Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2013
Regional and internal conflicts arising from ethnic, religious, and historical differences continue to pose problems for the international community. Such conflicts generate a great number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), and lead to humanitarian issues and violations of human rights. Furthermore, they also destroy achievements made through many years of development efforts, and cause massive economic losses. For these reasons, engagement in “peacebuilding” is an issue for the entire international community, which could build a foundation for development to prevent conflicts, their recurrence and to consolidate sustainable peace. For example, discussions on consistent approach of development support ranging from the resolution of conflicts, recovery, and reconstruction to nation-building are ongoing at forums such as the UN Peacebuilding Commission established in 2005. In addition, the importance of peacebuilding has been recognized at high level meetings, taking advantage of the occasion of the United Nations General Assembly.
Japan provides support that includes assistance for refugees under conflicts, food assistance, and electoral assistance for peace (political) process. After the end of conflicts, Japan assists in the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of former soldiers to ensure the consolidation of peace. It also provides support to rebuild the security sector and ensure domestic security and stability. In addition, Japan supports the reconstruction of affected countries by working to repatriate and resettle refugees and IDPs, and to rebuild basic infrastructure. Further, in order to consolidate sustainable peace and prevent the rise of another conflict, efforts are made in social sectors such as healthcare and education as well as strengthening governmental, judicial, and police functions, and supporting the development of economic infrastructure and institutions. Moreover, maximum considerations are given to the importance of the roles that women play in peacebuilding in such undertakings. In order to provide the support in a seamless manner, Japan extends bilateral assistance through international organizations together with grant aid, technical cooperation, and ODA loans.
●Human Resource Development for Peacebuilding
Requirements in the fields of peacebuilding are becoming more diverse and more complex. In response to these needs on the ground, Japan has conducted the Program for Human Resource Development in Asia for Peacebuilding since FY2007 to develop civilian experts from Japan and other Asian countries who will be capable of playing an active role in this field. Pillars of the program consist of coursework in Japan, where participants acquire the practical knowledge and skills required for the peacebuilding field, overseas attachment, where participants engage in actual work at local offices of international organizations in the peacebuilding field, and support for graduates to build their careers. To date, 226 Japanese and other Asians have participated in the training courses. Many participants who completed the programs are now actively working in the field of peacebuilding such as in South Sudan, Sierra Leone and Afghanistan.