Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2009
3. Matters Essential to Effective Implementation
(1) Enhancement of Evaluation
In order to implement ODA more effectively and efficiently, it is important to get accurate knowledge and improve the aid implementation process and its effects. To this end, relevant ministries and agencies including MOFA as well as implementing agencies such as JICA conduct monitoring and evaluation.
ODA evaluation is positioned in the framework of the PDCA Cycle (Plan Do Check Act). The evaluation results provide feedback to the departments in charge and the governments of aid-receiving countries, so as to contribute to improving the formulation and implementation of ODA policy. In addition, it is necessary to explain to citizens how ODA is used and what effects were achieved. Thus, the government posts ODA evaluations on the internet in order to fulfill its accountability to the public.
Evaluations conducted by MOFA focus particularly on policy-level evaluations (country policy evaluations and priority issue evaluations) and program-level evaluations (aid modalities). For these evaluations, so-called third-party evaluations are commissioned to the Advisory Meeting on ODA Evaluation (Note 57) from the perspective of ensuring objectivity.
In regards to ODA loans, an ex-ante evaluation is conducted in addition to an ex-post evaluation, which takes place two years after the completion of a project by an external evaluator. These evaluations are conducted from the perspectives of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability. Moreover, a "mid-term review" is implemented five years after the conclusion of the ODA loan contract to verify the appropriateness, effectiveness, and other aspects of the project plan. Ex-post monitoring is also implemented seven years after the completion of the project to verify such aspects as effectiveness, impact, and sustainability.
In technical cooperation, JICA conducts evaluations at each project stage: prior to commencement, during implementation, at the time of conclusion, and following completion. In addition, the recommendations and lessons learned through these evaluations are systematically fed back to inform future project planning and implementation. Furthermore, ex-post evaluations are conducted by external evaluators.
In regards to grant aid projects, in addition to the ex-ante evaluation conducted under the Government Policy Evaluation Act during the planning stage of the project, external evaluators are used to conduct ex-post evaluations on the project level four years after the completion of the project to verify the use of facilities and equipment as well as the effects produced by aid for general grant aid and grant aid for fisheries. The lessons obtained from those ex-post evaluations are reflected in the development and implementation of new projects in order to implement grant aid in a more effective and efficient fashion.