(Tentative Unofficial Translation)

III. Security of Japan and Roles of Defense Capabilities

(Security of Japan and the basic defense policy)

  1. Japan, under its Constitution, while promoting diplomatic efforts and establishing a sound basis for security through domestic political stability, has moderately built up its defense capability on its own initiative, in accordance with the fundamental principles of maintaining an exclusively defense-oriented policy, not becoming a military power that might pose a threat to other countries, upholding civilian control, adhering to the three non-nuclear principles,and maintaining firmly the Japan-U.S. security arrangements. Japan is determined to maintain those basic defense policies.

(Defense capability as it ought to be)

  1. Japan has built its defense capability in accordance with "the Outline," which incorporates the concept of a basic and standard defense capability, defined as possessing the minimum necessary defense capability for an independent nation so that it would not become a source of instability in the surrounding regions by creating a vacuum of power rather than building a capability directly linked to a military threat to Japan. The defense capability defined in "the Outline" aims to possess the assorted functions required for national defense, while retaining a balanced posture in terms of organization and deployment, including logistical support. This capability was derived from relevant factors such as the strategic environment, geographical characteristics, and other aspects of Japan's position.

    It is considered appropriate that Japan continue to adhere fundamentally to this concept of a basic and standard defense capability based on a recognition that various efforts for the stabilization of international relations will continue to be pursued, while there remain uncertainty and unpredictability in the international situation, and that the Japan-U.S. security arrangements will continue to play a key role for the security of Japan and for the peace and stability in the surrounding regions of Japan.

    At the same time, in terms of the defense capability which Japan should maintain, it is necessary to review the specific content so as to seek the most efficient and appropriate capability, taking into account the reduction of military force level and changes in military posture of some of Japan's neighboring countries following the end of the Cold War, as well as the diversification of situations that should be addressed from the security point of view, including the outbreak of regional conflicts and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This review also needs to reflect such factors as recent advances in science and technology, a decreasing population of young people and increasingly severe economic and fiscal conditions.

    Furthermore, while the principal mission of the Self-Defense Forces continues to be the defense of Japan, the Self-Defense Forces,taking into account changes in domestic and international circumstances and Japan's position in the international society, will also have to be prepared for various situations such as large-scale disasters which can have a significant impact on our highly developed and diversified society, and play an appropriate role in a timely manner in the Government's active efforts to establish a more stable security environment.

    From this perspective, it is appropriate that Japan's defense capability be restricted, both in scale and functions, by streamlining, making it more efficient and compact, as well as enhancing necessary functions and making qualitative improvements to be able to effectively respond to a variety of situations and simultaneously ensure the appropriate flexibility to smoothly deal with the development of the changing situations.

(Japan-U.S. security arrangements)

  1. The security arrangements with the United States are indispensable to Japan's security and will also continue to play a key role in achieving peace and stability in the surrounding regions of Japan and establishing a more stable security environment.

    From this perspective, in order to enhance the credibility of the Japan-U.S. security arrangements and ensure their effective implementation, it is necessary to make efforts (1) to promote exchange of information and policy consultation, (2) to establish an effective posture for cooperation in operational areas including joint studies,exercises and training, as well as enhancement of mutual support in those areas, (3) to enhance broad mutual exchange in the areas of equipment and technology, and (4) to implement various measures to facilitate smooth and effective stationing of U.S. forces in Japan.

    Additionally, this close cooperative bilateral relationship based on the Japan-U.S. security arrangements, facilitates Japanese efforts for peace and stability of the international community, including promotion of regional multilateral security dialogues and cooperation, as well as support for various United Nations activities.

(Role of defense capability)

  1. It is necessary that the roles of Japan's defense capability be appropriately fulfilled in the respective areas described below in accordance with the aforementioned concepts.

(1) National defense

  1. Prevent aggressions against Japan, together with the Japan-U.S. security arrangements, by possessing a defense capability of an appropriate scale which includes the functions required for defense,consistent with Japan's geographical characteristics, taking account of the military capabilities of neighboring countries, by ensuring a posture to fully utilize the capability and by clearly showing the nation's will to defend their own country.
    Against the threat of nuclear weapons, rely on the U.S. nuclear deterrent, while working actively on international efforts for realistic and steady nuclear disarmament aiming at a world free from the nuclear weapons.
  2. Should indirect aggression - or any unlawful military activity which might lead to aggression against this nation - occur, take immediate responsive action in order to settle the situation at a nearly stage.
    Should direct aggression occur, take immediate responsive action by conducting an integrated and systematic operation of its defense capabilities, in appropriate cooperation with the United States, in order to repel such aggression at the earliest possible stage.

(2) Response to large-scale disasters and various other situations

  1. In case of large-scale disasters, disasters caused by acts of terrorism or other events which require the protection of lives or assets, and, for example, upon request for assistance from related organizations, take necessary measures in an appropriate and timely manner, including provision of disaster relief, in close cooperation with the related organizations, thereby contributing to public welfare.
  2. Should a situation arise in the areas surrounding Japan, which will have an important influence on national peace and security,take appropriate response in accordance with the Constitution and relevant laws and regulations, for example, by properly supporting the United Nations activities when needed, and by ensuring the smooth and effective implementation of the Japan-U.S. security arrangements.

(3) Contribution to creation of a more stable security environment

  1. Contribute to efforts for international peace through participation in international peace cooperation activities, and contribute to the promotion of international cooperation through participation in international disaster relief activities.
  2. Continue to promote security dialogues and exchanges among defense authorities to enhance mutual confidence with countries,including neighboring countries.
  3. Cooperate with efforts of the United Nations and other international organizations in the areas of arms control and disarmament for the purpose of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, as well as controlling and regulating conventional weapons, including land-mines.

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