Diplomatic Bluebook 2015
Japan’s Foreign Policy to Promote National and Worldwide Interests
(1) Regional Security
Japan’s key national security goals are to improve the security environment in the Asia-Pacific region and prevent direct threats to Japan by strengthening the Japan–US Alliance and enhancing trust and cooperation with partners both within and outside the region. Accordingly, in addition to the Japan–US Alliance, the establishment of multilayered networks of bilateral and multilateral security cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region is essential in order to further stabilize the region’s security environment.
Based on this recognition, Japan attaches great importance to the strengthening of cooperative relationships with countries with which it shares universal values and strategic interests. At the Japan–US–ROK Trilateral Foreign Ministers’ Meeting held in August 2014, the three countries reaffirmed the importance of even closer cooperation in a wide range of fields, including regional and global issues. Moreover, at the Japan–US–Australia Trilateral Leaders Meeting held in November, the three leaders confirmed their intention to undertake trilateral cooperation in fields such as maritime security and defense equipment and technology, in order to promote regional stability. With Australia in particular, at the Fifth Japan–Australia Joint Foreign and Defense Ministerial Consultations in June, the participating ministers shared the intention to further deepen cooperation between Japan and Australia in the field of security. Japan is devoting even greater energies than before to maintaining and strengthening security cooperation with ASEAN countries; for example, in 2014, Japan held the Fifth Japan–Vietnam Strategic Partnership Dialogue along with holding Politico-Military (PM) Dialogue with Cambodia, the Philippines, and Laos. With India, Japan is striving to strengthen bilateral cooperation, as well as trilateral cooperation encompassing the US, and the Japan–India Summit Meeting took place in Tokyo in September 2014.
From the perspective of security in the Asia-Pacific region, it is also necessary to promote relationship of trust with China and Russia through security-related dialogue and exchange. A stable relationship with China is an essential element for the peace and stability of the region. In this regard, the Japan–China Summit Meeting was held in November, the first such meeting in about two and a half years. While engaging in rounds of dialogue and exchange with China at various levels, Japan will, without escalating the situation, continue to urge China to exercise self-restraint over its ongoing unilateral attempts to change the status quo, and will continue to respond firmly but in a calm manner. Japan’s policy in regard to Russia is to pursue the relationship that will contribute to Japan’s national interests, while taking into account the situation in Ukraine. Japan-Russia Foreign Ministers’ meeting was held in February. Summit meetings took place in October and November.
Outside the region, the first Japan–France Foreign and Defense Ministers’ Meeting took place in January, embodying the exceptional partnership between Japan and France. Other meetings included the 13th Japan–NATO High-Level Consultations in February, the second Japan–Canada Political, Peace and Security Subcabinet “2+2” Dialogue in March, the 14th Japan-Germany Politico-Military (PM) Dialogue in October, and the 17th Japan-France Politico-Military (PM) Dialogue in November. In January 2015, the Japan-UK Foreign and Defense Minister’s Meeting was held for the first time.
As far as multilateral security cooperation is concerned, Japan is actively engaging in multilateral dialogue and cooperation through participation in the East Asia Summit (EAS), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the ASEAN Defense Ministers’ Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus), among others. Of these, ARF is a particularly important international forum from the perspective of improving the regional security environment and promoting confidence-building, as it is a region-wide forum for dialogue on political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region in which 26 countries and regions – primarily ASEAN members, but also including members such as North Korea – participate, along with the EU. Along with taking part in the annual ministerial meetings, Japan is taking the initiative in various individual fields, including disaster relief and maritime security1.
In addition to intergovernmental dialogue, Japan is actively utilizing dialogue frameworks at the private sector level as forums for a candid exchange of opinions concerning security, including the Munich Security Conference, the Asia Security Summit (the Shangri-La Dialogue), and the Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue (NEACD). Through such frameworks, Japan is striving to build confidence in order to lay the foundations for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout the international community.
At the Shangri-La Dialogue in May, Prime Minister Abe gave a keynote speech. In his address, he advocated the Three Principles on the Rule of Law at Sea ((1) states shall make and clarify their claims based on international law; (2) states shall not use force or coercion in trying to drive their claims; and (3) states shall seek to settle disputes by peaceful means), and announced that Japan would combine various options within its assistance menu to seamlessly support the capacity of ASEAN countries in safeguarding the seas. This announcement was warmly endorsed by the participating countries.
- 1 Japan’s initiatives in individual fields within the ARF framework
- Disaster relief: Serving as co-chair (with China and Myanmar) of the Inter-Sessional Meeting (ISM) on Disaster Relief (July 2013 – summer 2016).
- Nonproliferation and disarmament: Hosting the ISM on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament in Japan (July 2014).
- Maritime security: Serving as co-chair (with the US and the Philippines) of the ISM on Maritime Security (August 2014 – summer 2017).
- Space: Hosting the 2nd ARF Space Security Workshop in Japan (October 2014).
(2) Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding
A. On-the-Ground Initiatives
(a) UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKO)
Traditionally, in UN PKO, the UN is positioned between the parties to a dispute, monitoring ceasefires and the withdrawal of troops in order to help calm the situation or prevent the recurrence of hostilities, with the aim of supporting the settlement of the dispute through dialogue between the parties involved. However, with the change in the international environment since the end of the Cold War, including an increase in civil wars, many other duties have been added to the UN’s traditional duties of monitoring ceasefires and the like. These new duties include support in such fields as Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants, security sector reform, elections, human rights, and the rule of law, as well as the promotion of the political process and the protection of civilians. As of November 2014, 16 UN PKO missions are in place, primarily in the Middle East and Africa, with a total of over 103,000 military and police personnel deployed to these missions. In response to the increasing complexity and scale of these duties and the concomitant shortages of personnel, equipment and materials, and financial resources, various forums – primarily those within the UN – are discussing ways of undertaking UN PKO more effectively and efficiently.
Japan places a high priority on cooperation with UN PKO from its standpoint as a “Proactive Contributor to Peace” based on the principle of international cooperation.
Based on the Act on Cooperation with United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Other Operations (PKO Act), Japan has dispatched approximately 10,000 personnel on a total of 13 UN PKO missions since 1992. Japanese Staff Officers have been deployed to the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) since 2011, while Engineering Units have been deployed there since 2012. The Engineering Units in the South Sudanese capital, Juba, undertake activities such as supporting displaced persons through the provision of water supplies, as well as site preparation. In October 2014, the Cabinet decided to extend Japan’s deployment of personnel to UNMISS and to dispatch one more Staff Officer there (Staff Officer – Air Operation). Due in part to the fact that the situation has become increasingly unstable since December 2013, South Sudan still faces political turmoil and other major issues even now, three years after independence- accordingly, so efforts to promote peace and stability there through the activities of UNMISS continue to be important.
Moreover, Japan gives back to the international community the knowledge and experience that it gains from UN PKO. In 2013 and 2014, the UN developed a manual on the activities of Engineering Units, aiming to improve the quality of PKO activities. Japan played a leading role, hosting meetings as the chair of the working group. Apart from this, Japan also dispatches personnel and provides financial support to PKO training centers in Asia and Africa, as well as running the Program for Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding (see C.), which cultivates civilian experts in the field of peacebuilding.
Furthermore, to support UN PKO in the face of a myriad challenges, even as the importance of such activities for maintaining the peace and security of the international community grows, Japan co-hosted the Summit on UN Peacekeeping (in New York) during the UN General Assembly in September 2014. The summit was attended by heads of government and cabinet ministers from 31 major financial contributing countries and troop contributing countries, including US Vice President Joe Biden, who proposed the meeting. Participants engaged in a lively discussion on measures to support UN PKO and issued a joint statement. As one of the co-hosts, Prime Minister Abe announced the following specific contributions: (1) active participation in UN PKO; (2) support for capacity building in a wide range of fields, including the civilian sector and issues specific to women; and (3) support for rapid deployment in Africa. In particular, the third of these, support for rapid deployment, has been identified as a key priority by the UN Secretariat. Accordingly, Japan decided to contribute approximately 3.8 billion yen to this area from the FY2014 supplementary budget.
As in-depth discussions among member countries progressed, the UN Secretariat launched a major initiative aimed at making PKO more effective and efficient. In June 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon announced a strategic review of PKO and other UN peace operations in the run-up to 2015, which marks the 15th year since the Brahimi Report offered recommendations on the basic principles of UN PKO. In November, the Secretary-General established a High-Level Panel to carry out the review. This panel will consider various issues faced in UN peace operations, including the duties of each mission, the protection and promotion of human rights, the protection of civilians, and gender, and is expected to prepare recommendations based on the results of these deliberations.
(b) ODA and other cooperation to facilitate peacebuilding
Japan attaches great importance to peacebuilding as part of its international cooperation, and it is positioned as one of the priority issues in Japan’s ODA Charter.
As well as prevention of conflict and emergency humanitarian aid, peacebuilding requires seamless manner including support for end of conflict, consolidation of peace, and nation-building. Based on the viewpoint of human security, Japan is providing support for peacebuilding particularly in the following countries and regions.
One of the most important issues for the peace and security of both the international community and Japan is to support Afghanistan’s self-reliance and the stability of the region including Afghanistan, and to prevent Afghanistan from stepping back to a hotbed of terrorism. Since 2001, Japan has provided a total of approximately 5.5 billion US dollars in development assistance in such fields as (1) enhancement of security capabilities; (2) reintegration of ex-combatants including Taliban into society; and (3) education, basic health care, development of agriculture and rural communities, improvement of basic infrastructure, and support for elections.
At the London Conference on Afghanistan in December 2014, the Government of Afghanistan and the international community reaffirmed the commitments that had been made by both the international community and Afghanistan at the Tokyo Conference in 2012. The first transfer of power through democratic elections was realized in 2014 and, at the London Conference, the new administration clearly demonstrated a strong determination to achieve reform. In light of this, Japan will continue to support Afghanistan’s efforts to implement its reform.
At the Fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD V) in 2013, Japan announced the provision of human resource development for 2,000 people for the purpose of capacity building in the field of counterterrorism in North Africa and the Sahel region, as well as 100 billion yen in development and humanitarian aid for the Sahel region. In the Yokohama Action Plan put together at the conference, consolidating peace, stability, democracy and good governance was positioned as one of the priority areas for promoting human security. At the First TICAD V Ministerial Meeting, which took place in Cameroon in May 2014, participants confirmed that these initiatives were being steadily implemented and many of the African nations expressed their gratitude for Japan’s support.
In 2014, via the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Japan provided seven countries in the Sahel region (Senegal, Nigeria, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad) with 642 million yen in support for the consolidation of peace. This helped to fund support for anti-terrorism legislation and the promotion of regional cooperation in judicial matters, efforts to prevent the illicit trafficking of small arms, capacity building in the field of investigation and prosecution at law enforcement and executive agencies, workshops to build capacity in the field of maritime cargo management, the dispatch of study teams, and the provision of relevant equipment. In North Africa, Japan provided 687 million yen to Tunisia, which is in transition to a democratic system of governance, along with support for improving public security functions through the provision of equipment.
When Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud visited Japan in March 2014, the Government of Japan pledged a new aid package worth approximately 40 million US dollars. As part of this, Japan is providing support to strengthen capacity in public security, including support for the police, capacity building in the fields of anti-piracy enforcement and border control, disposal of explosives and land mines, and capacity building among administrative bodies for the purpose of peacebuilding. The stabilization of public security is the cornerstone of all these activities. It is anticipated that this cooperation will result in the steady implementation of support that benefits each and every Somali citizen, thereby contributing to stability in Somalia and, ultimately, the peace and stability of the whole of East Africa.
B. Initiatives within the UN: the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
As the majority of regional conflicts and civil wars relapse into conflicts, it is crucial to provide appropriate support in post-conflict period. Based on this understanding, the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) was established in 2005, with the aim of providing consistent support and advice from conflict resolution through restoration, reintegration, and reconstruction of post-conflict society. Working closely with the UN Security Council, the General Assembly, and other UN institutions, the PBC has provided advice to six countries (Burundi, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, the Central African Republic, Liberia, and Guinea) in order to specify the priorities and design their strategies in peacebuilding, as well as offer support for their implementations.
Japan has been a member of the PBC since its establishment, and has contributed to the Commission through chairing the Working Group on Lessons Learned (WGLL) since 2011. In 2014, Japan led discussions in the WGLL concerning the challenges faced by post-conflict states following the withdrawal of UN missions, which were taken up as the core topic at the PBC’s First Annual Session (June 2014). The report of the WGLL is expected to contribute to the review of the UN’s overall approach to peacebuilding, which is due to be conducted in 2015.
Japan has contributed a total of 42.5 million US dollars to the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) established at the same time as the PBC, making it the fund’s fifth-largest major donor (as of December 2014).
C. The Program for Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding
While civilian experts equipped with a high level of skill and expertise have a substantial role to play in post-conflict peacebuilding, the number of those capable of fulfilling that role is inadequate- consequently the development of personnel is a major issue. Japan runs the Program for Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding in order to cultivate civilian experts from Japan and the rest of Asia who can play a leading role in peacebuilding in the field. As of the end of FY2014, this program has trained a total of approximately 480 people. Most of those who have completed the program have gone on to play an active role in the field worldwide, assisting peacebuilding in such countries as South Sudan and Afghanistan, and have received high acclaim from both the UN and other countries.
Moreover, in April 2014, the Advisory Panel on Peacebuilding submitted its recommendations to Foreign Minister Kishida, requesting the strengthening of efforts in the area of human resource development and gender in African countries. Against this backdrop, Japan, opened the program to African applicants in FY2014 and held a workshop on gender.
Although severe cold weather continues everyday here in Kosovo, compared to the time when I came here for the first time in 2006, the occurrence of blackouts decreased significantly and people can now lead a decent life at least inside a building even in such a severe winter. Soon we will celebrate the seven-year anniversary of the Independence Declaration. Yet, due to the deterioration of the economy in Kosovo that has continued since the last year, a lot of people have sought to emigrate, and population outflow to developed countries such as Germany or Hungary seems to be endless. The number of emigrants is close to 200,000 people, almost 10% of the population of Kosovo. In the capital, Pristina, alone, 10 buses packed with Kosovars looking for jobs depart for other countries every night one after another. The news shows interviews everyday of crying emigrant family members, both children and adults, who complain about the lack of food to eat and jobs. Even members of the Kosovo Philharmonic Orchestra go through immeasurable distress over living on the edge of subsistence while performing their music, be it forte or staccato. The security guards protecting the orchestra also make a mere 1000-yen a day working until late at night. Nevertheless, such people as the members of the orchestra, despite having very low monthly salaries, may be the ones better off for at least having a job. Some of the brothers of orchestra members work in Afghanistan serving food at a US military base canteen and send money back home. There are also many members of the orchestra that marry with foreigners and immigrate to developed countries. In one way, they are regarded to be successful in life.
This month, I am conducting two orchestras. One is the Nis Symphonic Orchestra in the south of Serbia, where I serve as the chief guest conductor, and the other is the Kosovo Philharmonic Orchestra, where I serve as the chief conductor. I conduct the same Mendelssohn’s Symphony No. 4 for both orchestras. Back in the days of Yugoslavia, some members of both orchestras used to work together. However, due to the conflict, all interactions were cut off even in the music field, depriving those musicians of the two orchestras of a chance to play together. I somehow feel guilty for being the only one able to interact freely with the musicians of both orchestras. After the Nis Symphonic Orchestra concert, on my way back to the Kosovo Philharmonic Orchestra by train, because of the rain and snow that had lasted for days, the river flooded and both sides of the train tracks looked like the sea, making it feel as if the train was running on the surface of the sea. The train rolled through timidly and slowly. Last year, Serbia and Bosnia experienced a great flood, so I suppose that the locals had a hard time likewise. When I finally arrived in Pristina, Kosovo, freezing cold was waiting.
In 2007, for the mutual prosperity of the peoples of the Balkan region, in particular, the former Yugoslavia, we launched the Balkan Chamber Orchestra due also to the request of the members of the orchestra. In this region, where people face all sorts of problems and hardships in day-to-day life, and where young people’s dream is to emigrate, I hope that the Balkan Chamber Orchestra exists as an orchestra with somewhat social status and will become a musical bridge towards mutual prosperity for all ethnicities.
(3) Initiatives to Combat Security Threats
A. Counter-Terrorism Measures
Amid a growing threat of terrorist attacks by groups such as ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), 2014 was a year in which the whole of the international community acknowledged once more the importance of counter-terrorism measures. ISIL presented a threat to the international community on a scale never previously posed by conventional terrorist groups. Many foreign nationals have joined ISIL as fighters, giving rise to fears that those foreign fighters could commit terrorist attacks after returning to their home countries. The problem of “foreign terrorist fighters” has been debated among members of the international community, including at the UN, and the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2178 on September 24. Co-sponsored by Japan, this resolution requires member states to ensure that, in addition to existing measures such as regulations concerning the financing of terrorist activities, they make it a criminal offense under their domestic laws to (1) travel or attempt to travel; (2) finance travel; or (3) organize or facilitate travel, where this travel is for the purpose of the perpetration, planning, or preparation of, or participation in, terrorist acts or the providing or receiving of terrorist training.
The Leaders’ Declaration issued at the Brussels G7 Summit (in Belgium) in June also reiterated the leaders’ condemnation of terrorism and their commitment to cooperate in all relevant fora to prevent and respond to terrorism. In September, Foreign Minister Kishida attended the Fifth Ministerial Plenary (in New York) of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF)1. As well as strongly condemning ISIL’s acts of violence, he endorsed the activities of the GCTF and announced that, as part of its cooperation in the international fight against terror, Japan would provide additional support worth approximately 25.5 million US dollars to enable relevant countries to combat ISIL and other extremist organizations, as well as offering additional support to Nigeria to build capacity in its criminal justice system.
- 1 Established in September 2011 after the US advocated the founding of a new multilateral framework on counter-terrorism measures. Its aim is to enable practitioners to share experiences, expertise, and best practice (examples of success), and to support capacity building in fields such as the rule of law, border control, and measures against violent extremism. Its members include the EU and 29 countries, including the G8 members (the UN is a partner).
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and other terrorist organizations continued to be active in North Africa and the Sahel region in 2014. As part of the specific measures formulated by Foreign Minister Kishida, “Strengthening of measures against international terrorism” in the wake of the 2013 terrorism incident in Algeria, Japan again undertook projects in 2014 to support counter-terrorism capacity building via the UNODC and other international organizations. In addition, as part of the TICAD V support measures, Japan held a workshop on counter-terrorism measures.
Within the ARF framework, the 12th ARF Inter-Sessional Meeting on Counter-Terrorism and Transnational Crime (ISM-CTTC) took place in Bali (Indonesia) in April. In May, the 9th ASEAN–Japan Counter-Terrorism Dialogue was held in Singapore, where participants discussed each country’s projects of counter-terrorism measures. In June, consultations of the ASEAN Senior Officials Meeting on Transnational Crime (SOMTC) took place within the ASEAN plus Japan and ASEAN plus Three (China, Japan and the Republic of Korea) frameworks in Brunei Darussalam. Furthermore, the ASEAN–Japan Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Crime was adopted at the 17th ASEAN–Japan Summit in Myanmar in November.
In the area of bilateral and trilateral cooperation, Japan, US and Australia held the Trilateral Strategic Dialogue Counter-Terrorism Consultations (in Adelaide, Australia) in February, while the Japan–UK Counter-Terrorism Consultations (in London, UK) took place in April. Through these meetings, Japan is strengthening its direct partnerships with other countries in such areas as the exchange of information concerning the terrorism situation and consultations in the international arena.
To prevent developing countries and other nations that do not necessarily have adequate counter-terrorism capabilities from becoming a hotbed of terrorism, Japan is attaching a high priority to support capacity building of each country. More specifically, Japan is using ODA to provide technical assistance and equipment in fields including (1) immigration control; (2) aviation security; (3) port and maritime security; (4) customs cooperation; (5) export controls; (6) law enforcement cooperation; (7) measures to prevent the financing of terrorism; (8) counter-terrorism measures focused on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats; and (9) the implementation of conventions on the prevention of terrorism2. Following on from 2013, Japan broadened its focus from Southeast Asia, which had hitherto been the priority region, and strengthened support in North Africa and the Sahel region.
- 2 For details of the various conventions on the prevention of terrorism, see http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/terro/kyoryoku_04.html. Japan has concluded 13 conventions on the prevention of terrorism.
International sanctions play a major role in the fight against terrorism. Japan has steadily implemented UN Security Council resolutions that prescribe sanctions against terrorists and terrorist organizations, by imposing measures including assets freeze under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act and deportation of terrorists under the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act.
In response to the terrorist attacks in Paris and the murder of Japanese nationals by ISIL in early 2015, Japan is moving forward with initiatives centered on three key pillars: (1) strengthening counter-terrorism measures (including the provision of 15.5 million US dollars in counter-terrorism capacity building assistance in the Middle East and Africa via the UNODC’s support for developing counter-terrorism legislation and border control projects); (2) enhancing diplomacy toward stability and prosperity in the Middle East; and (3) assistance in creating societies resilient to radicalization.
In February 2015, State Minister for Foreign Affairs Yasuhide Nakayama attended the White House Summit on Countering Violent Extremism (in Washington, D.C.), which was hosted by US Secretary of State John Kerry. As well as expressing his gratitude for the other countries’ cooperation following the murder of Japanese nationals by terrorists, he explained that Japan would implement comprehensive foreign policy initiatives based on the aforementioned three pillars in response to this incident.
B. Criminal Justice Initiatives
The UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice are the core bodies in shaping policy on crime prevention and criminal justice in the international community. At the election of member states of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice held in April 2014, Japan was elected to serve as a member state from 2015 until 2017 (Japan has served continuously since the establishment of the Commission in 1992). Japan also actively participated in discussions at the Commission in May, outlining Japan’s efforts to implement measures against cybercrime and other transnational crime.
Japan is undertaking deliberations concerning the conclusion of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and supplementary protocols, in order to prevent and encourage cooperation in the fight against transnational organized crime by putting in place an international legal framework to tackle transnational organized crime.
In FY2014, Japan decided to contribute approximately 520,000 US dollars to the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund established by the UNODC. This money is intended to be used for the UNODC’s measures to combat corruption and trafficking in persons in Asia, and its measures against cybercrime, as well as for providing support for criminal justice reforms in Myanmar, in collaboration with the UN Asia and Far East Institute (UNAFEI).
C. Anti-Corruption Measures
In 2014, as part of the anti-corruption measures undertaken within the context of the G7 framework, Japan cooperated in an asset recovery initiative seeking to confiscate and repatriate to the country of origin the proceeds of corruption that have found their way overseas. As well as participating in the Ukraine Forum on Asset Recovery in London in April, Japan took part in the Third Arab Forum on Asset Recovery, which was held in Switzerland in November. In addition, in light of the need to support capacity building in countries requesting assistance with asset recovery, Japan supported a training course on asset recovery through the UNODC for Tunisian law enforcement authorities in January. Japan’s activities within the G20 framework were mainly focused on the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, participating in the development of the G20 High-Level Principle on Beneficial Ownership Transparency and the 2015-16 G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan.
In addition, Japan is undertaking deliberations concerning the conclusion of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, which prescribes measures to effectively address such corruption as bribery and embezzlement of property by public officials, as well as international cooperation. In October, in Siem Riep (Cambodia), Japan, the UNODC, and the Government of Cambodia co-hosted a regional meeting on curbing foreign bribery, with the participation of law enforcement and judicial authorities primarily from the Asia-Pacific region. Furthermore, Japan decided to contribute approximately 1 million US dollars to the UNODC’s projects from the FY2014 supplementary budget, in order to support anti-corruption measures being undertaken by the new administration in Afghanistan.
D. Measures to Combat Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism
In terms of measures to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism, the international framework called Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF)3 has been proceeding with discussions concerning the international standards that countries should implement, as well as examining measures from new perspectives. As a founding member, Japan has been an active participant in these discussions. Moreover, at the FATF plenary meetings, Japan explains the situation and initiatives implemented since the 2008 Mutual Evaluation of Japan.
- 3 An international framework established at the 1989 G7 Summit at La Grande Arche (in France), in order to promote international measures to combat money laundering. As well as 34 countries and regions, primarily Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries such as Japan, its membership includes 2 international organizations. International standards that countries should implement in regard to measures to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism, and measures against the financing of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are set out as FATF Recommendations. In addition, countries and regions that fail to take adequate steps to implement these recommendations are identified and blacklisted as countries and regions in which money laundering and the financing of terrorism are acknowledged to pose a serious problem or threat.
E. Measures to Combat Trafficking in Persons
In light of the increasingly sophisticated and latent methods used for trafficking in persons in recent years, Japan has been actively involved in international initiatives, including international support using ODA, as well as support for enhancing assistance with international investigations and for repatriating and reintegrating the victims of trafficking, based on Japan’s 2009 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons. In December 2014, as well as formulating the new 2014 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Japan decided to establish the ministerial-level Council for Promotion of Measures Against Trafficking in Persons. Moreover, in February, Japan dispatched the Government Delegation on Anti-Human Trafficking Measures to the Philippines, and exchanged opinions with representatives of relevant institutions in the Philippines concerning the enhancement of bilateral cooperation in measures to combat trafficking in persons. Furthermore, Japan is also supporting the repatriation and reintegration of the victims of trafficking in persons through its financial contributions to the International Organization for Migration (IOM).
F. Measures to Combat Illicit Drug Trafficking
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) is a central policy making body of the United Nations system on drug-related matters. At the 57th session of CND, which was held in March 2014, a high-level review of the 2009 Political Declaration and Plan of Action was carried out, covering the key topics of demand reduction, supply reduction, money laundering, and judicial cooperation. Moreover, lively discussions took place concerning the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs (UNGASS), which is due to be held in 2016. Japan outlined its recent initiatives concerning New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and co-hosted a side event with the UNODC, focused on methamphetamine.
In May, Japan and the UNODC co-hosted the press launch of the “Global Synthetic Drugs Assessment 2014” in Tokyo, which UNODC reports on drugs such as NPS and methamphetamine. In August, a regional workshop regarding measures to combat NPS was held in Myanmar, partly utilizing Japan’s contribution. At this workshop, Japan outlined the “Emergency Measures against NPS” which was formulated in July by the leadership of Prime Minister Abe.
In 2014, Japan contributed approximately 450,000 US dollars to the UNODC Fund of the UN International Drug Control Programme, and decided to continue the contribution for projects such as synthetic drug analysis in the Asia-Pacific region and monitoring of illicit opium cultivation in Myanmar. Furthermore, Japan has contributed approximately 2.5 million US dollars from the supplementary budget to fund the UNODC drug control projects, including the strengthening of border control in Afghanistan and neighboring countries (Iran and Central Asia), support for alternative development and female drug users.