Official Development Assistance (ODA)
2. Japan's Medium-Term Policy on Official Development Assistance (ODA)

II. Priority Issues and Sectors

In light of the basic approaches enunciated above, henceforth Japan will place greater emphasis on poverty alleviation programs and various aspects of social development, human resources development, policy-related assistance and other "soft" types of aid. This will be done while considering the balance with assistance aimed at economic and social infrastructure development. Japan will also continue to work actively on tackling global issues.

1. Support for Poverty Alleviation Programs and Social Development

The importance of combating poverty is fully reflected in the goals of DAC's "Development Partnership Strategy." This has also been confirmed in the so-called "20/20 Initiative" of the United Nation's World Summit for Social Development of 1995, which calls on industrial countries to earmark at least 20% of their economic assistance, and developing countries at least 20% of their national budgets, to basic social needs.4 The "Initiative for a Caring World" proposed by Japan5 advocates the sharing of knowledge and experience to improve the welfare of people in developing countries.

The following factors are of special importance in the fight against poverty: equitable distribution of the benefits of economic development, implementation of economic cooperation projects directly aimed at assisting the poor, and the sharing of Japan's own experiences of economic growth and poverty eradication with developing countries.

Assistance for basic education and health and medical services plays a critical role in poverty alleviation programs and social development projects. The perspective of "women in development" (WID) and gender issues is of similar importance for developing countries.6 As access to safe water constitutes a vital element in supporting human health, the scarcity of water resources could conceivably result in increased tensions in the future. For this reason, assistance for water resource development and the management and use of existing water resources has become increasingly important. To reduce regional disparities, assistance to rural and impoverished areas must be assigned greater importance. In many developing countries, large populations reside in rural areas. Thus, the elimination of poverty in such areas is of importance. The Asian currency and economic crisis has served to reiterate the importance of agriculture and of rural areas.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will endeavor to achieve the goals of the "20/20 Initiative," while keeping in mind the objectives outlined in the Development Partnership Strategy.
  • Japan will assist developing countries in their efforts to improve policy formulation and implementation capabilities and to comprehensively address poverty alleviation. Japan will emphasize software-oriented cooperation such as the development of institutions that will promote the distribution of the benefits of economic development to impoverished populations.
  • Japan will employ comprehensive and cross-sectoral approaches involving WID and gender considerations, job training and employment creation, and micro-financing. Japan will also emphasize community-oriented and participatory approaches to economic assistance.
  • To reduce regional disparities, assistance will be provided for promoting the key rural industries of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. Similarly, local industries will be nurtured to create new employment opportunities. Emphasis will be placed on improving the living environment and on training community organizations.

(1) Basic Education

Not only is access to education is a basic human right, it is a key factor in developing an effective response to the problems of poverty, population, and the environment in developing countries.

In the least-developed countries, as well as in many developing countries, access to elementary education is hampered by a lack of funds, educational facilities, teaching materials, and teachers. Consequently, nearly 860 million people throughout the world remain illiterate. The objectives of the Development Partnership Strategy include the promotion of elementary education and the elimination of gender disparities in elementary and secondary education. Japan's assistance in the field of basic education has included the construction of school buildings7 and the provision of equipment and materials. For the elimination of gender disparities in Asia and Africa, Japan has been supporting the activities of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for the education of girls.8

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • In addition to hardware-oriented assistance for the construction of schools and provision of equipment and materials, Japan will upgrade its advisory assistance in both the areas of course development and educational administration, including assistance for the enhancement of system and capacity building in school administration, curriculum and teaching materials development, and teacher training.
  • Japan will pay special attention to supporting basic education for girls.
  • Active efforts will be made to utilize the resources of the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers and to promote cooperation with NGOs in the education of local communities, as well as to promote community participation in the implementation of assistance projects.
  • Efforts will be made to ensure that assistance for basic education contributes to the improvement of job training and worker capacities in response to local needs and conditions.

(2) Health and Medical Care

Poverty and a lack of development directly affect people's health in developing countries. Past development efforts have resulted in the improvement of health indicators in developing countries. For instance, Japan has actively contributed to the WHO program for eradicating polio from the West Pacific region. Thanks to such efforts, polio has almost vanished from the West Pacific region and has declined dramatically on a worldwide scale.9 However, nearly 12 million children under the age of five continue to die every year from preventable diseases. In order to respond to the many remaining challenges, it is essential that "primary health care" be made available to the greatest number of people possible. Humankind is also being threatened by emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and various parasitic diseases. It is necessary for Japan to collaborate with WHO and with other donor countries and organizations in the fight against these epidemics.

The Development Partnership Strategy identifies as one of its goals the promotion of health care medical services for reproductive health, including the reduction of infant mortality and mortality rates in pregnancy and during delivery. In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will continue to provide both hardware-oriented assistance and advisory assistance to core institutions of the medical and health care systems of developing countries.
  • Japan will emphasize primary health care and will provide assistance for the creation of health and medical systems geared toward providing basic health care services to the largest possible number of people.
  • Japan will make maximum use of its own past experiences to assist the governments of developing countries in policy formulation and improved capacity building and will promote improved health and medical policies through policy dialogues.
  • To effect sustainable cooperation, Japan will actively pursue community participation and collaboration with NGOs.
  • In view of the fact that economic crises most seriously affect the vulnerable members of society and their health, Japan will endeavor to prevent the erosion of past achievements in the area of health care.

(3) Women in Development (WID)/Gender in Developing Countries

Of the 1.3 billion people living in conditions of poverty throughout the world, 70% are women. Similarly, women are placed in disadvantageous positions in terms of education, employment, and health. Assistance for women is an important factor in achieving balanced and sustainable economic development in developing countries, as is the balanced participation of men and women in assistance projects and the distribution of the benefits derived from such projects. In 1995, Japan announced its "Initiative on WID" for assigning special importance to education, health, and the social and economic participation of women in the implementation of assistance projects.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will provide active assistance for the health and education of women, family planning, micro-financing for promoting the economic independence of women, job training, and the improvement of the work environment. Moreover, Japan will assist developing countries in improving policy formulation capabilities in these fields.
  • Japan will endeavor to utilize monitoring and evaluate results pertaining to gender, while paying due attention to the impact of the participation of male and female community members in assistance projects on gender.

2. Support for Economic and Social Infrastructure

The maintenance of sustainable economic development constitutes an essential requirement in promoting social development and poverty alleviation programs in developing countries and for working towards the achievement of the goals specified in the Development Partnership Strategy. Over the years, Japan has used its ODA loans to actively support the development of the social and economic infrastructures that underpin the process of economic growth. In this way, Japan has made a major contribution to building the foundation for economic development, particularly in the Asian region.10 It must be borne in mind that, while the development of social and economic infrastructure requires adequate volumes of medium- and long-term funds, only a limited group of developing countries are able to generate these funds domestically or to attract adequate private funds from overseas.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will continue to provide assistance for the development of social and economic infrastructure in developing countries. These projects will target such sectors as transportation, communication, electric power generation, and river and irrigation facilities, and efforts will be designed to correspond to the conditions and needs of individual countries.
  • In view of the importance of non-ODA funds, Japan will emphasize coordination and division of roles and responsibilities with private-sector funds and other official flows (OOF).
  • Japan will utilize ODA funds to develop an environment conducive to private investment.
  • Japan will cooperate in the policy aspects of infrastructure development, including the formulation, design and specification of development plans. Similarly, Japan will cooperate in the maintenance and management of facilities through both financial and technical assistance in order to maintain the benefits of assistance projects.
  • In the process of project implementation, Japan will pay due attention to ensuring that project benefits reach impoverished regions and populations. Japan will also take into consideration the impact of projects on local communities and populations and on the environment.

3. Human Resources Development and Intellectual Support

(1) Human Resources Development

The development of individuals is the base for the development of a country, and one of Japan's basic aims in providing economic assistance is to support the self-help efforts of recipient countries. As such, Japan places particular emphasis on the continuing development of human resources needed for the social and economic development of developing countries.11

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • In order to support the self-help efforts of developing countries, Japan will promote the dispatch of experts and the acceptance of trainees.
  • Japan will give due attention to support for the educational sector, including higher education, and vocational training programs.
  • Japan will endeavor to promote the transfer of technologies and the development of human resources that conform to the national conditions and needs of recipient countries.
  • Japan will provide assistance that directly enhances the capabilities of communities and residents through the use of the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers and Senior Overseas Volunteers.
  • Japan will actively endeavor to develop human resources projects that will have a geographically broad effect (such as third-country training).12

Japan will actively promote the acceptance of foreign students from developing countries and Japanese language training, both in developing countries and in Japan. Such initiatives will be pursued not only from the perspective of human resources development, but also in view of their significance in promoting mutual understanding between Japan and developing countries. Initiatives will also be pursued in terms of their strategic importance in directly benefiting Japan's intellectual and advisory contributions to the international community. Japan will provide assistance while emphasizing the following points.

  • Japan will upgrade and improve its systems for the acceptance of foreign students (including follow-up programs for foreign students returning to their home countries) in accordance with "The 100,000 Foreign Students Plan."
  • Japan will promote the exchange of personnel, including the exchange of teachers.
  • In response to the increasingly diverse needs of foreign students, Japan will endeavor to improve the quality of university education for foreign students, the scholarship system for foreign students, and direct support for foreign students.
  • Coordination will be pursued with the private sector, which plays a key role in assisting foreign students. Active support will be provided for Japanese language training, which plays a central role in promoting a better understanding of Japanese culture in foreign countries and the acceptance of foreign students.

(2) Intellectual Support

The importance of intellectual support is growing, not only for economies in transition, but also for developing countries undergoing economic development against the background of rapid economic globalization. Such countries are in particular need of intellectual support that corresponds to ongoing changes in their economic and social systems. Much of the experience and know-how accumulated by Japan in the process of its own economic development can prove highly effective in supporting the progress of developing countries. Of particular importance is support pertaining to the formulation of various types of systems and policies, including the development of legal frameworks. Utilizing Japanese human resources through the dispatch of policy advisers and other experts is effective for this purpose. Against a background of growing international interdependence in the areas of trade and investment, support in respect of such advisory services will play an important role in supporting global economic systems such as the WTO-based multilateral trading system.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will emphasize support for policy and institutional development, including the development of legal frameworks, in the following areas.
    (a) The development of appropriate fiscal, financial, and other economic systems.
    (b) The enhancement of policy formulation and the implementation capacities of developing countries.
    (c) Promotion of a market economy.
    (d) Protection of socially vulnerable groups and individuals.
    (e) Prevention of pollution and preservation of natural environment.
  • Japan will provide intellectual support for institutional development, promoting the distribution of the benefits of economic growth to impoverished populations.
  • Support will be provided by experts, not only of the public sector but of a wide range of private sector entities, including universities and think tanks, and through the dispatch of policy advisors.

(3) Support for Democratization

Reinforcing the democratic foundations in developing countries will promote greater public participation in governance and development and the protection of human rights. As such, democratization is an extremely important factor in achieving medium- to long-term stability and development. Since the end of the Cold War, many countries have been endeavoring to introduce democratic institutions together with market principles. It is important to support these efforts and work toward the reinforcement of democracy.

Japan's support for democratization includes such activities as the acceptance of trainees, the organization of seminars and the provision of personnel, and financial assistance for domestic elections in developing countries.13

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will actively provide the following types of support to countries pursuing democratization and market-oriented economic reforms: support for the improvement of administrative management capabilities; support for the development of developing institutions and policies pertaining to democratization and the introduction of market principles; human resources development; participatory development; and support for public elections.
  • In view of the unique features of the fundamental transformations engendered by the political process of democratization and introduction of market principles, Japan will pay due attention to the political systems, the social and economic conditions, and the historical backgrounds of individual countries.

4. Responding to Global Issues

(1) Environmental Conservation

Environmental problems such as global warming may threaten the very existence of mankind. In many developing countries, environmental problems are now jeopardizing the foundations of development. Environmental problems include serious environmental pollution as a result of the process of economic growth and rapid degradation of the natural environment as a result of population growth and poverty. These problems pose challenges that call for a global, coordinated response. DAC's Development Partnership Strategy contains concrete goals for formulating national strategies for environmental conservation and reversing the depletion of environmental resources.

Global environmental problems have been assigned the highest priority in Japan's diplomatic agenda.14 Through its own experiences, Japan has learned much about developing technologies for pollution control to achieve economic growth while preserving the environment. Both Japan's experiences and technologies can play a significant role in promoting social and economic development and in achieving sustainable development in developing countries. Japan will support the environmental programs and efforts of developing countries and assist in the enhancement of their environmental capacities. Moreover, cooperation and collaboration with local governments and NGOs on issues regarding environmental conservation will be of vital importance.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • In accordance with the basic principles and action program of the "Initiatives for Sustainable Development toward the 21st Century" (ISD), announced by Japan in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the Environment and Development held in June 1997, Japan will continue to actively support programs and countermeasures in the following areas: (a) air and water pollution and waste disposal, (b) global warming, (c) conservation of the natural environment and sustainable management of forest resources, (e) "fresh water" issues, and (f) environmental awareness building and strategic studies.
  • With regard to global warming, Japan will continue to actively promote the objectives of the Kyoto Initiative (providing assistance to developing countries for combating global warming)15, as it announced at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in December 1997.
  • Japan will pay special attention to projects related to environmental conservation, through the provision of ODA loans on concessional terms.

(2) Population and AIDS

The continued growth of world population16 stands with the global environment, food, and energy as critical global-scale issues. Moreover, in many developing countries, population growth is directly linked to the problems of poverty, unemployment, starvation, lack of education, and deterioration of the environment. Similarly, the international spread of HIV/AIDS17 presents a serious obstacle to development in developing countries by severely undermining people's health and their ability to work.

In response to these problems, Japan announced the launching of its "Global Issues Initiative on Population and AIDS" (GII)18 in 1994 and has been actively involved in these fields. Japan is also contributing to the international fight against AIDS, primarily through its support of the United Nations AIDS Program (UNAIDS).

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Based on the objectives of GII and from the perspective of reproductive health, Japan will work on a comprehensive approach that includes: direct assistance for population control and family planning; indirect assistance through the provision of primary health care services and elementary and secondary education for women and children; and support for the empowerment of women.
  • As these initiatives necessitate finely tuned grassroots efforts, Japan will further its collaboration with local governments and NGOs.
  • With regard to AIDS, Japan will further its cooperation with UNAIDS and contribute to the international fight against AIDS. Japan will also strengthen its bilateral collaboration with other major donor countries and with international organizations.

(3) Food

Projections indicate that the rapid growth in world population and changing diets will result in a significant increase in food demand. Conversely, a slowdown in the growth of food production has been noted. The stability of food supplies is further complicated by such problems as continued soil degradation, limited water resources, climate change, and abnormal weather conditions.

Participants in the World Food Summit held in 1996 announced that they would cooperate in achieving global food security and halving the malnourished population of the world by 2015. In view of this goal, it is necessary for Japan to actively support developing countries in their efforts to increase food production. Furthermore, assistance for the agricultural sector, including assistance for food production and rural development, can play a crucial role in reducing poverty and achieving sustainable development.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will provide materials and equipment for food production and support agricultural and fisheries production through the construction of irrigation and other facilities. In addition, Japan will support infrastructure development and distribution management for improving access to markets.
  • Japan will emphasize support for varietal improvement and other agricultural and fishery technologies, and will provide assistance for the effective dissemination of these technologies.
  • Japan will pay special attention to the organization of local residents and the improvement of administrative capacities with regard to the dissemination of agricultural and other technologies and the management of agricultural and other water resources.
  • Japan will appropriately utilize food assistance as an important measure in cases of emergency.

(4) Energy

Global energy demand is projected to increase sharply as a result of economic development in Asia and other developing regions. As such, energy problems constitute a global-scale policy issue that is closely related to the response to global environmental problems and the achievement of sustainable development. Moreover, in many developing countries, securing access to adequate energy supplies constitutes a vital challenge in the realization of economic development. As Japan is heavily dependent on the importation of energy and mineral resources, the provision of assistance in these fields is important for Japan from the perspective of ensuring stable resource supplies.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will provide assistance to energy-related infrastructure projects that cannot readily attract private-sector investment and other official flows (OOF), including oil, natural gas, electric power, and liquefied coal development projects. Japan will also step up its support for the achievement of sustainable development through energy saving.
  • To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by developing countries while achieving sustainable development, Japan will support the following measures: energy saving, the utilization of solar and wind power and other renewable energy sources, the introduction of coal-related technologies with reduced environmental burden, and the preservation and development of forests as a source of firewood.
  • In the area of mineral resources, Japan has provided technical and financial support for mining projects in major supplying countries while paying due attention to environmental concerns. With the growth of regional and international interest in environmental problems, Japan will continue to provide assistance and support, including support for environmental impact studies of mining projects.

(5) Drug Abuse

Both developed and developing countries face the issue of drug abuse. It is also essential to mount an internationally coordinated fight against drugs that includes the cooperation of pertinent international organizations. Drug abuse in developing countries is linked to the problem of poverty. As such, the fight against drugs must be pursued in combination with poverty alleviation measures. Based on this understanding, Japan has supported such activities as seminars on the prevention and control of drug abuse and drug-related crimes, the acceptance of overseas trainees, the promotion of substitute crops, and various related educational activities.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will continue to cooperate with international initiatives to mount an effective fight against drugs. Japan will also emphasize support for improved crime-prevention and crime-control capabilities of authorities, cultivation of substitute crops, educational activities, and projects directly linked to raising living standards in drug-producing regions.

5. Support for Overcoming the Asian Currency and Economic Crisis and Promotion of Economic Structural Reform

In the course of the East Asian currency crisis that began in the summer of 1997, developing economies were seriously affected by the vast and rapid exit of private funds. The impact of this crisis extended to Japan and the remainder of the world's economy. The emergency financial needs of Asian countries were met by the flow of official funds, including the facilities of the New Miyazawa Initiative (launched in October 1998), and the Asian economies are now stabilizing. In addition to these emergency measures, structural reform must be supported for sustaining recovery over the medium term in order to realize a strong recovery in real economic activities. Moreover, in view of the mutually important ties between Japan and this region, such assistance will serve to bolster the Japanese economy as well. Furthermore, encouraging the flow of private funds to these countries and supporting their economic recovery will also contribute to achievement of sound and sustainable global economic development.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will continue its support for infrastructure development, technology transfer, development of small- and medium-sized enterprises, and the nurturing of supporting industries, while emphasizing coordination and the division of roles and responsibilities with other official flows.
  • Japan will cooperate with international financial institutions to return Asian and other developing countries to a path of economic reconstruction. Similarly, to achieve a recovery in real economic activities in developing countries, Japan will focus on supporting vulnerable members of society through the development of social safety nets and will also provide support for institutional transformation, including the reform of legal systems, the financial sector, and various economic systems.
  • As the rehabilitation of industries is an urgent issue, Japan will utilize the Special Yen Loan facilities to undertake infrastructure projects with outstanding economic-stimulation and employment-creating effects. Japan will support economic structural reform through these facilities, which are aimed at creating a more attractive economic environment for private investment and improving productivity.19
  • In addition to coping with the crisis, Japan will support preventive measures such as the reinforcement of domestic financial systems, the training of core personnel, and the improvement of corporate management and technical capabilities.

6. Conflict, Disaster, and Development

(1) Conflict and Development

The end of the Cold War did not bring an end to the regional conflicts that continue to create serious human rights problems and wreak havoc on the environment, thereby eroding the gains of past development efforts. Conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post-conflict peacekeeping and reconstruction represent crucial challenges to the global community. For example, Japan has provided assistance to the Palestinian people in connection with the Middle Eastern peace process.20 Henceforth, Japan must play an active role in conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • For the purpose of conflict prevention, Japan will emphasize measures aimed at the problems of poverty and socially vulnerable populations which provide the backdrop for conflict. Similarly, Japan will focus on "good governance," including the equitable and appropriate distribution of resources; the protection of human rights; the establishment of appropriate political and economic systems and processes; and the reinforcement of administrative capacities.
  • With regard to the problem of refugees resulting from conflicts, Japan will actively provide emergency humanitarian aid to assist neighboring countries affected by the influx of refugees.21 In this process, Japan will pay due attention to the important role played by NGOs.
  • With regard to post-conflict peace-keeping and reconstruction, Japan will actively support the resettlement and social rehabilitation of refugees and former combatants.
  • Japan will support the establishment of equitable political and economic systems and the reinforcement of administrative capacities. Similarly, Japan will provide assistance for the development of infrastructure indispensable to national integration and economic reconstruction.

Anti-personnel land mines placed in regions of conflict and left underground present a serious and indiscriminate threat to the general populace. They are a grave concern, not only because they have been causing indiscriminate and various casualties among civilians but they also present a serious barrier to post-conflict reconstruction and development, thereby preventing the resettlement of people and rural development, among other problems. In March 1997, Japan hosted the Tokyo Conference on Anti-Personnel Land mines which resulted in the "Tokyo Guidelines," including the ultimate goal of achieving "Zero Victims." In December 1997, Japan proposed its "Zero Victim Program"22 for the clearance of anti-personnel land mines and the support of victims.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Japan will support land mine clearance through the provision of clearance-related equipment and other measures.
  • Japan will act to strengthen emergency medical and rehabilitation systems.
  • Japan will provide support to land mine victims through social rehabilitation and job training programs.
  • Japan will emphasize cooperation with other donor countries, international organizations, and NGOs.

(2) Disaster Prevention and Post-Disaster Reconstruction

Natural disasters can destroy the livelihoods of people and most seriously affect impoverished persons, whose livelihoods are particularly vulnerable. Abnormal climatic conditions in recent years have increased the incidence of natural disasters throughout the world. Japan has dispatched 46 Japan Disaster Relief Teams to 23 countries to provide emergency disaster aid and to cope with disaster-related humanitarian problems.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • Drawing on its own experiences in countermeasures against landslides, floods, earthquakes and tidal waves, Japan will continue to actively provide emergency assistance for disasters and support for post-disaster reconstruction through the dispatch of Japan Disaster Relief Teams and other means. Japan will also provide support for disaster prevention and land preservation.

7. Responding to Issues of Debt Relief

The economic development of the least developed countries of sub-Sahara Africa is seriously hampered by the problem of outstanding foreign debt, presenting a problem that cannot be ignored by the international community. Japan has provided active support for debt rescheduling and grant aid for debt relief.23

In light of the decision taken at the Köln Summit in June 199924, Japan will cooperate with other donor countries and international organizations to provide assistance for the resolution of the debt problem so that heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) and other low-income countries may achieve long-term economic self-reliance.

In light of the above, Japan will provide the following forms of support.

  • While emphasizing the efforts of debtor countries to repay their debts, Japan will extend substantial debt relief through rescheduling and grants-in-aid to cover repayments based on the international framework.
  • Efforts will be made to allocate funds freed through debt relief to development goals, such as the alleviation of poverty; the provision of education, health, medical, and other social investments; and the creation of employment opportunities.
  • As a rule, financial cooperation after debt relief will take the form of grants, as the provision of new loans is unlikely after debt relief.
  • Japan will actively undertake technical cooperation (human resources development and intellectual support) to enhance debt-management capacities and facilitate appropriate macroeconomic management.
  • Henceforth, Japan will exercise greater caution in the provision of ODA loans and will pay greater attention to the developmental stage and debt-servicing capabilities of recipient countries, while taking into careful consideration the development plans of the developing countries and Japan's own ODA policies.

  1. Under this initiative, developing countries are to commit 20% of their national budget, and developed countries 20% of their ODA, to such areas in social development as to be given priority to human development (basic education, basic health services, drinking water, family planning, etc.). Proposed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), it was decided at the World Summit for Social Development (hosted by the United Nations in March 1995) that the goals of the 20/20 Initiative would be implemented by countries in agreement with the initiative's objective. Japan has met the goal of this initiative, as the annual share of social development commitments in its bilateral development assistance has exceeded the 20% mark in every year from 1993 to 1998.
  2. Proposed by then prime Minister Hashimoto at the Lyon Summit in June 1996, the "Initiative for a Caring World" is aimed at finding solutions to the problems of various countries by sharing the knowledge and experiences of developed, as well as developing, countries concerning social security policies, covering such areas as public sanitation, health insurance, and pension systems.
    Current projects targeting the developing countries include: promoting measures for global parasitic disease control; sharing of knowledge and experiences through international conferences for high-level administrators of social security; and, personnel training, dispatch of experts and acceptance of trainees for promoting the development of social security systems in developing countries.
  3. For details, see section (3) Women in Development (WID)/Gender in Developing Countries.
  4. In the five-year period beginning in fiscal 1993, Japan provided assistance for the construction of approximately 16,000 school buildings. In Jordan, for instance, ODA loans have been used in the construction of 9% of all primary and secondary school buildings. In Nepal, Japanese grant assistance has been used to provide materials needed for the construction of school buildings, with entire communities participating in the actual construction work. Following this initiative, elementary school enrollment ratios in Nepal climbed from 64% in 1990 to 75% in 1994.
  5. Since fiscal 1993, Japan has annually contributed U.S.$1 million to UNICEF related activities.
  6. The annual global incidence of polio has dropped from approximately 35,000 cases in 1988 to approximately 3,200 cases in 1998. Japan has identified East Asia and the Pacific region as priority areas for assistance in polio control. Since fiscal 1993, Japan has implemented assistance totaling approximately ¥2.8 billion for providing polio vaccines, cold chain portable refrigerator for vaccines storage, and diagnostic and monitoring equipment. (This assistance amounts to approximately 35% of all assistance provided to these regions in the fight against polio.) As a result of these efforts, polio has been almost totally eliminated from these regions.
  7. In the fields of transportation and communications, Japan's ODA loans accounted for 38% of the total electrification of China's railways, approximately 32% of the construction of the highways in Bangkok, approximately 15% of the installation of all telephone lines in the Philippines, and the construction and expansion of the port of Colombo, which handles approximately 89% of all cargo shipments in Sri Lanka. In the area of energy, Japan has cooperated in the construction of about 24% of all power generating facilities in Malaysia, 18% in Indonesia, 15% in Thailand, 44% in Vietnam, 18% in Bangladesh, and 20% in Egypt. Japanese ODA has accounted for 60% of the water supply facilities in the city of Jakarta, and 56% of the sewerage treatment facilities in the Republic of Korea.
  8. Since 1954, Japan has accepted more than 160,000 trainees. The geographic distribution of trainees accepted during fiscal 1997 (totaling 7,263 persons from 152 countries and regions) is as follows: 6,214 from Asia (50.6% of total), 2,381 from Latin America (19.4%), 1,046 from the Middle East (8.5%), and 1,602 from Africa (13%). Distribution by field is as follows: 2,440 in human resources development (19.9% of total), 2,340 in planning and administration (19.1%), 2,049 in public and public-sector enterprises (16.7%), 1,971 in agriculture, forestry and fisheries (16%), 1,398 in health and medical services (11.4%), and 991 in mining (8.1%).
  9. Third-country training refers to the acceptance of trainees by developing countries under financial and technical assistance from Japan. Such arrangements provide the advantage of training in neighboring countries with similar social and cultural environments. For instance, using technologies transferred from Japan, third-country training was provided in Thailand to trainees from Vietnam and Laos with Japan supporting this transfer of technologies from Thailand to third countries. During fiscal 1997, some 1,836 trainees participated in third-country training programs offered in 23 countries, including Thailand and Singapore in Asia, and Brazil, Chile, and Egypt.
  10. At the Lyon Summit held in 1996, Japan announced its initiative for "Partnership for Democratic Development" (PDD) aimed at supporting the democratization of developing countries. Specific forms of assistance include assistance for elections, reinforcement of civil society and human resources development. During the five-year period beginning in fiscal 1994, Japan has accepted 765 trainees in the field of democratization and has provided financial assistance to elections in 27 countries and regions.
  11. At the 1992 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (the so-called "Earth Summit" held in Rio de Janeiro), Japan announced that it would increase its environmental ODA commitments to between ¥900 billion and ¥1,000 billion for the period of fiscal 1992-1996. The actual amount of assistance came to approximately ¥1,440 billion during this period. This trend has continued in recent years. For example, of the 28 projects contained in Japan's fourth ODA loan package for China, 16 projects are focused on the environment in response to environmental deterioration triggered by economic growth. Japan is also promoting the "Japan-China Environmental Model Cities Plan" (covering the three cities of Chongqing, Gui Yang, and Dalian). The aim of this initiative is to develop successful examples of air pollution control and air quality improvement and present these as model cases for the rest of China.
  12. In view of the third session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Kyoto in December 1997, Japan committed itself to environmental ODA initiatives focused on the problem of global warming as follows: (1) capacity development in fields relevant to global warming, (2) provision of ODA loans related to global warming on the most concessional conditions, and (3) provision of Japanese technology and experiences (know-how). In fiscal 1998, the most favorable ODA loan terms were applied to 20 global-warming related projects amounting to ¥243.3 billion, while about 1,000 people received JICA technical training in related fields.
  13. According to the joint United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the world population is projected to grow from about six billion in 1998 to more than eight billion by 2025. Most of this growth will occur in developing countries.
  14. According to the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), there were approximately 33.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world as of the end of 1998, and approximately 2.5 million people died of AIDS during 1998.
  15. Japan announced GII as an independent initiative in 1994, which involved the commitment of approximately $3 billion in population and AIDS-related assistance to developing countries during a seven-year period beginning in fiscal 1994. From the perspective of reproductive health, GII contains direct assistance for population and family planning. In addition, GII supports a comprehensive approach to basic health and medical services, primary education for women and children, and the empowerment of women. In Indonesia, for instance, a project has been implemented that uses "mother and child health handbooks," which has resulted in lower maternal and infant mortality rates. As of the end of fiscal 1998, the cumulative amount of GII-related assistance reached approximately $3.7 billion to already exceed the seven-year goal established in 1994.
  16. This scheme was announced in December 1998 at the Meeting between ASEAN Heads of State/Government and the Leaders of Peoples Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. The aim of the scheme is to stimulate the economies of Asian countries, to promote job creation, and to support infrastructure development conducive to economic structural reform. This program features a special facility of a maximum total of ¥600 billion to be provided over a three-year period on concessional terms. For the time being, the interest rate will be set at 1%, with a repayment period of 40 years.
  17. Over a five-and-half-year period beginning in 1993, Japan provided $436 million in assistance to the Palestinian people. Assistance was provided through international organizations for strengthening administrative organizations, for the development of water and sewerage facilities, school building and other infrastructure projects, and improvement of education and basic health care services. In 1996, Japan began providing direct assistance to the Palestinian Authority and has provided a wide range of assistance toward improving living standards. In October 1997 and June 1998, Japan decided to assist in the construction of ten primary and secondary schools in the Gaza Strip.
  18. In April 1999, a Japan aid package of approximately $200 million for Kosovo was channeled through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other multilateral and bilateral means. This contribution is intended as humanitarian assistance for Kosovo refugees and displaced persons, assistance for affected neighboring countries, and support for the reconstruction of Kosovo.
  19. On a monthly basis, there are approximately 2,000 land mine casualties among non-combatants throughout the world. In September 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction was adopted. The Tokyo Conference on Anti-Personnel Land mines, held in March 1997, adopted the Tokyo Guidelines for achieving "zero victims." To work toward the achievement of this goal, in November 1997 Japan announced that it would provide approximately $10 billion in assistance over a five-year period beginning in 1998.
  20. In accordance with the resolution adopted in 1978 by the Ninth Trade Development Board (TDB) of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Japan has been providing grant aid for debt relief to LLDCs with whom Japan has ODA loan arrangements, and to the countries most seriously affected by the oil crisis (MSAC). In the case of LLDCs, whenever repayments are received on ODA loans (according to loan arrangements signed during or before fiscal 1987), Japan provides scheme grants corresponding to the amount of principal and interest payments received. Japan has provided grant aid for debt relief amounting to approximately ¥340 billion in the period between fiscal 1978 and 1998.
  21. It was decided at the Köln Summit that international debt relief should be provided to the most heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) under the existing framework for international debt relief (the so-called "HIPCs Initiative"). The debt reduction ratio was increased to 100% in the case of bilateral ODA, and other measures of debt relief were expanded and improved.

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