place emphasis on the environmental considerations. The "Basic Environment Law" which entered into force in November 1993 is a comprehensive law that goes beyond the existing framework for coping with the conventional domestic pollution problems and fully tackles global-scale environmental problems. The "Basic Environment Law," indeed draws attention to the importance of international coordination and, at the same time encourages people to change their lifestyles. In order for Japan, through its foreign policy on environmental issues, to participate actively in the formation of new rules by the international community, it is important to further promote efforts in this field.
3-3. Drugs and Terrorism
(1) Drug Problem
(a) Current Situation
Major producing centers of drugs are spreading widely over the world. As for heroin, there are the"Golden Triangle" extending over the three countries of Thailand, Myanmar and Laos and the "Golden Crescent" covering the three countries of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran, both of which have the United States and Europe as their main smuggling destinations. Cocaine, on the other hand, is produced in large quantities in such Andean countries like Peru, Bolivia and Colombia, and other countries in Latin America and smuggled not only into Europe and the United States, but recently a sharply rising quantity has been smuggled into Japan.
In these producing areas, the drug production has not yet been sufficiently reduced despite a variety of measures and efforts of the countries concerned. Moreover, drug abuse is expanding in these producer or transit countries, and in recent years there has been a sharp increase in drug abuse in the CIS countries as well as the Central and Eastern European countries after the collapse of the socialist systems. This is making the problem even more serious and complicated.
(b) International Cooperation on Drug Problems
Each country has been coping with the international drug problem mainly through the United Nations. At the Extraordinary Session of the United Nations on Drugs of February 1990, the period between 1991 and 2000 was proclaimed the "United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse." In addition, the "Global Programme of Action (GPA)" was adopted with a view to encouraging international cooperation to eradicate drugs. This program is being promoted mainly by the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP). At the Special Session of the United Nations on Drugs in October 1993, the importance of implementing the GPA was confirmed to strengthen international cooperation in contributing to solving the drug problem. A resolution on how to proceed with future measures against drugs was adopted.
Outside the United Nations, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which examines preventive measures against money laundering resulting from illicit drug trafficking, the Chemical Action Task Force (CATF) which seeks measures to prevent chemicals from being diverted for illegal drug manufacturing, and the Dublin Group which regularly deliberates drug-related assistance policies of industrialized countries, are all making active efforts in the international cooperation against drugs.
The mini-Dublin Group meetings are being held at member-states` embassies in the drug producing countries. Japan took initiatives in the mini-Dublin Group meetings in the Southeast Asian region, and took active part in deliberations held in other regions such as in Latin America.
(c) Japan's Contribution to the Solution of Drug Problem
Amid a situation where drugs have become a serious global-scale social problem, Japan has been positively engaged in efforts for solution based on cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.
In March 1992, the Southeast Asia Regional Center of UNDCP was established in Bangkok based on the concept proposed by Japan. This center has actively pursued a sub-regional strategy (Note 19) such as establishing joint drug control projects in new border areas which now include Laos in addition to the traditional borders of Thailand, Myanmar and China. In response to such encouragements, producing countries such as Thailand have begun to seriously tackle the drug problem. This now offers a good example of regional engagement against drugs.
Japan is vigorously implementing assistance to the UNDCP including its active support for the center and contributed a total of $4.5 million in FY 1993.
As for assistance to multilateral organizations, Japan, in addition to financial assistance to the UNDCP, is making financial contributions to the Drug Advisory Programmes of the Colombo Plan, one of whose purposes is to train personnel to be engaged in counter-narcotic activities in Asia, as well as to the Organization of American States (OAS), which plays a pivotal role in counter-narcotic measures in the Latin American region, and to the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD).
On the bilateral level, Japan invites law enforcement officers in charge of drug control from various countries in Asia, Latin America, the Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the CIS, to promote support for human resources development through seminars on control of narcotic offenses. Japan also provides cooperation to Thailand, Laos etc. by providing equipment to detect drugs and assisting the increase of food production aiming at promotion of alternative development to replace drugs. Moreover, in February and March 1993, Japan dispatched its own experts as part of a program to transfer technology on how to use drug detecting equipment.
(a) Current Situation
There occurred throughout the world in 1993, various forms of terrorism including such bombings as that of the World Trade Center in New York in February, kidnapping, assassination and aircraft hijacking. In the Middle East, some radical opponents to the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-government between Israel and the PLO reached in September continued mainly in the occupied territories to resort to terrorist actions on the Israelis and Palestinians who were promoting the peace negotiations. Moreover, the so-called Islamic fundamentalism has been gaining power, and in Algeria, for example the radical Islamic fundamentalists started to kidnap and/or brutally murder foreigners. In Europe and Southwest Asia, separatist groups carried out terrorist actions such as the bombing in the City in London in April, and the kidnapping of foreign tourists in the southeastern part of Turkey from July to October. While terrorist actions by the left-wing radical groups continue to take place in Latin America and Southeast Asia, thanks to the strengthening of the governments' control and their efforts toward peace, these activities, albeit some marginal cases, are decreasing in their scale and number.
(b) International Cooperation
International cooperation is being conducted either on bilateral or multilateral basis for the effective prevention of terrorism, through improving the legal framework, examining and implementing effective measures against terrorism and exchanging information, in which Japan has been an active participant. It was stated in the political declaration of the Tokyo Summit in July that "terrorism, particularly when sponsored by states, poses a grave danger," and that the G-7 countries strongly oppose such terrorism. In November, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 883 (which Japan voted for) to strengthen the already imposed economic sanctions against Libya, which continued to refuse the international investigation to clarify the truth on the bombing of Pan American aircraft in 1988 and UTA French aircraft in 1989.
(c) Terrorism and Japan's Position
Japan resolutely opposes any form of terrorism, irrespective of its motives and is making full efforts to prevent terrorism. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of terrorist incidents overseas in which Japanese citizens have directly or indirectly become victims. In February, three Japanese were taken hostage in an aircraft hijacking, and then in April, offices of Japanese companies were damaged in the bombing in the City in London.
In the event that Japanese nationals are taken hostage by terrorists who make unlawful demands to the Government of Japan, the Government, of course, makes its utmost efforts for the release of the hostages in cooperation with the foreign government which has the primary responsibility. At the same time, in order to prevent analogous incidents in the future, there is a need to take a firm stand based on the principle of making no concessions to terrorists, a resolve which has been confirmed repeatedly at the G-7 Summit Meetings. In securing this basic policy of the Government, further public understanding and cooperation are indispensable.
A possibility cannot be ruled out for the Japanese Red Army to resort to some terrorist action in the future. The Government of Japan, therefore continues to obtain information in cooperation with countries concerned, on any moves of the Japanese Red Army such as its transfer of their headquarters from Bekaa Valley, Lebanon, to elsewhere.
3-4. Human Rights and Humanitarian Problems
(1) Human Rights
(a) The International Situation surrounding Human Rights Issues
After the end of the Cold War, respect for human rights in the world is increasingly attracting international attention. In every corner of the world, the attention devoted to promotion and protection of human rights is now stronger than ever, and the recognition of the universal value of human rights is spreading widely. An increasing number of countries now accept the idea that, while the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of States, regardless of their development stages, to protect and promote human rights. It must be noted that developing countries are making efforts to establish "the right to development" as an important human right, emphasizing a different point from the traditional approach of human rights, which places top priority on the promotion and protection of the civil and political rights.
(b) Japan's Foreign Policy on Human Rights
Japan has been making consistent and unflagging efforts since the end of World War II to build a society based on the respect of fundamental human rights and on freedom and democracy. Convinced that human rights are universal value common to all humankind and are the foundation of world peace and prosperity, and that human rights must be respected in any country, Japan has called on all countries to respect human rights. Specifically, Japan has taken advantages of opportunities to convey its concern to countries in which human rights are violated, and to call for improvement of human rights situations. In implementing Official Development Assistance (ODA), the Government of Japan is, in conformance with the ODA Charter, paying full attention to the recipient country's situation regarding the securing of fundamental human rights and freedoms, and has taken such measures as reviewing its aid policy to those in which the human rights situation is not improving.
(c) Human Rights Activities of the United Nations
The U.N. Charter states that one of the main objectives of the United Nations is "promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all" and the United Nations, with its Commission on Human Rights as the major vehicle, has been engaged in various human rights activities. At the initial stage, the United Nations concentrated its efforts on establishing international human rights standards, and has come to emphasize actual promotion and protection of human rights according to those standards thereafter. For instance, the United Nations has adopted resolutions which express concern of the entire international community, based on investigations and their reports on particular countries grossly violating human rights. In recent years, the importance of technical assistance in the field of human rights has been recognized. Therefore, the U.N. Human Rights Center, which is the secretariat for the human rights issues in the U.N. system, is playing leading roles in such activities as dispatching advisory experts and training civil servants through seminars, upon requests from member countries. Japan has continuously been a member of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights since 1982 and has been contributing to the strengthening of these human rights activities.
(d) World Conference on Human Rights
In June 1993, the World Conference on Human Rights was held in Vienna with participation of heads of states and foreign ministers. The objectives of this Conference were to reevaluate the past performance of the promotion and protection of human rights, to study the problems which the international community currently faces and to make specific recommendations to improve the present situation. In addition to the representatives from about 170 countries, more than 800 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) participated in this Conference as observers. Japan actively participated in the drafting of the Conference's final document, the "Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action," for the success of the World Conference on Human Rights. It was a great achievement that the document, which confirmed the universality of human rights, was adopted without voting, overcoming the conflict of opinions between countries of North America and Europe and some of the developing countries. The "Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action" proclaims that "it is the duty of states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms" and "the promotion and protection of all human rights is a legitimate concern of the international community." The document further states that "the lack of development may not be invoked to justify the abridgement of internationally recognized human rights."
(e) The Establishment of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
At the World Conference on Human Rights, the creation of the post of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, which the United States strongly promoted as extremely important in ensuring the promotion and protection of human rights in the world, was one of the major priorities since the 1960's. There had been movements seeking the creation of this post as a means to strengthen the human rights activities of the United Nations. Against this background, the Vienna Conference decided in June to recommend to the General Assembly in the autumn of 1993 that it begin, as a matter of priority, consideration of the question of the establishment of the post. In response, the U.N. General Assembly in 1993, after long deliberations, agreed on the creation of the post of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The establishment of the post was based on the recognition of the need to pay even more attention to U.N. activities in the human rights area, and Japan had been consistently supporting the creation of this post since the Vienna Conference. Japan needs to continue its active support to enable the High Commissioner for Human Rights to play important roles in promoting respect for human rights throughout the world.
(2) Humanitarian Problems
(a) Problems of Refugees and Displaced Persons Around the World
The number of refugees in the world, which was said to be around 19 million as of September 1993, is further increasing. As a result of regional conflicts and other causes, large numbers of refugees have existed in such parts of the world as Africa, Cambodia, Afghanistan, Palestine, Central America and Indochina. Since the latter half of 1991, new problems concerning refugees and displaced persons have emerged in such countries as Myanmar and the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, in recent years, there are emerging problems in the former Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union of internally displaced persons that cannot be classified as refugees according to the definition under the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. This phenomenon, together with the question of how to protect and assist them, is attracting international attention.
In order to cope with the problems of refugees and displaced persons, it is imperative for both the United Nations and the countries concerned to make efforts to prevent conflicts and disasters which would produce refugees, as well as to strengthen diplomatic efforts to settle conflicts peacefully. At the same time, it is also essential to provide relief assistance to the massive refugees and displaced persons as well as to provide support for their repatriation and reintegration once the conflict and the danger of oppression in their home countries have subsided.
(b) International Efforts through the United Nations
The United Nations has been playing a central role in dealing with the problem of refugees and displaced persons. However, due to the new humanitarian problems emerging one after another recently, a resolution was adopted by consensus at the U.N. General Assembly in December 1991 on the strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian emergency assistance of the United Nations. Based on this resolution, the United Nations is further actively tackling the issue of humanitarian assistance, with appointment of an emergency relief coordinator and the establishment of the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA). DHA is now deploying energetic activities including comprehensive coordination of activities of humanitarian aid organizations both within and outside the United Nations system, and the issuing of the U.N. Consolidated Appeals in order to request donor countries to provide necessary assistance to refugees and displaced persons in individual cases. However, there are mounting voices in the international community for further strengthening of the coordinating functions of the United Nations on humanitarian assistance.
(c) Japan's Role
Because solving problems of refugees and displaced persons is a crucial key to secure medium- and long- term political stability of the region concerned, as well as international peace, it is a humanitarian responsibility of the entire international community to concert efforts to solve the problems. It is, therefore, imperative for Japan, as one of the leading members of the international community, to take an active role in such efforts.
From this viewpoint, Japan has been actively involved in international efforts to solve the problems of refugees and displaced persons around the world. Specifically, in addition to actively participating in international conferences on the refugees problems, Japan has been making financial contributions through such international organizations as the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as well as providing bilateral aid, such as food aid, to the countries concerned. Furthermore, Japan became a member of the International Organization of Migration (IOM) in November 1993, and announced its intention to further contribute to the repatriation and reintegration of refugees and displaced persons as a part of the international efforts to solve the problems of refugees and displaced persons around the world.
As for Indochinese refugees, from a humanitarian viewpoint and with a view to contributing to the peace and stability of the Southeast Asian region, Japan has granted first asylum to the boat people who arrived in Japan (as of the end of 1993, 14,290 refugees including 543 born in Japan were granted the asylum), and established a framework of the cumulative multi-year resettlement of Indochinese refugees, with the ceiling of 10,000, to accept them as permanent residents (as of the end of 1993 a total of 9,246 refugees has been accepted in this framework).
The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, Mrs. Sadako Ogata, has been actively engaged in the relief activities on the problems of refugees around the world, including the problem of Kurdish refugees, repatriation of Cambodian refugees and the displaced persons problem of the former Yugoslavia. Her activities were so highly appreciated that she was reelected to the post in November 1993 for another five-year term beginning in January 1994.
Under these circumstances, it is imperative for Japan to make more active contributions toward the solution of the refugees and displaced persons problems throughout the world.
(d) Contribution in Personnel in the Humanitarian Field
There is an increasing tendency in the international community to attach vital importance to the contribution in personnel in assisting refugees and displaced persons, and the United States and European countries have been dispatching NGOs and military forces for humanitarian assistance. While Japan's contribution in personnel in the field of humanitarian assistance had been relatively limited, the enactment of the International Peace Cooperation Law in June 1992 has improved the domestic legal framework for Japan to participate in the humanitarian international relief operations by dispatching personnel. It is of great importance for Japan, within the framework of this legislation, to steadily provide contributions in personnel in the humanitarian field, while making contributions to the U.N. peace-keeping activities. At the same time, Japanese NGOs are expected to accumulate enough experiences to be engaged in the humanitarian activities not only in the Asian region, but also in other regions.
3-5. The Population Issue
The world population, which reached approximately 5.6 billion at the end of November 1993, is estimated to reach 6.4 billion by the end of this century, 8.5 billion by 2025 and 10 billion by 2050. The population issue is deeply related to the economic policies and the religious and human rights situation in each country. In principle, self-help efforts of the developing countries are indispensable for its solution. As this issue is related closely to the improvements in the status of women, the standards of health care for mothers and children and poverty, it is imperative that family planning should be formulated and implemented, taking well into account the socio-economic development plan of each country.
The population growth is taking place mostly in developing countries, serving to cause such problems as food shortages, unemployment and expansion of slums due to urban migration and, as a result, is hampering socio-economic development of those countries. Moreover, it could help exacerbate the global environment issues such as desertification and global warming.
With this recognition, the efforts of the international community as a whole are being made to address the problem. At the "International Forum on the Population in the 21st Century" held in 1989 under the auspices of the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Government of the Netherlands, a target was set to increase the family planning-related funds from $4.5 billion to $9 billion by 2000.
In terms of relations between population and development cooperation, the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) held in April 1990 "the DAC Meeting on Population and Development," based on the agreement that deceleration of the high population growth is indispensable for realizing sustainable growth. It was agreed in this meeting that in order to slow down population growth, strong international and domestic initiatives, as well as strengthening of aid coordination between donor countries and the international aid agencies, were indispensable. Moreover, in terms of relations with environment problems, the population issue was taken up at the U.N. Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) of June 1992, and the close correlation among population growth, sustainable growth and the global environment issue was pointed out. Policy-makers were urged to deepen their awareness of this correlation and to give full consideration to the population issue when drawing up their policies on development and the environment.
As there is a deepening recognition that the solution of the population issue is one of the most crucial global-scale issues, the economic declaration of the Tokyo Summit held in July stated the need to cooperate for the success of the International Conference on Population and Development held by the United Nations once a decade and the next is scheduled to be held in Cairo in September 1994.
Japan, which overcame its postwar population growth through economic development, has been actively involved in the international cooperation mainly through the United Nations. In FY 1993, it contributed a total of $63.3 million to the UNFPA, of which $16.9 million was allocated to the International Parenthood Planning Federation (IPPF) (both the world's largest donations). In addition, Japan implemented bilateral technical assistance regarding family planning to countries including Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, Mexico and Peru. Moreover, Japan is also extending financial assistance to "The Independent Commission on Population and Quality of Life" which was established in April 1993 following the proposal by the former World Bank President Robert S. McNamara (the chairperson of the Commission is Ms. Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo, former Prime Minister of Portugal. From Japan, Mr. Taro Nakayama, former Foreign Minister, is participating in personal capacity). In addition, Japan held in Tokyo in January 1994 in cooperation with the UNFPA and the United Nations University, the "Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development," with a view to producing substantive inputs to the International Conference on Population and Development.
3-6. International Cultural Exchange and Cooperation
(1) Basic Recognition
In deepening overseas understanding of Japan and promoting further internationalization of Japan, the international cultural exchange plays an increasingly important role. In particular, a further expansion of Japan's contribution in the field of cultural exchange and cooperation is indispensable for correcting the rather distorted image of Japan which is mainly focused on its economic aspects. Therefore, the Government of Japan places importance on such aspects of cultural exchanges.
In order to promote international cultural exchanges and cultural cooperation, the second "Advisory Group on International Cultural Exchange" (headed by Chairman Akito Arima) was set up in October 1993, which is to submit a set of new recommendations to the Prime Minister by the end of March 1994.
(2) Promoting International Mutual Understanding
(a) Cooperation in Overseas Japanese Language Education and Japanese Studies
With increasing overseas interest in Japan in recent years, the number of foreigners learning Japanese has risen to well over 1 million. Assistance to Japanese language education and Japanese studies abroad is one of the most effective means to deepen the foreign interest in and understanding of Japan as well as to promote exchanges with foreign countries; therefore the Government of Japan is actively cooperating in these fields.
(b) Introduction of Japanese Culture Overseas
The Government of Japan organizes a variety of cultural events such as exhibitions, stage performances, and music through the Japan Foundation and private sector cooperation. It is also actively supporting events designed to introduce Japanese culture throughout the world.
In 1993, Japanese culture was actively introduced in Germany (through the Berlin Art Week, Dusseldorf Japan Week) and in Switzerland (Zurich International June Festival), increasing the interest in Japan.
(c) Introduction of Foreign Cultures
In the belief that cultural exchanges should be two-way, the Government of Japan is making efforts to introduce cultures of other countries. Along with the events introducing Asian cultures by the Japan Foundation ASEAN Culture Center and the African Week in October 1993, the Government of Japan, in cooperation with Japanese embassies abroad, supported, in a variety of ways, various events of municipalities and private organizations aimed at introducing foreign cultures.
(d) Exchange of Persons
Exchange of persons, which is one of the most effective methods for promoting mutual understanding, is the basis of international exchange. The Government of Japan promotes exchanges at all levels in every field, from youth to eminent intellectuals and diplomats.
(i) Youth and Student Exchanges
Exchange of youth who are the future of a country is important. Approximately 600 youths per year from all over the world are invited to Japan through the "Japan Study Tour Program for Youth." Some 3,800 foreign youths from 10 countries, mainly from English speaking areas were invited through the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) program, to participate in language teaching and international exchange activities in public junior and senior high schools and local municipalities. This helps to promote mutual understanding at the grassroots level.
Student exchanges contribute to promoting human resource development, as well as increase the number of sympathizers of Japan who would bridge the two countries after returning home. The Government of Japan thus makes efforts in this field, by disseminating necessary information and carrying out after-care programs such as assistance for alumni activities through the Japanese embassies abroad.
(ii) Intellectual and Grassroots Exchanges
In response to structural changes in the international community, efforts to promote intellectual dialogues on the ideal form of the future international cooperation is being undertaken not only among governments but also among intellectuals in various fields including the economic circle and academia. Japan needs to strengthen its presence in such fora.
At the same time, as foreign and domestic policies have become inseparable, the importance of international exchanges rooted in local communities has been increasing. The Government of Japan is trying to further both intellectual and grassroots exchanges through projects under the Japan Foundation; with the United States, through the Center for Global Partnership (CGP) established in 1991, and with Europe, through the new budget appropriations started in 1993.
(iii) Sports Exchanges
As sports exchanges contribute to international goodwill and friendship transcending the differences in the political systems, religion or culture, the Government of Japan is cooperating in holding various sport events such as the Olympic Games, as well as in dispatching and inviting experts in this field.
(3) Promotion of International Cultural Cooperation
(a) Cultural and Intellectual Assistance to Developing Countries and Former Socialist Countries
(i) Human Resources and Intellectual Assistance
As developing countries and the former socialist countries are eager to gain assistance for human resource development, Japan is expected to make expanded cooperation in this field based on Japan's experiences and knowledge.
Therefore, Japan is actively embarking on nurturing human resources in these countries through programs which invites students, youth, young researchers and diplomats to study in Japan, as well as through the cultural cooperation projects of the Japan Foundation which dispatch and invite experts in the cultural field. In particular, Japan has started in 1993 its active assistance to the efforts of countries like Mongolia to improve their legal systems.
(ii) Cultural Grant Aid
Since 1975, the Government of Japan has also been extending cultural grant aid to assist developing countries in promoting their cultural activities and education. A total of 24.9725 billion yen to 634 projects in 96 developing countries has been extended so far. In FY 1992, the Government provided financial cooperation to 56 projects including "sports equipment for the physically disabled in Thailand."
(b) Cooperation to Promote the Preservation of Tangible and Non-Tangible Cultural Heritage
In various parts of the world, many cultural monuments, cultural properties, and traditional culture unique to each nation are in imminent danger of being lost without adequate preservation or restoration work, as a result of rapid economic development and social changes. Based on its own experiences, Japan is making the following cooperation as part of its international contribution in this field:
(i) Cooperation for the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Monuments
The Government of Japan, in addition to bilateral cooperation, has been cooperating in the international campaign to safeguard the world's cultural monuments led by the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), in which Japan established the "Japanese Trust Fund for the Preservation of the World Cultural Heritage" in FY 1989 and contributed $14.5 million by the end of FY 1993.
(ii) Dispatch and Invitation of Experts on Preservation of Cultural Heritage
For the preservation of cultural heritage, training of local experts is crucial, and the Government of Japan is dispatching and inviting experts on the preservation of cultural heritage as programs of the Japan Foundation since FY 1990. In addition, cooperation to restore Japanese traditional artwork abroad by using Japanese restoration techniques is also being extended.
(iii) The International Conference on the Safeguarding and Devel- opment of the Historic Site of Angkor
At the proposal of Japan, and being co-chaired by Japan and France, an intergovernmental conference was held in Tokyo in October 1993, to promote international cooperation on preserving the Angkor Wat ruins, which is not only a world cultural heritage but also a symbol of the unification of Cambodia. A total of 30 countries including Cambodia, and seven international organizations including UNESCO, which served as the secretariat of the conference, participated in this conference. It adopted the "Tokyo Declaration" calling for the creation of a committee to coordinate cooperation by various countries and international organizations.
(iv) Promoting the Preservation of Non-Tangible Cultural Proper- ties
Cooperation in the preservation and promotion of non-tangible cultural heritages such as traditional music, dancing and craftsmanship has not been sufficient so far compared with the cooperation for tangible cultural properties. In view of this situation, the Government of Japan embarked on more extensive support which includes sending survey teams, dispatching and inviting experts and establishing a trust fund in UNESCO on the preservation of non-tangible cultural assets in FY 1993 ($250,000 for the first year). Moreover, it hosted an international conference in Tokyo in November on the preservation and promotion of traditional cultures in East Asia, which adopted a declaration calling on the international community to recognize the need to promote non-tangible cultural assets.
(4) Strengthening of Institutions for Promoting Cultural Exchange
Japan has concluded agreements with 25 countries and arrangements with seven countries on the promotion of cultural exchanges. In 1993, Japan held consultations on future cultural exchange with 11 countries, including France and China.
The Government of Japan has been promoting a wide-ranging international cultural exchange and cooperation as mentioned above through the Japan Foundation, the core organization for international cultural exchanges. Because the scale of the Japan Foundation compared with that of other similar organizations abroad is still much smaller [as seen from the total budget and total number of employees in FY 1993: the British Council (United Kingdom) 94.3 billion yen, 6,493 staff; Goethe Institute (Germany) 27 billion yen, 3,431 staff; and the Japan Foundation (Japan) 21.4 billion yen with 252 staff], further efforts should be made to improve projects and expand its budget as well as the number of employees.
Moreover, in order to respond to mounting interest in international cultural cooperation, the Government of Japan is seeking to further promote international cultural exchanges in the private sector by introducing a tax incentive (the so-called tax deductions for international exchange activities) for donations to those non-profit organizations with the main purpose of fostering international exchanges which fulfill certain criteria.
3-7. Cooperation on Science and Technology
(1) The Role to be Played by Science and Technology
As the international community gropes for a peaceful and prosperous world, science and technology has become increasingly important, serving as a basis of economic development through the creation of new markets, and playing a major role in solving global-scale problems such as the environment and AIDS. In particular, as an increasing number of scientific projects require massive amounts of funds and long-term and large-scale management, international cooperation in this field holds a major significance. Under these circumstances, it is necessary for Japan to play an active role in applying its sophisticated science and technology not only to product developments, but also to the development of new energy sources like nuclear fusion, and in basic science fields such as activities in the microscopic world and in outer space. In addition, it should play an active role in bilateral cooperation activities such as joint research, exchange of researchers and information exchanges and multilateral cooperation activities.
(2) Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation in Science and Technology
(a) Bilateral Cooperation
Japan signed science and technology cooperation agreements with about 20 countries, and is holding regular consultations with these and some other countries to discuss various issues to promote science and technology cooperation as well as to select joint research projects.
In 1993, an agreement was reached at the Japan-EU Ministerial Meeting in January to establish the "Japan-EC Forum on Science and Technology" that includes ministerial level meetings, and in May a high-level committee with the United States was held.
As a new bilateral agreement on science and technology, a space cooperation agreement was signed with Russia during President Boris Yeltsin's visit to Japan in October.
(b) Multilateral Cooperation
A number of multilateral cooperations are under way in the science and technology field, such as that on the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) which is based on Japan's proposal and designed to promote multilateral joint research aiming at elucidating the sophisticated mechanisms of living organisms, and cooperation on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) designed to research and develop the nuclear fusion which is said to be the ultimate source of clean and unlimited energy.
In particular, a major stride was taken in 1993 concerning the issue of Russian participation in the Space Station cooperation program. In line with the Space Station cooperation agreement signed with the United States, Canada and the member countries of the European Space Agency (ESA) in September 1988, Japan is participating in a program to put a manned Space Station into orbit round the earth to carry out global and astronomical observations and various experiments requiring the space environment. In September 1993, a joint statement on cooperation in space between the United States and Russia was issued, which implies future participation or involvement of Russia in the Space Station cooperation program. Thereafter, consultations have been made among the countries concerned, and in December, Russia was officially invited to participate in this program.
With the scale of science and technology projects getting huge, the need for international cooperation in this field is increasingly stressed. Against this background, the cancellation in October of the Super-conducting Super Collider (SSC) Project(Note 20), representing these gigantic projects which has been promoted by the United States, provoked a debate on how to proceed with international cooperation on mega-science projects in the basic science field which requires massive amount of funds. Thus, it is time to seriously discuss Japan's role in such mega-science projects.
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