Climate Change

May 1, 2023
(Photo)The 21st Informal Meeting on Further Actions against Climate Change

1. Objectives

Japan and Brazil have been hosting the Informal Meeting on Further Actions against Climate Change (commonly known as the Japan-Brazil Dialogue) in Tokyo every year since 2002. The objective of the meeting is to have discussions in frank and informal manner among lead negotiators and other officials from various countries. This year, the 21st meeting was held in person for the first time in three years. The participants discussed the outlooks and issues of negotiations toward COP28 to be held in the United Arab Emirates from November 30th to December 12th.

2. Date, Venue and Co-Chairs

(1) Date:
Thursday 16th and Friday 17th of March, 2023
(2) Venue:
Mita Conference Hall, Tokyo
(3) Co-Chairs:
(Japan) Ambassador, Mr. AKAHORI Takeshi, Assistant Vice-Minister and Director-General for Global Issues, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(Brazil) Ambassador, Mr. André Aranha Corrêa do Lago, Ambassador, Vice-Minister for Climate, Energy and Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

3. Participants and Observers


Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Egypt (COP27 Presidency), European Commission, Sweden, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Switzerland, UAE (COP28 Presidency), Uruguay, UK, US


The UNFCCC Secretariat, SBSTA Chair, C2ES

4. Overview of Discussions

(1) Session 1: Global Stocktake (GST)

All of participants expressed their intension to contribute to the GST process this year under their recognition that the completion of the first GST is a key outcome of COP28. Some participants also expressed their expectations to the role of the High Level Committee for managing the entire process toward the GST outcome, and opinions that Parties should take up outcomes that could lead raising ambition, from not only inside but also outside the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement to the GST process.
Many participants pointed out the importance of reviewing global climate actions toward the goals of the Paris Agreement in an inclusive manner based on the best available science, and providing recommendations for Parties and Non-Party Stakeholders to take more ambitious climate actions. Some participants stated that recommendations included in the GST outcome should be oriented to strengthening mitigation actions to achieve the 1.5 degree Celsius goal of the Paris Agreement, covering not only 2035 nationally determined contributions (NDCs) but also 2030 NDCs, whereas other participants stated that the outcome should cover mitigation, adaptation, means of implementation, response measure, loss and damage in a balanced manner as stipulated in Decision under the Paris Agreement

(2) Session 2: Mitigation

Many Participants expected COP28 to achieve outcomes to enhance mitigation ambition and strengthen implementation building on the outcomes of previous COPs including COP26 and COP27. Some Participants pointed out the importance of setting Parties’ NDCs to align with the 1.5 degree Celsius goal of the Paris Agreement based on the best available science such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Reports (AR6). Some Participants expressed their views that enhancing mitigation ambition and strengthening implementation require supports to developing countries including finance, technology transfer and capacity building.
Regarding the mitigation work programme decided at COP27, participants mentioned their expectations for outcomes of the global dialogues under the programme to identify potential to enhance mitigation ambition and implementation and to share existing best practices among Parties. Participants also pointed out that Parties should create political momentum for enhancing mitigation ambition and implementation through the high-level ministerial roundtable to be heled at COP28, based on outcomes of the global dialogues and the GST process to be conducted in parallel

(3) Session 3: Adaptation

Many participants expressed their expectations for the outcome to lead to Parties’ transformative adaptation actions through the discussions under the Glasgow Sharm el-Sheik work programme on global goal on adaptation (GGA) adopted at COP26. In addition, the importance of making inputs on adaptation actions by the GGA to the GST process was pointed out.
Regarding the development of the framework decided to initiate at COP27, some participants stated that the framework should be designed to contribute to strengthening adaptation actions both quantitatively and qualitatively, and built on accumulated knowledge and experiences through existing adaptation related activities under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement. Some participants stated their views that Parties should follow up adaptation finance supports through the framework.

(4) Session 4: Loss and Damage

Many participants welcomed decisions on funding arrangements including establishing a fund for responding to loss and damage and the operationalization of the Santiago Network at COP27 as a historical achievements.
A number of expectations were expressed including that the Transitional Committee advances discussions on loss and damage support, especially on identifying gaps within the current landscape, recipients and financial source. Regarding the financial sources, some participants pointed out the importance of expanding financial mobilization from a wide variety of sources, including private finance, beyond the traditional support from developed countries to developing countries, while others expressed their expectations for public financial supports from developed country Parties.
Expectations for strengthening support by MDBs and IFIs were also expressed as efforts outside the UNFCCC.

(5) Session 5: Climate Finance

Some participants pointed out the importance of mobilizing USD 100 billion per year as soon as possible and doubling adaptation finance support.
Some participants expressed their expectations for the Sharm el-Sheikh Dialogue on Article 2.1(c) of the Paris Agreement to create a common understanding on the article and necessary steps to operationalize it.
Regarding the new collective quantified goal (NCQG) on climate finance that has been discussed since CMA3, participants pointed out the necessity to narrow down options of the details of the NCQG for deciding in 2024.

(6) Session 6: Crosscutting Issues

Regarding the Just Transition Work Programme established at COP27, some participants suggested various themes to be discussed under the programme such as just energy transition, socioeconomic transformation and support for developing country Parties’ for transition to decarbonization.
Some participants expressed their expectations for the Ocean and Climate Change Dialogue to advance discussions on ocean-based solutions. In addition, many participants pointed out the importance of inclusive climate actions, and expressed their views that Parties should aim to improve inclusiveness through discussions including under agendas relating to indigenous people, gender and action for climate empowerment (ACE).
On matters relating to work after 2024, some participants pointed out the importance of creating momentum for submitting the biannual transparency reports (BTRs) under the enhanced transparency framework by the end of 2024.

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