Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2009
Section 2 Specific Cooperation for Climate Change Measures
Climate change brings about various impacts on the living environment, such as droughts, floods and other extreme weather, as well as rising sea levels due to global warming. In order to effectively respond to these circumstances, it is necessary to develop and enhance socioeconomic environments, such as infrastructure, technology, information, funding, and management capacity (adaptation measures). In developing countries in particular, however, climate change measures tend to fall behind as they lack sufficient funding, technology and knowledge. There is also a risk that progress made in the area of human development (Note 8) may stagnate, or even step back, due to the impacts of climate change. In 2009, Japan implemented a project, as the cooperation on the environment, constructing disaster-resistant buildings and anti-flood measures to raise the awareness of local residents regarding disaster prevention in 24 villages (communities) along the Nyando River in Kenya based on an adaptation program. Furthermore, Japan has also extended grant aid for the provision of safe and sanitary drinking water and the procurement of resources and materials necessary to conduct disaster countermeasures to four countries in Africa which suffer from floods, droughts and other extreme weather due to climate change.
Greenhouse gas, which causes climate change, is not only emitted by developed countries. At the moment, about a half of global greenhouse gas emissions come from developing countries, which are not bound by the Kyoto Protocol to any emission reduction obligation. Under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities," developing countries must also make an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process of working toward sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. On the other hand, developed countries are required to actively support efforts of developing countries (mitigation measures) which lack sufficient skills and funding for measures for emission reduction. In 2008, Japan cooperated in the construction of a high-efficiency combined cycle thermoelectric power plant featuring reduced CO2 emissions in Bangladesh, and provided technical assistance. It is anticipated that these efforts will reduce drastically CO2 emissions compared to a current electric power facility, through an increase in the amount of power generated and improved efficiencies regarding operations and maintenance.
Furthermore, Japan also actively supports policy formulation in developing countries. Japan has established the "Policy Action" to be carried out over the three years (2007-2009) based on the National Action Plan Addressing Climate Change, drawn up by the Government of Indonesia. Through the Climate Change Program Loan (CCPL) which was provided after assessing the achievements of the "Action," Japan extended approximately 30.8 billion yen in 2008 as a contribution for the first phase, and another approximately 37.4 billion yen (including approximately 9.4 billion yen in ODA loans for Economic Stimulus Support) in 2009 for the second phase, while monitoring activities at the same time.
In addition, Japan is also implementing assistance utilizing its excellent environmental technologies, including the provision of clean energy generated by solar power, which greatly contributes to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions compared to the emissions generated by the thermoelectric power.
Japan will provide more assistance for developing countries under the "Hatoyama Initiative," in the hope that it will help developing countries to overcome their vulnerability to climate change and promote the active involvement of all major economies in the establishment of a fair and effective new international framework.
Notes: (8) Areas including eradication of extreme poverty, health, food and education