Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC): Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Target in FY2030
1. NDC: Nationally Determined Contribution
- Under the Paris Agreement (adopted on December 12th 2015, entered into force on November 4th, 2016), all Parties shall prepare, communicate and maintain nationally determined contributions (NDCs) which represent greenhouse gas emission reduction targets, every five years (Article 4, Paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement, and Paragraph 23 and 24 of Decision1/CP.21).
- Many Countries including Japan submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) in 2015, as per decision at COP19 held in Warsaw before the adoption of the Paris Agreement, which stipulates “invites all Parties to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their INDC well in advance of COP21 in 2015” (decision 1/CP.19). (INDCs will be considered as NDCs following conclusion of the Paris Agreement by those Parties)
- Japan submitted its INDC to the UN, following the decision by the Global Warming Prevention Headquarters in July 2015, which was “at the level of a reduction of 26.0% by fiscal year (FY) 2030 compared to FY 2013 (25.4% reduction compared to FY 2005) (approximately 1.042 billion t-CO2eq. as 2030 emissions) based on the amount of domestic emission reductions and removals assumed to be obtained”.
- In Addition, Japan decided its NDC at the Global Warming Prevention Headquarters on March 3rd 2020, in which Japan would continue to aim at resolutely achieving the level of a reduction of 26.0% by FY 2030 compared to FY 2013 (25.4% reduction compared to FY 2005), and would pursue further efforts both in the medium-term and long-term, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions beyond this level.
Under the Paris Agreement, all Parties should strive to formulate and communicate long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (Article 4, Paragraph 19 of the Paris Agreement). The G7 countries are committed to formulating and communicating their long-term strategies well ahead of the 2020 deadline, and as per this commitment (PDF), Japan has decided its “Long-term strategy under the Paris Agreement” as a cabinet decision and submitted to the UN on June 2019.
3. Net-zero emissions by 2050 (carbon neutral) and the new 2030 target
- At October 26th, 2020, in the policy speech to the 203rd session of the diet, Prime Minister Suga stated： “We hereby declare that by 2050 Japan will aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net-zero, that is, to realize a carbon-neutral, decarbonized society”.
- At the Leaders Summit on Climate, hosted by the United State on April 22nd and 23rd, 2021, PM Suga declared that Japan aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 46% in fiscal year 2030 from its fiscal year 2013 levels, setting an ambitious target which is aligned with the long-term goal of net-zero by 2050, and that Japan will continue strenuous efforts in its challenge to meet the lofty goal of cutting its emission by 50%.
|Country / region||2030 Emission Reduction Target||Status (date)||2050 net zero|
|Japan||-46% in FY2030 (from FY2013)
(Continue strenuous efforts in its challenge to meet the lofty goal of cutting its emission by 50%)
|Statement at the Leaders Summit on Climate
(22 April 2021 )
|Argentina||Not exceeding a net emission of 359 million t-tCO2eq||NDC (Submitted on 30 December 2020)||Expressed|
|Australia||-26% to -28% (from 2005)||NDC (Submitted on 31 December 2020)||-|
|Brazil||-43% (from 2005)||NDC (Submitted on 9 December 2020)||Expressed|
|Canada||-40% to -45% (from 2005)||Statement by the PM at the Leaders Summit on Climate (22 April 2021 )||Expressed|
|China||(1) Strive to reach the peak of CO2 emissions by 2030
(2) Lower CO2 emissions per unit of GDP by over 65% (from 2005)
|(1) Statement at the UN General Assembly
(22 September 2020)
(2) Statement at the Climate Ambition Summit
(20 December 2020)
net zero CO2 by 2060
|EU, France, Germany, Italy||At least -55% (from 1990)||NDC (Submitted on 18 December 2020)||Expressed|
|India||Reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35%
|INDC (Submitted on 1 October 2015)||-|
|Indonesia||-29% (from BAU) (unconditional)
-41% (from BAU) (conditional)
|INDC (Submitted on 24 September 2015)||-|
|Republic of Korea||-24.4% (from 2017)||NDC (Submitted on 30 December 2020)||Expressed|
|Mexico||-22% (from BAU) (unconditional)
-36% (from BAU) (conditional)
|NDC (Submitted on 30 December 2020)||Expressed|
|Russia||70% relative to the 1990 level||NDC (Submitted on 25 November 2020)||-|
|Saudi Arabia||Up to -130 Mt by 2030||INDC (Submitted on 10 November 2015)||-|
|South Africa||In a range between 398 and 614 Mt (2025 and 2030)||INDC (Submitted on 25 September 2015)||Expressed|
|Turkey||-21% (from BAU) (Note) has not concluded the Paris Agreement||INDC (Submitted on 30 September 2015)||-|
|UK||At least -68% (from 1990)||NDC (Submitted on 12 December 2020)||Expressed|
|USA||-50% to -52% (from 2005)||NDC (Submitted on 22 April 2021)||Expressed|
(As of June 22, 2021)