Joint Declaration on the Promotion of Tripartite Cooperation among, Japan, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea

Bali, Indonesia, October 7th , 2003

WE, the heads of Government/State of Japan, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea met during the ASEAN+3 Summit held in Bali, Indonesia on October 7th , 2003. We reviewed and acknowledged the positive progress in the development of our bilateral relationships and trilateral cooperation. For the further promotion and strengthening of our tripartite cooperation in the new century, we hereby issue a joint declaration as follows:


With geographical proximity, economic complementarity, growing economic cooperation and increasing people-to-people exchanges, the three countries have become important economic and trade partners to one another, and have continuously strengthened their coordination and cooperation in regional and international affairs.

The cooperation among the three countries demonstrates the gratifying momentum for the development of their relations. Their leaders have held regular informal meetings since 1999. Their departments of various areas have established mechanisms for meetings at the ministerial, senior official and working levels. The three countries have developed fruitful and effective cooperation in priority areas such as economy and trade, information, environmental protection, human resources development and culture.

The three countries have actively supported and participated in various forms of regional cooperation such as Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM). As a major driving force for cooperation under the 10+3 framework, the three countries have taken an active part in implementing the projects recommended by the East Asia Study Group (EASG) Final Report, furthered Mekong sub-regional cooperation, and made positive contributions to the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI).

In this context, we, the Leaders of the three countries recognized that a solid foundation has been laid for the promotion of the tripartite cooperation among Japan, China and Korea. We were convinced that advancing and deepening the tripartite cooperation will not only serve to further promote the stable development of bilateral relations between Japan-China, Japan-Korea and China-Korea but also contribute to the realization of peace, stability and prosperity throughout East Asia.


The advent of globalization and informationalization era has brought with it huge opportunities for development as well as many new challenges to all countries in the world. As important countries in Asia and the whole world, Japan, China and Korea share responsibilities to maintain regional peace and stability and promote common development for all countries. The tripartite cooperation is aimed at boosting development, strengthening East Asian cooperation and safeguarding peace and prosperity at the regional and global levels.

To this end, we, the Leaders of the three countries shared the following fundamental views:

  1. The tripartite cooperation will be pursued in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and other universally recognized norms governing international relations.
  2. On the basis of mutual trust and respect, equality and mutual benefit and with a view to securing a win-win result for all, the three countries will seek ways to strengthen their across-the-board and future-oriented cooperation in a variety of areas, including economic relations and trade, investment, finance, transport, tourism, politics, security, culture, information and communication technology (ICT), science and technology and environmental protection.
  3. With the governments of the three countries being the main players in the tripartite cooperation, they will encourage business and academic communities and various non-governmental organizations to play their parts.
  4. The tripartite cooperation is an essential part of East Asian cooperation. The three countries will, through regional cooperation in diversified forms such as ASEAN+3, continue to strengthen coordination and support the process of ASEAN integration. The three countries will promote economic cooperation and peace dialogue in Northeast Asia for the stability and prosperity in the region.
  5. The tripartite cooperation will be carried out in a transparent, open, non-exclusive and non-discriminatory manner. The three countries will maintain their respective mechanisms for cooperation with other countries so as to benefit from one another's experience in the interests of their mutual development.


To promote substantial progress in cooperation among our countries, we, the Leaders of Japan, China and Korea stressed the need to expand and deepen the tripartite cooperation in the following areas in a steadfast manner, starting with easier projects and gradually expanding the scope and depth of cooperation.

  1. Cooperation in trade and investment. The three countries will develop economic cooperation and trade marked by mutual trust and complementarity in order to maximize the growth potentiality of all countries in the region and eventually to achieve common prosperity. The three countries will also endeavor, in consistence with related WTO rules, to strengthen coordination with a view to creating an attractive environment for trade and investment.

    The three countries will make joint efforts to push forward the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations with a view to improving market access and strengthening the rules in a well-balanced manner, such as strengthening discipline on anti-dumping. The three countries will endeavor to prevent abusive and arbitrary application of WTO rules.

    The three countries will strengthen dialogue and cooperation on trade facilitation among their customs and transport authorities and continue exchange and cooperation between their quality supervision, inspection and quarantine authorities through the existing channels. They also emphasize the importance of food safety and animal and plant health in trade, in conformity with relevant WTO agreements.

    The three countries will strengthen cooperation and protection of intellectual property rights including through the promotion of public awareness, personnel exchanges, experience sharing and law enforcement.

    Appreciating the progress of the joint study on the economic impact of a free trade agreement (FTA) conducted by their respective research institutes, the three countries will explore, in a timely manner, the direction of a closer future economic partnership among the three countries.

    To facilitate trade and investment as well as to promote exchange of people in Northeast Asia, the three countries will promote existing dialogue and cooperation with a view to developing international civil air transport among the aeronautical authorities of the three countries.

    The three countries recognize the importance of inward foreign direct investment (IFDI) for the enhancement of each domestic economy and welcome the various efforts that have been made for the promotion of IFDI. They confirm their intention to take further steps to promote IFDI including addressing specific issues raised by their investors in a fair and transparent manner. In this light, they will launch an informal joint study on the possible modality of trilateral investment arrangements.

    The three countries will make full use of the existing bilateral and trilateral consultations while strengthening exchange of information and prior consultations so as to minimize the possibility of any trade dispute.

  2. Cooperation among information and communication technology (ICT) industries. The three countries will enhance, as a priority, exchange and cooperation in broadband communications, mobile communications and e-business. They will continue to advance high-tech communication R&D and promote exchanges in such areas as new generation communications network and the third generation mobile communications. They will also expand the application of ICT in all sectors of society while ensuring its security. Meanwhile the three countries will seek to play a positive role in building a broadband network throughout Asia, accelerate the development of internet industry and facilitate the flow of information within Asia.
  3. Cooperation in environmental protection. The three countries will, under various frameworks such as the Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM), intensify cooperation in addressing common environment concerns, such as dust and sandstorms and their monitoring and early warning, acid deposition monitoring, air, water and marine pollution, and climate change. They will also expand exchange and cooperation in green industries and technology and facilitate dialogue and cooperation on water resources management, forest conservation, reforestation and conservation of biodiversity. In order to promote sustainable development, the three countries will strengthen consultations and cooperation on major regional and global environmental issues.
  4. Cooperation in disaster prevention and management. The three countries will promote cooperation and dialogue in this field with a view to preventing or mitigating the damage from disasters such as storms, typhoons, floods and earthquakes.
  5. Cooperation in energy. The three countries will expand their mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of energy and work together to strengthen regional and global energy security.
  6. Financial cooperation. To promote financial stability in the region, the three countries will continue to strengthen dialogue on economic policies and implement the Chiang Mai Initiative. They will deepen regional financial cooperation in the future, including the exploration of the possibility of establishing a regional financing and stability mechanism and developing the regional bond market. The three countries will strengthen their cooperation and coordination in international financial institutions with a view to attaining well-balanced economic development in the region and the Millennium Development Goals.
  7. Cooperation in science and technology. The three countries will promote and facilitate scientific and technological cooperation at various levels, including in such areas as succeeding in ITER Project, to strengthen capacities to deal with issues of common concern and advance new technologies with a view to opening up new industry sectors.
  8. Cooperation in tourism. The three countries will further boost the tourism industry, encouraging expansion of tourism among the three countries through appropriate measures, and strengthen exchange and cooperation among tourism authorities and industries in such areas as development of tourism infrastructure and circular tours going around the three countries for residents outside of the three countries, for example, residents of Europe or North America.
  9. Cooperation in fishery resource conservation. The three countries will cooperate, bilaterally or trilaterally, to promote the sustainable use and conservation of fishery resources through effective fishery management.


  1. For the purpose of enhancing mutual understanding and trust and expanding diverse channels for exchanges for better trilateral cooperation in the future, the three countries will strengthen cooperation in a variety of areas, such as people-to-people contacts, culture, education and human resources development, news media, public health and sports.

    The three countries will continue to encourage and facilitate personnel exchanges to increase contacts among youth and young leaders. They will also vigorously develop cultural exchange and cooperation to enhance cooperation in such areas as the preservation and development of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, cultural diversity and dialogue among civilizations.

    The three countries will continue to support the tripartite cooperation in the field of education. They will enhance cooperation to expand student exchanges among their institutions of higher education, promote mutual institutions' recognition of academic records, degrees and credits, and encourage language teaching and cultural exchange among the three countries.

    The three countries will encourage communication and cooperation among their media organizations through joint seminars or in other forms with close communication among the three governments.

    The three countries will expand exchange and cooperation among local governments by arranging sister cities among the three countries or by other means.

    For the enhancement of mutual understanding and friendship among their peoples, the three countries will encourage diversified forms of exchange and cooperation among the sports communities of the three countries such as organizing football and table tennis matches.


  1. The three countries will strengthen cooperation in international affairs and continue to support the core role of the United Nations in maintaining world peace and stability. They will promote dialogue and consultations on UN related issues, including the strengthening and reforms of the UN.
  2. The three countries will make concerted efforts to press ahead with Asian regional cooperation in various forms. They will step up the process of implementing the measures put forward in the Final Report of the East Asia Study Group, promote the 10+3 cooperation in the direction of East Asia cooperation, and support ASEAN's key role in this process. They will further enhance cooperation within such mechanisms as ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM).
  3. The three countries will strengthen security dialogue and facilitate exchange and cooperation among the defense or military personnel of the three countries.

    The three countries will strengthen exchange of views and cooperation in disarmament, as well as prevent and curb proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, based on international regimes, through political, diplomatic and administrative measures including effective export controls, while recognizing the importance of complying with the related international norms.

    The three countries reaffirm their commitment to a peaceful solution of the nuclear issue facing the Korean Peninsula through dialogue and to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, while addressing all the concerns of the parties and working together to maintain peace and stability on the Peninsula.

  4. The three countries will reinforce their cooperation in preventing infectious diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and combating crimes and terrorism, sea piracy, people smuggling, trafficking in illegal drugs and related crimes, money laundering, international economic crimes, cyber-crimes and other transnational crimes through effective cooperation among their respective authorities.


WE, the Leaders of Japan, China and Korea shared the view that it was essential to have a wide range of channels for an effective tripartite cooperation. Accordingly, we decided to hold our summit meetings continuously. We will support the effective operation of on-going meetings at the ministerial level in foreign affairs, economy and trade, finance, environmental protection, information and telecommunications, and patents, and endeavor to hold similar meetings in other areas. We also decided to set up a three-party committee to study, plan, coordinate and monitor the cooperation activities currently under way or envisaged by this Joint Declaration. The committee will submit progress reports to the annual summit meeting.

KOIZUMI Junichiro
Prime Minister

WEN Jiabao
Premier of the State Council
People's Republic of China

ROH Moo-hyun
Republic of Korea

Signed at Bali, Indonesia this 7th day of October 2003 in tripartite in the English language.

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