Diplomatic Bluebook 2022
Japan's Foreign Policy by Region
3 Collaboration and Cooperation with Other Countries
In 2021, Japan remained actively engaged in diplomatic activities for the realization of FOIP, even as the global spread of COVID-19 continued to limit in-person diplomatic activities.
(1) U.S. (See Section 3)
In October, Prime Minister Kishida held a summit telephone call with President Biden. The two leaders shared the view to work closely together toward the peace and stability of the region and beyond through realizing FOIP. In November, during his visit to the UK to attend the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26), Prime Minister Kishida held informal talks with President Biden, during which the two leaders confirmed that Japan and the U.S. would continue to work closely together toward realizing FOIP. In the same month, Foreign Minister Hayashi held a foreign ministers' telephone call with Secretary of State Antony Blinken, and the two ministers affirmed to work closely in realizing FOIP. In December, Foreign Minister Hayashi, who visited the UK to attend the G7 Foreign and Development Ministers' Meeting, held an in-person foreign ministers' meeting with Secretary of State Blinken. Foreign Minister Hayashi welcomed the U.S. commitment to the Indo-Pacific region, including President Biden's attendance at the East Asia Summit (EAS) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Meeting, as well as Secretary Blinken's visit to Southeast Asia. The two ministers also confirmed that Japan and the U.S. would continue to further deepen cooperation with ASEAN countries and coordination with like-minded countries, such as Australia and India, toward the realization of FOIP.
(2) ASEAN (See Section 2, 7)
Japan and ASEAN released the Joint Statement of the 23rd ASEAN-Japan Summit on Cooperation on ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific in November 2020, confirming that the AOIP and FOIP promoted by Japan share fundamental principles. At the ASEAN-Japan Summit in October 2021, Prime Minister Kishida expressed Japan's intention to vigorously advance efforts to achieve FOIP in cooperation with ASEAN. In addition, Japan issued a Progress Report on its cooperation for a total of 73 AOIP projects, which include 49 projects announced at the 2020 Summit and 24 additional projects. Furthermore, at the G7 Foreign and Development Ministers' Meeting in December, which ASEAN Foreign Ministers were invited to and attended for the first time, Foreign Minister Hayashi explained Japan's cooperation for the AOIP and called on other G7 Foreign Ministers to advance substantial cooperation in line with the AOIP while supporting ASEAN centrality. Under the Joint Statement of the ASEAN-Japan Summit on Cooperation on the AOIP, Japan and ASEAN will continue to deepen cooperation that contributes to the realization of FOIP by steadily carrying out concrete cooperation projects in line with the four priority areas of the AOIP, namely maritime cooperation, connectivity, SDGs, and economic and other possible areas of cooperation.
(3) Australia (See Section 2, 6)
During the leaders' video teleconference meeting held in October between Prime Minister Kishida immediately after taking office and Prime Minister Scott Morrison, the two leaders confirmed that they would further strengthen the Japan-Australia “Special Strategic Partnership” and continue to work together toward the realization of FOIP. In January 2022, the two leaders signed the Japan-Australia Reciprocal Access Agreement, and at their leaders' video teleconference meeting, shared the view that Japan and Australia, as “Special Strategic Partners,” would further strengthen the bilateral relationship and embody their commitment toward the realization of FOIP. At the Japan-Australia Foreign Ministers' Meeting which Foreign Minister Hayashi held with Foreign Minister Payne in December 2021, the two ministers confirmed that Japan and Australia would work together to elevate their “Special Strategic Partnership” to a higher level, as well as unite and collaborate toward the realization of FOIP.
(4) India (See Section 2, 5)
In September, during his visit to Washington, D.C., Prime Minister Suga held an in-person summit meeting with Prime Minister Modi. The two leaders shared the view on the importance of maritime security toward the realization of FOIP, and affirmed that they would work closely to strengthen the connectivity in the region and to form an international order based on the rule of law. In October, during Prime Minister Kishida's first telephone call with Prime Minister Modi after taking office, the two leaders affirmed to work closely toward the realization of FOIP not only through bilateral cooperation but also through quadrilateral cooperation involving Australia and the U.S. In November, during the first Japan-India Foreign Ministers' telephone call since Foreign Minister Hayashi took office, he and External Affairs Minister Jaishankar shared the view to further develop the “Japan-India Special Strategic and Global Partnership” and cooperate toward the realization of FOIP, and confirmed that they would continue to work together.
(5) Japan-Australia-India-U.S. (See the Special Feature on page 31)
The four countries of Japan, Australia, India and the U.S. have the shared goal of strengthening a rules-based free and open international order. In order to make tangible progress with FOIP, the Quad shares the view on further implementing practical cooperation in various areas, including quality infrastructure and maritime security, and on the importance of expanding cooperation to more countries to realize this vision. The Quad also fully supports the AOIP and welcomes the proactive efforts by European and other countries toward FOIP. Based on this recognition, in February, following the inauguration of the Biden administration in the U.S., a Japan-Australia-India-U.S. foreign ministers' telephone call was held, during which the Quad shared the view on continuing to further deepen engagement and cooperation with ASEAN, the Pacific Island countries, Europe and other countries to realize FOIP. In March, the first Japan-Australia-India-U.S. leaders' video conference was held at the call of the U.S., during which the leaders shared the view to cooperate with a range of partners to realize FOIP at the summit level as well. In addition, in September, the first in-person Quad Leaders' Summit was held in the U.S., during which the leaders shared the view to advance cooperation in areas such as vaccines, critical and emerging technologies, climate change, infrastructure, outer space, and cyber space. The leaders also concurred to hold the summit and foreign ministers' meetings every year and to broaden coordination and build up concrete cooperation with a range of partners for the realization of a free and open Indo-Pacific.
A The EU (See Section 5, 2-(1) and the Special Feature on page 142)
In January, Foreign Minister Motegi attended, in a virtual format, a meeting of the EU Foreign Affairs Council for the first time by a Japanese foreign minister, where he explained about FOIP to the EU and foreign ministers of EU member states. In April, the EU released the Council Conclusions on an EU Strategy for Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, and in September, the Joint Communication on the EU Strategy for Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, which is a detailed follow-up of the April document. Foreign Minister Motegi issued a statement in September, welcoming the EU's display of strong will to engage in the Indo-Pacific. At the Japan-EU Summit in May, Prime Minister Suga exchanged views with European Council President Michel and European Commission President von der Leyen regarding Japan-EU cooperation toward realizing FOIP. Prime Minister Kishida held a telephone call with European Council President Michel in November and one with European Commission President von der Leyen in December, during which they concurred to further advance Japan-EU cooperation in the region. Foreign Minister Motegi and High Representative Josep Borrell reaffirmed this vision during their telephone call in December.
B The UK (See Section 5, 2-(2))
In March, the UK published the Integrated Review of Security, Defence, Development and Foreign Policy, announcing it would enhance its engagement in the Indo-Pacific region. The UK's commitment to the region was evident in September in the port call in Japan by the UK Carrier Strike Group (CSG21) led by the aircraft carrier “Queen Elizabeth,” along with the holding of complex joint exercises. In addition, Japan-UK security and defense cooperation has deepened significantly in recent years, with negotiations on the Japan-UK Reciprocal Access Agreement commencing in October. In November, Prime Minister Kishida held a meeting with Prime Minister Johnson. The two leaders affirmed that they would continue to work together to raise the Japan-UK relationship, which is stronger than ever, to a new stage and robustly advance FOIP. In December, the Japanese and UK foreign ministers confirmed that they would further deepen their cooperation toward peace and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific.
C France (See Section 5, 2-(3))
France has deepened its engagement in the Indo-Pacific, playing a leading role in the establishment of the EU's Indo-Pacific strategy. Japan and France have further strengthened their security and defense cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, which has included the first bilateral exercise in Japan between their ground forces during the port call by the training fleet “Jeanne d'Arc” in Japan in May. In July, Prime Minister Suga held a meeting and luncheon meeting with President Macron, who was visiting Japan to attend the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games Tokyo 2020. The two leaders confirmed their intention to promote bilateral cooperation in the Indo-Pacific. In November, Prime Minister Kishida held his first telephone call with President Macron. The two leaders welcomed the significant strengthening of the bilateral security and defense cooperation, and shared the view to work closely together. In addition, Foreign Minister Hayashi and Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Le Drian held a telephone call in November and an in-person meeting in December, and shared the view that they would further strengthen Japan-France coordination in the Indo-Pacific.
D Germany (See Section 5, 2-(4))
In September 2020, the German cabinet adopted the “Policy Guidelines for the Indo-Pacific Region,” which emphasizes the importance of the principles of freedom of navigation, rule of law and connectivity in the Indo-Pacific. In December 2021, Foreign Minister Hayashi held a meeting with Foreign Minister Baerbock. The two ministers welcomed the significant deepening of bilateral security cooperation, including the holding of the first-ever Japan-Germany Foreign and Defense Ministers' Meeting (“2+2”) and the port call in Japan by the German frigate “Bayern,” and concurred to strengthen the bilateral coordination including cooperation in the Indo-Pacific.
E The Netherlands (See Section 5, Other European Regions on page 136)
In June, Foreign Minister Motegi held a meeting with Foreign Minister and Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation Minister Kaag. Foreign Minister Motegi stated he was encouraged by the Netherlands' increased involvement in the Indo-Pacific, such as the release of its own “Indo-Pacific Guidelines.” The two ministers shared the view to strengthen cooperation to realize FOIP.
Under the vision of a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP),” Japan is engaged in various forms of cooperation with countries that share this way of thinking, in order to realize peace and prosperity for the region. As a part of these efforts, Japan, Australia, India, and the U.S., which are regional partners that share the same fundamental values, engage in a wide range of discussions and advance practical cooperation toward the realization of a free and open Indo-Pacific.
To date, the four countries have held a total of eight senior official-level consultations and four foreign ministers' meetings since November 2017. In March 2021, the Quad Leaders' Video Conference was held for the first time, and in September of the same year, the four leaders gathered together to have the first in-person Leaders' Meeting. In February 2022, the Fourth Quad Foreign Ministers' Meeting was convened, marking significant progress in cooperation between the four countries.
Japan, Australia, India, and the U.S. have so far advanced practical cooperation in various areas toward the realization of a free and open Indo-Pacific. These include quality infrastructure, maritime security, counterterrorism, cybersecurity, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. The four leaders concurred to launch working groups on vaccine, critical and emerging technologies, and climate change at the Leaders' Video Conference held in March 2021. Furthermore, at the Leaders' Meeting held in September of the same year, they confirmed the progress of cooperation in these areas, and concurred to launch working groups on infrastructure, space, and cyberspace, as well as to strengthen cooperation in the areas of clean energy and people-to-people exchanges.
One of the examples of practical cooperation between the four countries is the vaccine support they have provided to the Indo-Pacific region. At the Leaders' Meeting in September 2021, the four leaders affirmed that Japan, Australia, India, and the U.S. play a major role to ensure equitable access to safe, effective, and quality-assured vaccine through vaccine supply and financing, and also concurred that they would continue to work together on the response to COVID-19, which is a pressing issue confronting the international community, including expansion of vaccine production and its supply to the Indo-Pacific region.
The four countries are committed to continued efforts to broadening coordination with a range of partners and building up concrete cooperation for the realization of a free and open Indo-Pacific. To date, the four countries have reaffirmed its strong support for the “ASEAN Outlook on Indo-Pacific (AOIP),” which is ASEAN's proactive efforts, as well as ASEAN's unity and centrality. The four countries also welcome the EU Strategy for Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific.
After Prime Minister Kishida assumed office, he promptly held telephone meetings with the leaders of the U.S., Australia, and India, and affirmed that Japan would further advance cooperation in the four countries. Going forward, the four countries have concurred to hold the Leaders' Meetings and Foreign Ministers' Meetings every year, and to continue working closely with other countries to further advance cooperation across a wide range of practical areas while strongly promoting a free and open Indo-Pacific.