Chapter II. The International Situation and Japan's Foreign Policy

As mentioned in the previous chapter, the international community is steadily working to establish a framework for peace and prosperity amid an environment fraught with uncertainty. Efforts are being undertaken in all realms: in the political arena, the international community seeks to ensure peace and security; in the economic arena, it is endeavoring to maintain and enhance prosperity; and on global issues it is tackling a broad agenda which includes the environment and population. This chapter deals with the moves underway in each of these areas.

Part 1: Politics and Security

(1) Ensuring Japan's Security

There remain various elements of uncertainty in the international community in the post-Cold War period. The Asia-Pacific region, where Japan is located, enjoys relatively stable political and social conditions, with remarkable economic growth in the countries of the region, but it also faces a host of unresolved problems and elements of instability, including heightened military tensions between the North and the South on the Korean peninsula, North Korea's suspected development of nuclear weapons, and the dispute over the territorial claims to the Spratly Islands.

In this situation, Japan embraces a security policy having three main pillars: firmly maintaining the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements, securing Japan's own appropriate defense capability, and making active diplomatic efforts to secure international peace and security.

(a) Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements

(i) The Significance of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements

U.S. military deterrence based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty is necessary in order for Japan, with its policy of adhering to the Three Non-Nuclear Principles and maintaining a minimum defense capability, to enjoy peace and prosperity. The Security Arrangements serve as a political foundation for a broad range of cooperative relations between Japan and the United States in the international community. Furthermore, the Security Arrangements have been increasingly important in promoting peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region by securing the U.S. presence, which is a stabilizing factor in the region.

Based on this recognition, the Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the United States reconfirmed their intention to firmly maintain the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements at the Japan-U.S. Summit in July 1994. In addition, a substantive dialogue has been conducted at various levels in order to enhance the credibility of the Security Arrangements: a Japan-U.S. Security Consultative Committee meeting was held in March 1994 for the first time with the upgraded membership of cabinet ministers from both countries; the U.S. Secretary of Defense visited Japan twice; and Minister for Foreign Affairs Yohei Kono and Director General of the Defense Agency Tokuichiro Tamazawa made visits to the United States.

(ii) Efforts to Ensure Smooth and Effective Operation of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements

Based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, between 45,000 and 48,000 U.S. forces personnel are stationed in Japan (see note 1). The Government of Japan has been voluntarily making the utmost effort to support the stationing of the U.S. forces. Since FY 1987, it has borne the labor costs of Japanese employees working with the U.S. forces in Japan, and since FY 1991 it has borne their water, heating, and other utility costs pursuant to the Special Measures Agreement. The stationing expenses of U.S. forces in Japan borne by the Government of Japan amounted to approximately 594.4 billion yen in FY 1994. The Government of the United States highly values Japan's efforts. In particular, given the trend within the United States to cut defense spending, Japan's efforts to bear the stationing expenses of U.S. forces in Japan have been increasingly important in ensuring the presence of U.S. forces, a stabilizing factor in the Asia-Pacific region.

The impact of U.S. military activities in Japan on residents living near U.S. military facilities and areas has been a problem. The Government of Japan has implemented various measures in an attempt to harmonize the need to facilitate the stationing of U.S. forces in order to achieve the objectives of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty with the desire of nearby residents to limit their impact as much as possible. For example, the Government of Japan has made continued efforts to proceed with the realignment and consolidation of U.S. military facilities and areas in Okinawa and to have the maximum possible amount of night landing practice by U.S. carrier-borne aircraft done on Iwojima. With regard to the issue of the construction of housing for U.S. military personnel and their dependents at Ikego in the city of Zushi, Kanagawa Prefecture, the Government of Japan reached an agreement with the local authorities and citizens in November 1994, enabling construction.

(iii) Cooperation with the United States on Security and Defense

With the recent technological progress in Japan, the United States has shown a growing interest in mutual technology exchanges with Japan in the defense area, and the promotion of such exchanges has become more important than ever for securing the effective implementation of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements. From this point of view, a cooperative research project on a ducted rocket engine is now underway, and five other research projects, including an advanced steel technology project, are under consideration. In addition, the cooperative development of a new support fighter for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, the FS-X, is currently underway. This program has great significance from the standpoint of fostering Japan-U.S. technology exchanges, as it brings together advanced technologies from both countries.

In response to the danger of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction within the international community in the post-Cold War period, the Clinton Administration has developed Theater Missile Defense (TMD) systems to protect U.S. allies, friendly nations, and U.S. forces deployed forward from missile attacks. The United States has been calling on its allies for cooperation on the TMD initiative. The Government of Japan intends to evaluate the significance of the TMD in its defense plan with the support of the United States and thus has been consulting with the United States at the working level.

(b) Improvement of Japan's Defense Capability

Under its Peace Constitution, Japan is making efforts to develop a moderate yet effective defense capability based on the basic principles of maintaining an exclusively defense-oriented policy and of not becoming a military power capable of threatening other countries. It is important for Japan to make maximum efforts in this area, in order to enhance the credibility and effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements.

(c) Diplomatic Efforts to Ensure International Peace and Security

Another main pillar of Japan's security policy is its diplomatic efforts to enhance international peace and stability. The situation in the Asia-Pacific region, where Japan is located, is characterized by complex geopolitical conditions and diversity in the perceptions of an outside threat. To ensure Japan's security and regional peace and stability in such an environment, various efforts must be made while maintaining the U.S. military presence. Bilateral and subregional dialogues and cooperation must be carried out with a view to promoting the settlement of conflicts and confrontations and fostering regional stability; a region-wide political and security dialogue must be conducted to enhance the transparency of policies and mutual reassurance; and political stability must be strengthened through such means as providing assistance and cooperation for economic development in the countries of the region.

With regard to subregional cooperation in Northeast Asia, the countries concerned--mainly Japan, the United States, and the Republic of Korea--are currently working cooperatively toward a solution to North Korea's nuclear issue. It is also important to have a discussion on the stability of this area from a medium- and long-term perspective. The political and security dialogue in the Asia-Pacific region has been underway since 1994 in the ASEAN Regional Forum (see also Chapter I, Section 5).

Japan must also continue to engage in a dialogue and cooperate with Europe, where a new security structure for the post-Cold War era is being pursued. Japan should also contribute to the resolution of regional conflicts by participating in U.N. peace-keeping operations and working toward arms control, disarmament, and nuclear non-proliferation. Active efforts in these areas are essential for ensuring Japan's own security as well as securing international peace and stability.

(2) A Comprehensive Approach to Regional Conflicts

As mentioned in Chapter I, the international community has been tackling regional conflicts in a comprehensive manner, mainly through the United Nations, by combining such efforts as conflict prevention, political settlements, ceasefire and election monitoring, humanitarian assistance, and reconstruction and development assistance.

(a) Conflict Prevention

With the increasing danger of the outbreak and prolongation of regional conflicts, there is a growing recognition of the necessity to prevent conflicts from arising or escalating. Preventive diplomacy, in the broad sense of the term, encompasses economic cooperation and other measures that help to dispel social instability, one of the roots of conflict. In a narrower sense, the term refers to such specific means as Confidence-Building Measures, fact finding, early warning, preventive deployment of peace-keeping operations, and the establishment of demilitarized zones, as described in U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's 1992 report, "An Agenda for Peace."

In the former Yugoslavia, the U.N. Protection Force has been deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to prevent the escalation of the conflict there, and Japan has been extending economic assistance to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albania for preventive purposes.

Regional organizations can also play an important role in preventing conflicts. In Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) attaches importance to early warning, conflict prevention, and crisis management in its activities. Specifically, it has dispatched conflict-prevention and crisis-management missions to the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. It is also upgrading its Confidence-Building Measures with the aim of ensuring mutual transparency in the military arena. In other regions, regional organizations have not gained as much experience as those in Europe. In the Asia-Pacific region, however, the ASEAN Regional Forum has been started as a venue for dialogue and cooperation, to enhance the transparency of policies and promote mutual reassurance among the participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

(b) Political Settlements

In the event that a conflict breaks out, a political settlement among the parties to the conflict should be promoted in order to attain their agreement to a ceasefire and peace. To this end, in addition to direct negotiations among these parties, it is important that the United Nations and major countries concerned help create a framework for an agreement acceptable to all parties to the conflict, and that the international community as a whole express its unified support for the framework in the United Nations or in multilateral conferences. In some cases, it may also be effective in promoting a settlement to show the parties to the conflict a concrete vision of what the end of the conflict will bring about in terms of reconstruction and development assistance.

Such a process has been unfolding in the Middle East peace process, in the former Yugoslavia, and in Somalia. In the Middle East peace process, a peace treaty was concluded between Israel and Jordan in October 1994. In Somalia, under circumstances where a political settlement was agreed upon by only some of the warring factions, the U.N. Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was given a mandate to take enforcement measures but did not achieve the intended results. Based on this experience, a settlement involving all parties concerned is now being pursued. Japan has actively participated in the discussions on the political settlements of these conflicts in the United Nations and at the G-7 Summit meetings.

(c) Ceasefires and Election Monitoring

The U.N. peace-keeping operations (PKO) play a major role in implementing ceasefire agreements, maintaining law and order, and ensuring that fair elections are held to establish legitimate governments (see also Chapter I, Section 4).

The OSCE, meanwhile, plans to monitor elections in the former Soviet Union and other areas and is considering dispatching peace-keeping forces to monitor the truce in Nagorno-Karabakh, a former Soviet territory.

In 1994, Japan dispatched 5 headquarters staff officers, 48 logistics unit personnel, and 15 international polling station officers to the U.N. Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), as well as 15 election monitors to the U.N. Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL).

(d) Dealing with Humanitarian Problems

As is evident in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, regional conflicts often cause critical humanitarian problems, such as the emergence of massive numbers of refugees and displaced persons. Such relevant international organizations as the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) play a central role in providing relief assistance to refugees and displaced persons, as well as in providing support for their repatriation and resettlement when conflicts cease. Many peace-keeping operations are assigned the task of supporting humanitarian assistance activities. Japan provides financial and material contributions through the activities of international organizations while also providing bilateral food aid to the countries concerned. Moreover, in 1994 Japan dispatched personnel mainly consisting of units of the Self-Defense Forces to support Rwandan refugees, in the first case of international humanitarian relief assistance based on the International Peace Cooperation Law (see also Chapter I, Section 2).

In addition to the problem of refugees and displaced persons, it has become important to deal with such grave violations of international humanitarian law as genocide and torture committed during a conflict. To try and punish individuals who have committed such crimes, the U.N. Security Council set up an international tribunal related to the former Yugoslavia in May 1993 and another related to Rwanda in November 1994. Moreover, with support growing for the creation of an international framework for punishing individuals who have committed such crimes, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a resolution on the establishment of a permanent international criminal court in December 1994 (see note 2).

(e) Reconstruction and Development Assistance

In order to achieve a solution to a regional conflict, not only must the hostilities be stopped but lasting peace and stability must be ensured through assistance for the reconstruction of the society and economy in the region and the creation of a framework for coexistence and cooperation in the future.

From this point of view, the Middle East has seen regional cooperation promoted, alongside direct negotiations among the parties concerned, through the holding of multilateral working groups and through the Middle Eastern and North African Economic Summit in 1994, both of which venues included countries outside the region. Japan is actively involved in these international efforts and is providing financial support to help install an interim system of self-government and improve social and economic conditions in Palestine (see also Chapter I, Section 2).

With regard to reconstruction assistance to Cambodia, Japan has been playing a central role by chairing both the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia and the International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC), the second meeting of which was held in Tokyo in March 1994. Japan is also extending cooperation through the United Nations to improve Cambodia's judicial system.

In addition, Japan has been providing financial assistance and technical cooperation for reconstruction in El Salvador and other countries and has decided to resume economic cooperation to Haiti in order to assist in that country's reconstruction.

(3) Promoting Arms Control and Disarmament and Strengthening the Non-Proliferation Regime

Moves toward disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament, have been gaining ground since the end of the Cold War, with the conclusion of U.S.-Russia agreements on nuclear disarmament, the conclusion of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the extension of the moratorium on nuclear testing by major nuclear-weapon states, and progress in negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT). At the same time, the harsh economic conditions in the former Soviet states and other countries have clouded the outlook for the elimination of their nuclear weapons, and there remain grave concerns about the export of weapons for the purpose of gaining hard currencies and about the drain on materials and scientists related to weapons of mass destruction. The growing risk of regional conflicts in the post-Cold War period increases the demand for weapons.

In response to this situation the international community is making efforts to buttress the moves toward disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament, and is seriously attempting to strengthen the non-proliferation regime for weapons of mass destruction. In 1994 a resolution submitted by Japan on nuclear disarmament with a view to the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons was adopted by an overwhelming majority in the U.N. General Assembly. Japan should continue to play an active and creative role in this regard.

(a) Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament Efforts

(i) Reduction of the U.S. and Russian Nuclear Arsenals

In February 1994 Ukraine became the last of the five countries--the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus--to ratify the first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) concluded by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1991 (see note 3). Entry into force of the treaty had earlier come to a standstill when Russia made the exchange of instruments of ratification conditional on Ukraine's accession to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and Ukraine in turn demanded economic compensation for giving up the nuclear weapons that had been deployed within its borders, as well as security assurances from the nuclear-weapon states.

In this situation, the major countries, including Japan, urged Ukraine to accede to the NPT at an early stage, which led the Ukrainian Parliament in November 1994 to decide to accede to the treaty on condition that the nuclear-weapon states sign a document legally binding them to guarantee Ukraine's security. In December Ukraine acceded to the treaty, which resulted in the entry into force of START I. This was an epoch-making development in nuclear disarmament, and it has raised hopes that the United States and Russia will ratify START II at an early stage.

With the former Soviet states left with nuclear weapons suffering from severe economic conditions, the United States and other countries are providing assistance for the disposal of nuclear weapons. Japan, for its part, decided in April 1993 to give a total of about $100 million in aid for this purpose and has concluded bilateral agreements with Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus that set up frameworks for the implementation of the aid. Within these frameworks, a variety of projects are now taking shape. In addition, Japan, a major contributing country along with the United States and the European Union, is contributing to the establishment of an International Scientific and Technology Center, whose objective is to prevent the proliferation of technologies and know-how on weapons of mass destruction from the former Soviet Union.

(ii) Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

A conference will be convened in 1995, 25 years after the entry into force of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, to decide whether the treaty shall continue to be in force indefinitely or be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. This conference will be extremely important for the future of the non-proliferation regime. Many nonaligned countries have yet to clarify their position on the extension, maintaining that they will consider the question in conjunction with such issues as how much progress has been made on nuclear disarmament and the CTBT negotiations by the time of the conference.

Preventing the emergence of new nuclear-weapon states by stabilizing the non-proliferation regime is crucial to world security. Recognizing this, Japan has on a number of occasions declared at home and abroad that it supports the indefinite extension of the treaty, as do the other major industrial countries. In the Chairman's Statement at the July 1994 Naples Summit, the leaders of the G-7 countries and Russia made clear their support for the indefinite extension of the treaty. Needless to say, such an indefinite extension must not be interpreted to mean that the nuclear powers can hold on to their nuclear arsenals permanently. Japan intends to continue calling on all the nuclear powers to step up their efforts for nuclear disarmament, including an early conclusion of the CTBT negotiations, with the ultimate objective of eliminating all nuclear weapons.

As of the end of 1994, 166 countries had become parties to the NPT, but a number of countries, including India, Pakistan, and Israel, remain outside the treaty. Urging these countries to accede to the treaty is essential for strengthening the non-proliferation regime. In 1993, Japan started nuclear non-proliferation consultations with India and Pakistan to urge their accession.

(iii) Negotiations on a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

1994 saw continued progress toward a comprehensive nuclear test ban, building on what had been achieved in 1993. Russia (from October 1991), France (from April 1992), and the United States (from October 1992) have all been observing a moratorium on nuclear tests, and the United Kingdom has effectively suspended such tests as well. Full-scale deliberations on a CTBT began at the Conference on Disarmament in January 1994, with energetic discussions on creating a universal and multilaterally and effectively verifiable comprehensive test ban treaty. As a result, in September 1994 a rolling text of the treaty that could serve as a basis for future negotiations was drafted, although the draft is a compilation of different opinions. It is hoped that further progress will be made in the CTBT negotiations, with the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference near at hand. At a time when these negotiations are being carried out energetically, it is regrettable that China conducted nuclear tests twice in 1994--in June and October. Japan has repeatedly called on China not to conduct any more nuclear tests in the future.

(iv) The Resolution on Nuclear Disarmament with a View to the Ultimate Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

As the only country to have suffered nuclear attacks, Japan submitted a draft resolution to the 49th U.N. General Assembly on "Nuclear Disarmament with a View to the Ultimate Elimination of Nuclear Weapons" in order to promote realistic and steady nuclear disarmament with the ultimate objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons. The resolution was adopted by an overwhelming majority (see note 4).

The preamble of the resolution welcomes the nuclear disarmament efforts of the United States, Russia, and other nuclear-weapon states and the positive developments in the CTBT negotiations, and it praises the role played by the NPT. The resolution urges the states not parties to the NPT to accede to it at the earliest possible date and calls upon the nuclear-weapon states to pursue their nuclear disarmament efforts with the ultimate objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons. It also calls upon all countries to fully implement their commitments in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. It is of great significance that the adoption of this resolution clearly sets the basic direction of future nuclear disarmament.

(b) The Ban on Other Weapons of Mass Destruction

(i) The Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention, a comprehensive treaty aimed at the elimination of chemical weapons, was opened for signature in January 1993 (see note 5). As of December 1994, 159 countries had signed the treaty and 18 countries had ratified it. The treaty may enter into force in 1995, and a preparatory commission of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is now looking into administrative and financial matters pertaining to the establishment of the organization and the procedure for implementing the verification mechanism (see note 6). Japan has actively contributed to the commission's work and is preparing for early ratification of the CWC.

(ii) The Biological Weapons Convention

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) prohibits the production, stockpiling, possession, and transfer of biological weapons, but the lack of a verification system in the treaty has been pointed out as a major flaw since its adoption in 1976. For this reason, an Ad Hoc Working Group of Governmental Experts was established in 1991 to examine possible verification measures from a scientific and technical standpoint. Based on the group's findings, a special conference of the state parties to the treaty was held in September 1994 and a decision was made on the establishment of a new Ad Hoc Working Group to consider a legal framework for strengthening the treaty, including the possibility of establishing a verification system. The Working Group is scheduled to commence its work from the second half of 1995. The state parties to the BWC numbered 131 as of July 14, 1994.

(c) Conventional Weapons Transfers

Beyond the issue of weapons of mass destruction, the unrestrained transfer and excessive accumulation of conventional weapons could also be a destabilizing factor at the regional level and in some cases contribute to the outbreak and escalation of regional conflicts.

As a result of an initiative set forth by Japan and other countries, the U.N. Register of Conventional Arms, which is aimed at increasing the transparency and openness of armament, commenced operations in January 1992. A total of 93 countries reported their transfers of offensive weapons in seven categories, such as battle tanks and fighter planes, in the first register in 1992, and 83 countries have done so in the 1993 register as of October 1994. A major task with regard to the system presently used by the register is to secure universality by increasing the number of participating countries. Japan has played a major role in the smooth operation of the register by holding an Asia-Pacific workshop and other events to promote better understanding of and further participation in the register. Japan is also making strenuous efforts to strengthen the register in cooperation with other countries by voluntarily submitting data on its military holdings.

The uncontrolled transfer of conventional weapons also causes humanitarian problems. In particular, antipersonnel land mines laid down indiscriminately at the outbreak of a conflict and later abandoned have caused serious casualties among civilians, which is a big issue from a humanitarian standpoint. In light of this situation, the U.N. General Assembly in 1993 adopted a resolution requesting a review of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), including the regulations on land mines. At the request of the resolution, a Working Group of Governmental Experts has been established to prepare for a CCW Review Conference, scheduled to be held in September 1995, which aims to strengthen the regulations on land mines. There are also other issues to be addressed, such as the uncontrolled transfer of and illicit traffic in small arms, which have done much to exacerbate fighting and increase casualties in civil wars in Africa and elsewhere.

(d) The Smuggling of Nuclear Materials

The risk of the smuggling of nuclear materials, which surfaced with a series of publicized cases in Europe in the summer of 1994, is another threat to the peace and security of the international community as a whole. Japan is cooperating with the former Soviet republics to control nuclear materials and is actively participating in international efforts to strengthen the system for combating smuggling.

(e) Strengthening Export Controls

(i) Export Controls to Prevent the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles

To prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and the missiles designed to deliver them, export controls are enforced on the relevant equipment and technology in accordance with international guidelines and agreements. These are outlined by such export control regimes as the Nuclear Suppliers Group, with 30 member countries, for nuclear-related items (see note 7); the Australia Group, with 28 member countries, for items related to biological and chemical weapons; and the Missile Technology Control Regime, with 25 member countries, for missile-related technologies. Japan is actively participating in these multilateral export control regimes.

(ii) The Post-COCOM Regime

While the end of the Cold War led to the termination in March 1994 of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM), which had been set up to control exports of strategic equipment and technology to communist countries, there are growing concerns about the proliferation of arms in the wake of recent outbreaks and escalation of regional conflicts. To prevent such proliferation, consultations are taking place to establish a new forum to replace the COCOM (see note 8). The objective of the new organization will be to foster international cooperation in controlling exports of conventional arms and dual-use items, bearing in mind the necessity for strict export controls vis-à-vis areas of concern. It has been agreed that individual countries will maintain their own export control capabilities on a temporary basis until the new forum is set up. Japan's export controls are in line with this agreement.

(iii) Cooperation on Developing and Strengthening Export Control Systems in Non-Member States

To enhance international export controls, the aforementioned groups have been calling on non-members to develop and improve their export control systems. As part of such efforts, Japan has organized seminars and training programs for other Asian countries and the new independent states of the former Soviet Union, to improve their export control capacities and foster dialogues on export control issues.

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