Official Development Assistance (ODA)
Japan is the world's largest donor in the water and sanitation sector and has provided assistance based on its experience, knowledge and technology. Japan announced the "Water and Sanitation Broad Partnership Initiative (WASABI)" (March 2006) and launched the "United States-Japan Clean Water for People Initiative" (September 2002). Japan wants to see global cooperation on this issue with international agencies, other donor countries and both Japanese and non-Japanese NGOs further strengthened. Japan hosted the Third World Water Forum in March 2003, helped ensure the adoption of the resolution on the "International Year of Sanitation 2008" at the United Nations General Assembly in December 2007 and supports multilateral cooperation in this area.
Japan has continuously been the largest donor among the DAC countries and has implemented US$4.9 billion of ODA in five years between 2001 and 2005, which accounts for a massive 38% of the total support received from bilateral donors.
Japan has historically provided assistance in the area of water-related disaster reduction, water-use coordination, and water pollution prevention in order to overcome problems including floods, droughts and water pollution. To improve the water and sanitation situation in developing countries, Japan’s assistance builds on its experience, expertise and technology. On the occasion of the Third World Water Forum, which was held in March 2003 in Kyoto, Japan announced the Initiative for Japan's ODA on Water, which was accompanied by broad-ranging efforts regarding aid for the water sector. In addition, at the Fourth World Water Forum held in March 2006 in Mexico City, Japan announced the WASABI. This initiative is designed to bolster cooperation with international organizations, other donor countries, domestic and overseas NGOs and other concerned parties, thereby improving further the quality of aid in the areas of water and sanitation
With regard to strengthening international partnerships, Japan has been working with the Unites States on the Clean Water for People Initiative. At the Fourth World Water Forum, both Japan and the United States held sessions and joint conferences and launched this partnership. Japan and U.S. are currently exploring how to attract private funds for the development of regional water and sewage infrastructure by combining Japanese ODA loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) with USAID investment guarantees. Indonesia, India, the Philippines, and Jamaica, have been chosen as pilot countries. In the Philippines, the Municipal Water Loan Financing Initiative (MWLFI) was implemented in March 2006 as the first project with funding from both Japan and the United States. The Philippine Water Revolving Fund (PWRF), which is a new financing scheme that promotes private sector investment through more efficient and sustainable means, is in the process of being developed. The PWRF builds on the experience and mechanisms used in the development of the MWLFI.
Source: Water and Sanitation Broad Partnership Initiative (WASABI) (March 2006)
- The Framework Featured in ODA Charter＆Mid-Term Policy (Extracts)
Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter (August, 2003)
3. Priority Issues
Japan's Medium-Term Policy on ODA (February, 2005)
3. Priority Issues
- Initiatives & Funding Commitment
Improving the Water Supply Condition by Coordinating Schemes (Cambodia)
The water facilities in Phnom Penh were destroyed during the chaos of the civil war which lasted up until the early 1990s. In addition, because they had been neglected for a long time and had deteriorated, their treatment capacity had significantly decreased.
Through grant aid, Japan has repaired the water treatment plant of Phnom Penh's water supply facilities, provided water meter equipments and upgraded the drainage pipes in the city. Thanks to over 10 years of support, the treatment capacity of water facilities in Phnom Penh has improved to twice that of when the civil war ended. As a result, the area where sanitary water could be supplied has expanded significantly, and the rate of water supply distribution increased to almost twice. In addition, 24-hour water supply has become possible. In this way, the water supply condition of the city has improved to a great extent.
Japan promotes human resource development for the water projects through technical cooperation in coordination with the development of infrastructure, in pursuit of further efficiency in operation, maintenance and management of the facilities. Japanese experts dispatched from Kitakyushu City Waterworks Bureau teach skills on site and formulate manuals together with local officials. In this manner, Japan and the local government coordinate as a unit in supporting the capacity development of staffs in facilities.
Eradication of Cholera with KOSHU Toilet Facility (Zambia)
Flush toilet, 'KOSHU'. Local elementary school children painted the wall.
In Lusaka, the capital of Zambia, residents suffer poor sanitary conditions. Their sanitary infrastructure is overstretched as a result of the influx of people from rural areas.
Source: Pamphlet "Water and Sanitation Broad Partnership Initiative (WASABI)" (MOFA, 2006)
- Cooperation with Multilateral Organizations
U.S. - Japan Clean Water for People Initiative
Photo from Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Handbook (MOFA, 2005)