The Workshop on "Prospects for The 2005 NPT Review Conference"
(Bali, 20-21 January 2005)
Regional Issues: DPRK and South Asia

By Takeshi NAKANE
Deputy-Director General, Non-proliferation, Disarmament and Science Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan

Distinguished participants,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

First of all, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the Government of Indonesia for organizing this Workshop and also to Ambassador Sujadnan for his initiative.

Today, upon request of the chair, I would like to introduce Japanese viewpoints on the issues of the DPRK and South Asia, especially from the perspective of strengthening and universalizing the NPT regime.

Finding an early and peaceful solution to the DPRK nuclear issue is essential for securing peace and stability in Northeast Asia and also for maintaining authority of and confidence in the international nuclear non-proliferation regime based upon the NPT.

Japan cannot accept, under any circumstances, any development, acquisition, possession, test or transfer of nuclear weapons by the DPRK. We continue to call on the DPRK to dismantle all nuclear programs in a permanent, thorough and transparent manner subject to credible and effective international verification. The DPRK should observe all the international agreements related to nuclear issues, including the NPT, and implement completely and immediately the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. The DPRK must immediately commit itself to dismantling expeditiously all of its nuclear programs, including its clandestine uranium enrichment program, and declare complete information related to all of its nuclear programs. At the same time, we will continue to appeal to the DPRK that the benefits of dismantling its nuclear programs are much greater than their possession, and that complete dismantlement of all its nuclear programs under credible and international verification would benefit the DPRK most.

Japan firmly believes that the DPRK nuclear issue should be solved peacefully through dialogue. The framework of the Six-Party Talks is currently the most realistic and should continue to be fully utilized.

The Six-Party Talk was launched in Beijing in August 2003, for the first time and it concluded with following five-point consensus of the parties concerned:
- firstly, to solve the nuclear problem through dialogue,
- secondly, to call for a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula,
- thirdly to pay due considerations to the security concerns of the North Korea,
- fourthly, not to take actions that could escalate the situation, and
- fifthly, to continue the process of the Six-Party Talks.

In accordance with this consensus, the second round of the Six-Party Talks was held in Beijing in February, 2004, and the third round was held in Beijing in June 2004. At the third round of the Six-Party Talks, the six parties conducted substantive and practical discussions and reconfirmed their commitment to achieving the peaceful resolution toward the common goal of a denuclearized Korean Peninsula. The six parties also agreed on the necessity of taking first steps towards this common goal as soon as possible. However, differences still remain in positions between the DPRK and other parties concerning (i) the scope of preliminary measures (whether or not to include uranium enrichment) and verification procedures; and (ii) while the DPRK aims for an agreement on freezing of its nuclear programs and compensatory measures, Japan, the US and the Republic of Korea (ROK) seek an agreement on a framework towards "dismantlement" of nuclear programs. The six parties agreed in principle to hold the fourth round of the Six-Party Talks by the end of September 2004. However, it has not yet been held as of present.

During the APEC Leaders' meeting held in Chile last November, the leaders of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia and the United States agreed that early resumption of the Six Party Talks is necessary and made it clear that the DPRK should positively respond to it. The Six Party Talks must not be stalled, and holding the Fourth Round of the Talks as early as possible is essential to build firmly on the achievements obtained during the past three rounds of Talks. The DPRK should agree to hold the next round of Talks immediately and unconditionally. Japan is ready to continue to make every effort for a resolution by diplomatic efforts, primarily by actively contributing to the Six-Party Talks.

Now I would like to turn to the issue of the South Asia. Suggestions that Dr. A.Q. Khan made transfers of nuclear-related technology makes the issue of South Asia not unrelated to the DPRK nuclear issue.

However, before referring to the problem of nuclear proliferation, I must emphasize that the nuclear weapon capabilities of both India and Pakistan make peace and stability in the region more vulnerable than before. The fact that these two countries still remain outside of the NPT regime also undermine the value of the NPT as a norm. In this regard, we should continue to urge India and Pakistan to join the NPT as non-nuclear weapon states, as urged by UNSC resolution 1172 and the 2000 NPT Review Conference. We should also urge the two countries to sign and ratify the CTBT, and continue further their commitment to the moratorium on nuclear testing. We should tackle this issue from the viewpoint of maintaining and strengthening the credibility of the NPT regime. We should make every effort to avoid setting a wrong precedent for other countries of concern to follow. In this regard, Japan has taken advantage of various occasions, including ministerial meetings, to make specific demarches to India and Pakistan to urge them to accede to the NPT, sign and ratify the CTBT. Japan has also held bilateral senior-official level consultations with the two countries, and called upon them to restrain the development, testing and deployment of ballistic missiles.

At the same time, we should seek effective measures to be taken for preventing further nuclear proliferation from the South Asia. The underground network of nuclear technology constitutes a grave concern for international community as a whole, and the suggestions of clandestine transfers of nuclear related technology to the DPRK by Dr. A.Q. Khan and his associates represented not only a serious threat to the non-proliferation regime but also direct threat to Japan's national security. Thus, the Government of Japan has taken the case seriously, and has urged Pakistan on various occasions to take effective measures against proliferation, including establishing a stringent export control system on nuclear related transfer. In connection with this, Japan welcomes the new law, "Export Control Act 2004" passed by the Parliament of Pakistan in September 2004, and Japan is willing to support Pakistan for implementing the law. Japan also invited Pakistan to the Asian Export Control Seminar held at Tokyo in October 2004 to provide an opportunity to Pakistan to deepen its understanding of the importance of export controls. It is of great importance that the supply network of nuclear materials, sensitive equipment and technology revealed by the Government of Pakistan should be fully investigated and in cooperation with the international organizations such as the IAEA, which will contribute to preventing further proliferation as well as unearthing other clandestine nuclear weapon programs.

Lastly, I would like to emphasize the importance of the NPT in strengthening regional and international security. From this perspective, we should continue to tackle the issues of the DPRK and South Asia, in which the compliance with and the universality of the NPT are at stake.

Thank you.

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