New Edition of the Joint Compendium of Documents on the History of Territorial Issue between Japan and Russia
4. MOSCOW DECLARATION
on Establishing a Creative Partnership
between Japan and the Russian Federation
The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation,
Sharing the recognition that, on the eve of the twenty-first century, as the democratization process advances and new forms of relations between States develop in the international community against a background of the realities of the present-day world, the roles and responsibilities of Japan and the Russian Federation are increasing and closer cooperation between the two countries is needed,
Convinced that Japan and the Russian Federation, which are now jointly sharing the universal values of freedom, democracy, the rule of law and the respect for fundamental human rights, should build a creative partnership consistent with their strategic and geopolitical interests by, inter alia, fully normalizing their bilateral relations based on the Tokyo Declaration of 13 October 1993, and on this Declaration,
Appreciating the development of relations between Japan and the Russian Federation based on the Tokyo Declaration, which formed the foundation for the construction of this creative partnership, and determined to further develop the bilateral relationship in all areas,
Confirming their common recognition that their bilateral relations are currently developing rapidly as a result of the constructive dialogue between the leaders of the two countries, at the informal summit meetings in Krasnoyarsk and Kawana and on other occasions, and that the time is approaching to overcome the difficult legacies of the past mentioned in the Tokyo Declaration,
Pointing out the need to realize the potential for economic cooperation between the two countries in a broader and more effective manner, and that this is possible in many areas through continued economic reform in the Russian Federation and support from Japan,
Recognizing that a substantive improvement in Japanese/Russian relations will have a favorable influence on the international situation, particularly on the situation in the Asia-Pacific region, whose political and economic significance is continuously growing,
Affirming the importance of activating their common efforts to strengthen international peace and security based on the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and to solve global issues which require an immediate response,
Declare the following:
I. Bilateral relations
1. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation State that the relations between their countries occupy an important place in their respective foreign policies. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation recognize that the most important task for their countries is to build a long-term creative partnership founded on the principles of trust, mutual benefit, a long-term perspective and close economic cooperation.
Under this partnership, both leaders are determined not only to solve various bilateral issues jointly but to contribute to the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region and the international community through cooperation in international forums, to cooperate more actively for the solution of various global issues and to usher the bilateral relationship into an era of "agreement" by strengthening "trust".
2. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation, taking into consideration the fact that the Russian side communicated its reply to the proposal regarding a solution to the issue of the attribution of the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan and Habomai made by the Japanese side at the Summit Meeting in Kawana held in April this year, instruct their Governments to accelerate negotiations on the conclusion of a peace treaty on the basis of the Tokyo Declaration as well as on the agreements reached at the summit meetings in Krasnoyarsk and Kawana.
The two leaders reaffirm their resolve to make their utmost efforts to conclude a peace treaty by the year 2000. Towards that end, both leaders instruct their Governments to establish a subcommittee on border demarcation within the framework of the existing Japanese-Russian Joint Committee on the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty.
The two leaders also instruct their Governments to establish a subcommittee on joint economic activities on the above-mentioned islands, which would conduct its activities in parallel with those of the subcommittee on border demarcation and define what kinds of joint economic activities could be implemented in the above-mentioned islands without prejudice to the legal positions of both sides.
The two leaders agree in principle, from a humanitarian perspective, on implementing so-called free visits to the above-mentioned islands, which would be streamlined to the maximum extent possible, by Japanese nationals who are former residents of those islands or their family members. They also instruct their Governments to examine legal and practical aspects of the procedures for such visits.
3. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation recognize the importance of cooperation regarding the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan and Habomai aiming at deepening mutual understanding among the residents of neighboring regions in Japan and the Russian Federation and further developing multifaceted and mutually beneficial cooperation, thereby fostering an environment conducive to the early conclusion of a peace treaty.
In this regard, both leaders welcome the expansion of the framework for cooperation between the two countries in situations where, for humanitarian reasons, an urgent response is required.
Furthermore, both leaders highly value the conclusion of the agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Russian Federation on some matters in the field of fishing operations for living marine resources, as well as the smooth implementation of operations under that agreement, and confirm that this is greatly contributing to strengthening the relations of trust between the two countries.
4. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation firmly intend to deepen and strengthen political dialogue between the two countries. The two leaders express their intention to have formal contacts at the leaders' level each year and to continue to utilize actively practice of holding informal summit meetings.
5. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation evaluate positively the recently expanding exchanges between Japan and the Russian Federation in the fields of security and defence. They affirm that they are prepared to continue and deepen such exchanges, since they not only enhance trust and mutual understanding in the bilateral relationship, but also advance the positive process of improving confidence-building measures and securing transparency in the field of Asia-Pacific security.
6. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation will promote more exchanges among the law enforcement authorities of the two countries, in view of the importance of cooperation in the prevention of organized crime and smuggling.
7. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation agree that wide-ranging exchanges at the grass-roots level play an extremely important role in maintaining an environment conductive to the further steady development of Japanese-Russian relations. For that purpose, the two leaders welcome the establishment of the Russian Committee of the Twenty-first Century in the Russian Federation and of the Japanese-Russian Friendship Forum 21 in Japan, and intend to provide all possible assistance to their activities.
Furthermore, the two leaders note the importance of broad exchanges between Japan and the Russian Federation at the State and regional levels.
8. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation note that the cultures, traditions and world outlook of their peoples have much in common and note the importance of cooperating for the mutual enrichment of the cultures of the peoples of Japan and the Russian Federation. The two leaders intend to promote diverse relations further between their countries in the areas of culture and information exchange.
9. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation recognize the particular significance of youth exchanges between the two countries, considering that the accuracy and objectiveness of their understanding of the importance of Japanese-Russian relations and the formation of their sense of responsibility for the future will be enhanced through more active exchanges between the youth of both countries
10. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation affirm that further enhancement of cooperation by both countries in the areas of trade and economics is to their mutual benefit, and state their determination to develop cooperation further in these areas from a long-term perspective. In this regard, both leaders note the important role of the Hashimoto-Yeltsin Plan, which is a comprehensive programme for economic cooperation between Japan and the Russian Federation prepared by the leaders of the two countries, and will continue to implement steadily the plan and discuss possible ways of further expanding it.
Based on the common recognition that there is ample potential for cooperation by the two countries in the economic field, including the development of the abundant natural resources in Siberia and the Russian Far East, the two leaders state their intention to further promote such cooperation. The two leaders share the view that cooperation by the two countries in this direction will contribute to the prosperity of both countries as well as the entire Asia-Pacific region in the twenty-first century.
The two leaders affirm that their countries will continue working to accomplish the above tasks and to improve the environment for trade and investment between the two countries. For this purpose, the two countries will hold annually meetings of the Japanese-Russian Intergovernmental Committee on Trade and Economic Affairs.
Both leaders welcome the signing of the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Russian Federation, on the Promotion and Protection of Investments, aimed at the establishment of the Japanese-Russian Investment Company.
11. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation share the view that economic development in the Russian Federation and the integration of the Russian Federation into the international community will contribute not only to the development of bilateral relations, but also to the prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region and of the world as a whole. The Russian Federation will continue reforms towards the establishment of a stable economic infrastructure as well as the earliest possible integration into the international economic system, and the Government of Japan will provide every support for these reform efforts by the Russian Federation and will work in close coordination with the international community to achieve these objectives.
12. The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation recognize that the potential for cooperation in the fields of science and technology between both countries is great. They support exchanges and cooperation, including joint projects, in basic and applied scientific research as well as in areas of research and development with potential for the development of modern society and sustainable economic growth in the future.
II. Cooperation on international issues
The Prime Minister of Japan and the President of the Russian Federation state their intention to expand and deepen coordinated action by Japan and the Russian Federation on international issues, as follows:
1. Japan and the Russian Federation will strengthen their coordinated action within the framework of the Group of Eight (G-8).
2. Japan and the Russian Federation will continue their dialogue on various issues concerning United Nations reform, including reform of the Security Council. The Russian Federation understands Japan's intention to become a permanent member of the Security Council, supports that intention and states its recognition that Japan is a strong candidate for obtaining this status.
3. Japan and the Russian Federation will expand cooperation on the strengthening of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the negotiation of a treaty on the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. They will also expand their collaborative relations within the international export control regimes in which both participate, continue their dialogue on domestic export control issues and take coordinated action to secure the effective implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons Convention.
4. Japan and the Russian Federation will promote information exchanges on peacekeeping operations. Both countries will cooperate with efforts by the international community to prevent conflicts and normalize the situation in conflict areas around the world. Japan and the Russian Federation will strengthen their coordinated action in various forums, particularly within the G-8 framework, in the fight against terrorism.
5. Japan and the Russian Federation will coordinate their various efforts with regard to environmental issues, particularly on climate change.
The Asia-Pacific region
6. Maintaining close bilateral contact and in cooperation with other countries, Japan and the Russian Federation will participate actively in efforts to build confidence and ensure peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region.
7. Japan and the Russian Federation will continue coordinated action with the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and work to continue making constructive contributions to the activities of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) on security issues.
8. Japan and the Russian Federation will hold consultations and cooperate with a view to easing tensions and assisting the development of dialogue and cooperative relations on the Korean Peninsula. They will also continue collaborative action in addressing the issue of Cambodia.
9. Japan and the Russian Federation express their expectations for progress in the four-party talks on peace on the Korean Peninsula.
Furthermore, the two countries share the view that, in the future, the creation of a forum for discussing security and confidence-building in North-East Asia among the concerned countries, including Japan and the Russian Federation, will be important in contributing to the peace and stability of North-East Asia.
10. Japan supports the constructive participation of the Russian Federation in the activities of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Japan and the Russian Federation will strive to deepen dialogue on stable economic development in the Asia-Pacific region.
Japan and the Russian Federation will cooperate in the development of international cooperation in the area of energy in the Asia-Pacific region, in the belief that it will promote energy security as well as contribute to the solution of global warming issues and, in turn, to the stability and socio-economic development of the region.
11. Japan and the Russian Federation will continue their cooperative efforts to counter ocean pollution, acid rain and other environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region.
12. Japan and the Russian Federation will continue their cooperation to promote the progress of peace in the Middle East.
13. Japan and the Russian Federation will develop cooperative relations to foster an environment for stable and multidimensional cooperation with the Central Asia and the Trans-Caucasus regions.
Consultations on international issues
14. Japan and the Russian Federation will actively conduct regular bilateral consultations and information exchanges on international issues relating to various regions and fields with a view to strengthening and making more effective their bilateral cooperation on such issues.
Moscow, 13 November 1998.
|Prime Minister of Japan||Keizo Obuchi|
|President of the Russian Federation||B.N. Yeltsin|