Speech by Minister for Foreign Affairs Yoriko Kawaguchi
at the 3rd Conference on Facilitating the Early Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
September 3, 2003
Your Excellency Mr. Touomioja, President of the Conference,
Excellencies, Ladies and gentleman,
I would like to begin by extending my heartfelt congratulations to Your Excellency Mr. Touomioja on your election to the Presidency of this Conference.
Seven years have passed since the CTBT was adopted at the UN General Assembly in 1996. Since then, 104 countries have ratified the CTBT, and the value of this treaty has been widely acknowledged in the international community. However, the requirements for the CTBT to enter into force have yet to be met. While it is encouraging to see delegations from so many countries gathered here today in the ardent hope for the early entry into force of the CTBT, it is at the same time regrettable that it was once again necessary for us to do so.
The CTBT was adopted forty years after India's Prime Minister Nehru first advocated the ban on nuclear testing in April, 1954. Its adoption is a significant landmark in the history of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation after World War II. The CTBT illegalizes all types of nuclear testing. Thus, it contributes to both nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation. The early entry into force of the CTBT will tangibly help realize the noble objective of a safe and peaceful world free of nuclear weapons. Since Japan is the only country in the world to have suffered the tragedy of atomic bombings, we Japanese people have a particularly strong desire for a ban on nuclear testing. At this conference, it will be important for us to send a strong message once again, urging states that have not signed or ratified the CTBT to do so at the earliest date possible.
Some nations in the international community are disheartened by the fact that the CTBT has still not entered into force, and therefore have doubts about the effectiveness of making efforts towards this end. I am not of this view. Rather, I consider it crucial that we maintain our efforts to promote the Treaty's early entry into force. Furthermore, I believe it important to accord due recognition to the beneficial role that the CTBT is already playing in the international community. Prior to the adoption of the CTBT, all nuclear weapons states announced moratoria on nuclear testing. Both India and Pakistan, which conducted nuclear tests in 1998, have faced overwhelming international criticism and consequently announced moratoria on nuclear testing. It is thus clearly apparent for all to see that conducting nuclear tests in defiance of this Treaty will entail severe criticism from the international community. Our efforts toward the early entry into force of the CTBT have permeated international opinion and the norm has taken root that all types of nuclear tests should be banned. Thus, the CTBT, even before entering into force, is playing an important role as a strong deterrent against nuclear testing. It is important that we ceaselessly and tenaciously persevere in our efforts.
Japan welcomes the fact that Algeria, one of the Annex II countries, deposited its instrument of ratification in July. On the other hand, twelve other Annex II countries have not yet ratified the Treaty, and early ratification by these countries is crucial. Japan has seized every high-level opportunity to convince these nations of the importance of the early ratification of the CTBT. Right before this Conference, together with Your Excellency President Tuomioja and Her Excellency Ms. Ferrero-Waldner, Foreign Minister of Austria, I sent a joint letter to the remaining twelve countries, encouraging them to ratify the Treaty as soon as possible. Documents describing measures taken by Japan to promote the early entry into force of the CTBT have been distributed to your tables.
Japan again urges all countries that have not yet ratified the CTBT to do so at the earliest date possible. Japan urges Annex II countries, whose ratification is required for the CTBT to enter into force, especially those nine countries that have signed but not ratified the Treaty, to ratify it, and those three countries that have neither signed nor ratified the Treaty to sign and ratify it.
The verification regime prescribed by the CTBT is unprecedented in the history of monitoring technology since it covers the earth with one unified monitoring system. The verification technology of the CTBT makes it extremely difficult to clandestinely conduct nuclear tests without having the world know about it. This verification technology thus represents a significant added deterrent against nuclear testing. The work being done by Mr. Hoffmann , Executive Secretary of the CTBTO Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) to set up the CTBT verification regime is highly valued by Japan.
Since Japan experiences earthquakes frequently, it possesses the world's most advanced seismological know-how. Japan has made use of this knowledge to provide technical assistance to developing nations. I would like to announce that Japan launched its "CTBT National Operation System" last year and has started constructing and preparing facilities in Japan for the International Monitoring System.
All the states possessing nuclear weapons have now declared a moratorium on nuclear testing. Although moratoria on nuclear testing will not replace the Treaty, I value them and strongly urge these states to maintain their policies pending the entry into force of the Treaty. I also strongly urge all the states once again not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion at any place.
The CTBT has a crucial role to play in the disarmament and non-proliferation regime built up on the foundation of the NPT. "The importance and urgency of achieving the early entry into force of the CTBT," which was affirmed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, should certainly be reaffirmed at the 2005 NPT Review Conference. However, I ardently hope that by that time, a major step will have been made toward the full realization of the Treaty. I can assure you that Japan will continue to make every possible effort to promote the early entry into force of the CTBT.
Document to be distributed:
Japan's Initiatives for Facilitating the CTBT's EIF
Commitment for the 3rd Conference on Facilitating the Early EIF of the CTBT
- Dispatching a joint letter from Japan, Finland, and Austria, urging high-level participation at the Conference and early signature and ratification of the Treaty (191 countries targeted)
Urging non-signatories and non-ratifiers to sign and ratify the CTBT
- Conducting a joint demarche with Finland and Austria to non-signatory and non-ratifier Annex II countries
- Hosting a "Friends of the CTBT" Foreign Ministers' Meeting (September 2002, New York)
Enhancement of international cooperation on the CTBT
- Technological cooperation through Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA); Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Continuation of the "Global Seismological Observation Training Course" (about 10 trainees annually, a total of 75 trainees accepted so far)
- On-Site Inspection (OSI) Workshop in Hiroshima (June 30- July 3, 2003) hosted by the CTBTO (50 participants from 14 countries attended the Workshop)
- Seminar on Benefits of CTBT Regime Membership dealing with civil and scientific applications of verification technology (September 4, 2003) hosted by the CTBTO - Dr. Fukao, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, will attend the seminar.
Verification Regime in Japan
- Setting up the CTBT National Operation System of Japan (November 2002)
- Commencement of construction and establishment of monitoring facilities in Japan
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