Official Development Assistance (ODA)
Overview of Official Development Assistance (ODA) to China
Official Development Assistance (ODA) to China began in 1979 and from that time to the present, approximately 3.1331 trillion yen in loan aid (yen loans), 145.7 billion yen in grant aid, and 144.6 billion yen in technical cooperation have been implemented.
Grant aid is financial assistance that is extended to recipient countries without imposing an obligation of repayment.
Loan aid involves the provision of loans under relaxed conditions (low interest, long repayment period) to recipient countries. (These are in principle untied loans.)
Technical cooperation involves the technologies being provided to recipient countries to spread the use of technology among people in developing countries and improve technical levels.
Past ODA projects in China included large-scale economic infrastructure projects, including the building of roads, airports and power stations, as well as infrastructure projects in medical and environmental areas. These projects have played a significant role in the realization of China's current economic growth.
For example, through Japanese loan aid (yen loans), a total length of 5,200 km of railway lines were electrified, and in the area of seaports, approximately 60 large-size berths capable of taking ships in excess of 10,000 tons were built. In addition, the China-Japan Friendship Hospital that was established through grant aid is one of the major medical institutions in the Beijing metropolitan area, treating approximately 3,000 patients each day.
Assistance includes more than infrastructure projects. In the area of technical cooperation the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has accepted trainees from China for the purpose of providing assistance to cultivate administrative personnel. As of FY2003 JICA had accepted a cumulative total of over 15,000 trainees, and the Association for Overseas Technical Scholarship (AOTS) had accepted more than 22,000 trainees to nurture the human resources required for industrial promotion. JICA has also dispatched 5,000 experts to China.
Large-scale Economic Infrastructure Projects (Loan Aid)
- Shanghai Pudong International Airport Construction Project (40.0 billion yen)
- Beijing Capital Airport Terminal Area Expansion Project (30.0 billion yen)
- Lanzhou Zhongchuan Airport Expansion Project (6.3 billion yen)
- Wuhan Tianhe Aerodrome Construction Project (6.3 billion yen)
- Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Terminal Expansion Project (3.09 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 111.6 billion yen
- Beijing-Qinhuangdao Railway Expansion Project (87.0 billion yen)
- Guiyang-Loudi Railway Construction Project (30.0 billion yen)
- Chongqing Urban Railway Construction Project (27.1 billion yen)
- Beijing Subway Construction Project (19.7 billion yen)
- Datong-Qinhuangdao Railway Construction Project (18.4 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 641.8 billion yen
- Hangzhou-Quzhou Expressway Construction Project (30.0 billion yen)
- Liangping-Changshou Highway Construction Project (24.0 billion yen)
- Xinxiang-Zhengzhou Highway Construction Project (23.5 billion yen)
- Guiyang-Xinzhai Highway Construction Project (15.0 billion yen)
- Heilongjiang Heihe-Beian Road Construction Project (12.6 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 195.1 billion yen
- Qinhuangdao Port Expansion Project (67.4 billion yen)
- Qingdao Port Expansion Project (59.7 billion yen)
- Huanghua Port Construction Project (15.4 billion yen)
- Shenzhen Dapeng Bay Yantian Port 1st Phase Construction Project (14.7 billion yen)
- Dalian Port Dayao Bay 1st Phase Construction Project (6.7 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 272.6 billion yen
- Tianshengqiao Hydroelectric Power Project (118.0 billion yen)
- Jiangxi Jiujiang Thermal Power Plant Construction Project (29.6 billion yen)
- Wuqiangxi Dam Construction Project (25.2 billion yen)
- Shanhe Thermal Power Plant Construction Project (24.6 billion yen)
- Beijing Shisanling Pumped Storage Power Station Construction Project (13.0 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 488.2 billion yen
- Weihe Chemical Fertilizer Plant Construction Project (26.9 billion yen)
- Inner Mongolia Chemical Fertilizer Construction Project (21.4 billion yen)
- Jiujiang Chemical Fertilizer Plant Construction Project (21.4 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 106.3 billion yen
- Shanghai Baoshan Infrastructure Improvement Project (31.0 billion yen)
Prevention of Air Pollution
- Environment Model City Project (Guiyang, Chongqing, Dalian) (30.7 billion yen)
- Ningxia Afforestation and Vegetation Cover Project (8.0 billion yen)
- Xiang River Basin Hunan Environment Improvement Project (3.1 billion yen)
- Beijing Sewage Treatment Plant Construction Project (2.6 billion yen)
Cumulative total of aid in this area excluding the above-mentioned projects: 857.8 billion yen
Human Resources Development Projects
- Inland Higher Education Project (88.8 billion yen)
Infrastructure Projects in Medical and Environmental Areas
- The Project for Construction of the China-Japan Friendship Hospital (Grant aid: 16.430 billion yen)
- The Project for Construction of the China-Japan Friendship Environment Protection Center (Grant aid: 10.499 billion yen / Technical cooperation: 1.997 billion yen)
In recent years, ODA to China has predominantly been concentrated in the following areas, in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Program for China.