Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2005
Main Text > Part II ODA DISBURSEMENTS IN FISCAL YEAR 2004 > Chapter 2 Details and New Policies about Japan's ODA: Striving for Further ODA Reforms > Section 2. Measures for Each of the Priority Issues > 4. Peace-building > (4)Africa (Sub-Sahara)
(4)Africa 44 (Sub-Sahara)
In Sub-Saharan Africa, against the background of the establishment of artificial national borders, fragile national infrastructures, and other vulnerable systems, various complicated factors such as poverty, clashes of ethnicities and religions, economic interests, and issues of independence have become intertwined. With the end of the Cold War, conflicts arose amongst tribes, between governments and anti-government forces, and between countries due to struggles for power and resources. At the same time, as was the case in the Democratic Republic of Congo, there were frequent cases of government/anti-government conflicts evolving into international disputes with the intervention of neighboring countries. Such conflicts have not only produced a great number of victims, refugees, and internally-displaced persons, they have also created a vicious cycle of economic stagnation, a breakdown of infrastructure, various forms of environmental damage, and further poverty, among other things. Moreover, countries may no longer be able to function properly or carry out policies, leading to problems such as the spreading of infectious diseases including AIDS and malaria, repression of human rights, the inflow and outflow of weapons and drugs, and increased organized crime.
Chart 23. Japan's Aid Package for the Consolidation of Peace in Africa (March 2005)
For the stability and development of Africa, and based on the perspective of promoting peace in the disputed areas and providing seamless assistance for post-conflict reconstruction, Japan announced that it would set the "consolidation of peace" as one of the three pillars emphasized within the TICAD Process, which is one of the most important frameworks of Japan's assistance to Africa, and has been actively implementing humanitarian and reconstruction assistance.
In recent years, a tendency has been observed in which Africa is taking its own initiative to actively work on preventing and resolving conflicts. Such efforts are carried out by the African countries, the AU, and Regional Economic Communities such as the Economic Community of West African States ( ECOWAS ), and the Southern African Development Community ( SADC ). As a result, the civil war in Sierra Leone that had lasted for ten years ended in 2002, as did the one in Angora, which reached a ceasefire agreement in 2002 ending internal conflicts that had taken place repeatedly for more than 27 years since Angora gained independence in 1975. Furthermore, a peace agreement was established in 2002 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where conflicts persisted since 1998 with interference of neighboring countries. Conflicts in various regions are gradually drawing to a conclusion, showing signs that peace is spreading throughout Africa. At the same time, efforts toward post-conflict reconstruction are being advanced in order to prevent the reversion to conflicts and to ensure the consolidation of peace. For example, DDR is being advanced in many countries.
The further promote the "consolidation of peace" based on the self-help efforts of Africa itself in the recent years, Japan offered an assistance package worth a total of approximately US$60 million to 14 African countries in March 2005 to assist the return of the refugees, collection of small arms, reconstruction of communities, holding of elections, and other efforts. Specifically, approximately US$9.28 million was extended to Uganda as emergency assistance through UNICEF in such areas as improvement of health care and nutrition, water and sanitation, and protection of children, to support internally displaced persons in the northern region. To the Democratic Republic of Congo, assistance of approximately US$7.6 million was provided via UNDP to support the democratic election, which would be held for the first time since it gained independence 45 years ago, among other purposes.
Furthermore, Japan highly regards the role that the AU has been playing in the prevention, management, and resolution of conflicts. To help support the activities of the AU, Japan has been extending a total of approximately US$4.33 million to the AU Peace Fund. 45 In addition, Japan offered the following assistance in FY2004 to support the refugees and internally displaced persons who were forced to flee their homes due to conflicts or other reasons: approximately US$51 million via the UNHCR, approximately US$32.65 via the WFP, US$2 million via the IOM, and approximately US$4.72 million via the ICRC.