Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2009
4. Measures to Ensure the Efficient and Effective Implementation of Assistance
(1) Position on Strengthening Systems for ODA Policy Formulation and Implementation
For efficient and effective implementation of assistance, it is important to strengthen systems for policy formulation and implementation of ODA so that a coherent approach can be applied from the policy planning stage through to the implementation stage. In the case of the main recipients of Japanese ODA, Japan formulates Country Assistance Programs and assistance policies for priority issues and/or specific sectors in a manner compatible with the development plans of recipient countries and international development goals. In the years ahead, Japan will strengthen policy-making capacity and systems for reflecting policy in the formulation, selection and implementation of concrete projects, while enhancing collaboration with other actors, such as international organizations and other bilateral donors. For this purpose, it is crucial to strengthen the functions of agencies in the field, such as Japanese embassies abroad and the overseas offices of aid agencies, which are in a position to most directly analyze the development needs and aid situation bearing in mind the bilateral relations between the recipient country and Japan, and the political, economic and social situation in the recipient country. The Medium-Term Policy identifies concrete actions and systems for strengthening functions at the field level.
(2) Concrete Actions to Strengthen Functions at the Field Level
Japan has made efforts to strengthen functions at the field level mainly through the use of country-based ODA Task Forces (hereafter ODA-TFs). ODA-TFs consist primarily of Japanese embassies and the local offices of aid agencies such as JICA and JBIC. In order to further enhance functions at the field level, the following concrete actions will be promoted in the ODA-TFs and in Tokyo. In order for ODA-TFs to play a leading role in the process of policy-making and implementation of ODA, they will actively participate and will make proposals in relation to the following concrete actions. For its part, Tokyo will respect the proposals made by ODA-TFs.
Concerning recipient countries in which ODA-TF does not exist, similar efforts will be made by Japanese embassies abroad as much as possible by using communication tools such as IT in cooperation with Japanese aid agencies located in other countries that look after the recipient country concerned. Tokyo respects proposals made by the Japanese embassies.
i. Research and analysis of development needs
ODA-TFs will scale up their functions in research and analysis of development needs and the recipient countries' own development efforts bearing in mind the political, economic and social situation in these countries. Japan will fully analyze local socio-economic conditions and other aspects through local interested parties. In such efforts, external human resources will be relied upon where necessary, and information will be exchanged with the local aid community, including other major bilateral donors and international agencies, NGOs and academia.
Tokyo will support such actions in the field by making more flexible use of policy-support studies and dispatching policy advisers.
ii. Formulation and consideration of assistance policy
(a) Participation in the formulation of Country Assistance Programs
Country Assistance Programs specify the direction, priority sectors and priority issues of Japan's ODA for a period of about the next five years based on an accurate understanding of the development needs of the recipient countries as described in (2) (i) above, bearing in mind the perspective of Japan's foreign policy. ODA-TFs will actively participate in the formulation and revision of Country Assistance Programs making maximum use of their knowledge and experience obtained at the field level, and will seek to align assistance programs with the development plans and development goals of recipient countries, as well as with the international development goals. Consideration will also be given to how best to collaborate with the local aid community, including other major donor countries and international agencies, NGOs and academia.
(b) Participation in the formulation of assistance policies for priority issues and specific sectors
ODA-TFs will actively make proposals in the formulation of assistance policies for more concrete priority issues and specific sectors in line with the priorities specified in the Country Assistance Programs described in (2) ii. (a) and those clarified through policy consultations mentioned in (2) ii. (c) below so as to formulate and implement projects that reflect the true development needs of recipient countries. Tokyo will respect the proposals of ODA-TFs.
(c) Undertaking of policy consultation
ODA-TFs along with participants from Tokyo as necessary will undertake policy consultations with recipient countries in order to share perspectives regarding medium term priorities and policy/institutional issues, as well as to iron out differences, so that the position on the medium-term measures specified in Country Assistance Programs and assistance policies for priority issues and specific sectors are reflected in the actual formulation, request and implementation of projects.
In the case of countries for which no Country Assistance Programs have been formulated, ODA-TFs will play a leading role in identifying the direction, priority issues and sectors of Japanese assistance through policy dialogues in accordance with the ODA Charter and Medium-Term Policy.
iii. Formulation and selection of candidate projects for ODA
(a) Leading role of ODA-TFs
ODA-TFs will play a leading role in examining in detail the formulation and selection of ODA projects. In concrete terms, ODA-TFs will make proposals to Tokyo regarding the order of priority of candidate projects when forwarding the requests of recipient countries. Tokyo will respect the proposals of ODA-TFs in the selection of projects.
(b) Proposals regarding combination of different ODA schemes and their revision
In order to maximize the effect of Japanese ODA as a whole, it is important to combine ODA schemes effectively. ODA-TFs will therefore make efforts to form concrete model projects for combining different ODA schemes in recipient countries where all three schemes —grant aid, yen loans and technical cooperation—are implemented to a considerable extent, while clarifying the appropriate division of roles between the three. In addition, ODA-TFs will make concrete proposals on the need and possibility of revising ODA schemes in the recipient country concerned bearing in mind international trends, such as aid coordination among international agencies and other donors. Tokyo will consider the combination and revision of ODA schemes taking into account the proposals proposed by ODA-TFs.
iv. Strengthening of collaboration with the local donor community
Common development goals and development strategies, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), are increasingly being adopted by the international donor community. Taking into account this trend, ODA-TFs will participate actively in donor coordination in a manner consistent with Japanese ODA policy, in close collaboration with the local donor community, such as international agencies and other bilateral donors, with a view to increasing the effectiveness of Japanese aid. Such efforts can enhance Japan's presence at the field level. In the case that aid coordination is being promoted in Japan's priority sectors, Japan will participate actively, including playing a leading role, in the process of formulation and implementation of development policy of a recipient country while encouraging self-help efforts by that country.
v. Strengthening of collaboration with Japanese relevant parties in recipient countries
In view of the importance of making use of Japan's high-quality technologies, knowledge, human resources and institutions, ODA-TFs will engage in active dialogue with Japanese relevant parties that are active in recipient countries, such as NGOs, academia and economic organizations including private enterprises based in the recipient country.
vi. Review of Japan's ODA
Taking into account the results of ODA evaluations at the policy and program level of recipient countries, ODA-TFs will review whether the intended goals and purposes of Japanese aid to recipient countries have been achieved, whether the direction of assistance was appropriate, whether the prioritization of sectors and issues was effective, and whether the points to be borne in mind in the implementation of aid were properly dealt with.
Based on these reviews, ODA-TFs will seek appropriate improvements through participation in the formulation and revision of Country Assistance Programs and policies on priority issues and sectors.
vii. Information disclosure and public information
In order to ensure the transparency of ODA, ODA-TFs will work with support from Tokyo to actively publicize, via websites and other means, information on the activities of ODA-TFs, Country Assistance Programs, policy consultations with recipient countries, and other issues.
(3) Promoting Systems to Strengthen Functions at the Field Level
In order to strengthen the functions of ODA-TFs described in (2) above, it is important to strengthen institutional capacity both in Tokyo and at the field level. For this purpose, Japan will take concrete measures such as the following to the extent possible.
i. Appropriate allocation of personnel and development of human resources (including active use of external human resources)
Personnel will be appropriately allocated to both ODA-TFs and Tokyo making active use of qualified human resources both within and outside the government, such as personnel with experience in delivering development aid and with high level of practical work ability, and personnel with thorough knowledge of local political, economic and social conditions. Since there may arise cases requiring urgent assistance, timing and flexible allocation of personnel will also be made.
In order to strengthen the functions of ODA-TFs, it is essential to have personnel with broad experience and knowledge of international trends regarding, for example, aid coordination, overall Japanese aid policy and implementation. Japan will therefore seek to develop the range of people engaged in Japanese aid through the development of human resources involved in assistance at field missions and in Tokyo by reinforcing training including through the use of information technology.
ii. Promoting the sharing of information and knowledge including through the use of information technology
Tokyo will actively present and share with ODA-TFs relevant information and knowledge considered to be of use to ODA-TFs, particularly in the formulation of assistance policies for specific issues and sectors as described in (2) ii. (b).
Examples of projects that have achieved results by incorporating the "human security" perspective (projects ongoing as of 2004)
Water Supply Development with Community Participation in Senegal
Due to lack of proper water supply facilities such as wells in rural areas of Senegal, many women and children must routinely travel long distances to draw water. In addition, due to the unavailability of safe water, many areas suffer from extremely poor sanitation.
In order to protect local people from the threat of "want" of water, Japan provided grant aid to develop water supply facilities. In addition to the development of water supply facilities, assistance was also provided in the form of technical cooperation to empower local residents so that they can realize and sustain a better livelihood through their own efforts. In concrete terms, Japan provided support to form a resident organization and training in methods of maintenance, inspection and collection of rates so as to enable the operation and maintenance of water supply facilities at the village level. Assistance was also provided to educate the health and sanitation by relating it to water sanitation so as to improve the lives of women and other residents. Following such assistance, the residents took their own initiative to raise household incomes by means such as poultry farming projects with surplus funds from the management of water supply facilities. These activities have supported people's empowerment and rural development. At the same time, they combine a variety of forms of assistance, including support to vulnerable groups such as women and children, cross-sectoral assistance spanning fields such as health, sanitation and education, and collaboration with other agencies through the use of a resident organization model that other countries' aid agencies are working to propagate.
As a result of this Japanese assistance, a large number of women and children in rural areas have been freed from the work of drawing water, and local residents have been able to realize a more sanitary living condition.
Protection from HIV/AIDS in Cambodia
Cambodia has a high HIV/AIDS rate. The movement and concentration of people resulting from increased economic activity create a risk of further spread of HIV/AIDS. As a result, residents and workers may be exposed to the threat of HIV/AIDS.
In the Sihanoukville Port Reconstruction Project in Cambodia, a project funded with Japanese loan assistance, Japan made efforts to incorporate the "human security" perspective, including programs to protect people from the threat of HIV/AIDS and better equip them to protect themselves.
In concrete terms, in order to protect the people including local residents from the threat of HIV/AIDS, workers were required to undergo health checks, measures were taken to change people's behavior by combining distribution of condoms and educational activities, workers' leaders were trained to help promote knowledge of health and sanitation in workers' meetings, and a wide range of public information activities were undertaken to raise awareness on HIV/AIDS. To ensure that these activities reached those concerned, activities were undertaken in collaboration with local NGOs.
The outcome of theses activities was to increase awareness about routes of transmission and means of preventing HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, and to strengthen the ability of workers and local residents to better protect themselves from the risk of HIV/AIDS infection.