18th EU-Japan Summit
4 May 2009, Prague
Joint Press Statement
- Mr. Václav Klaus, President of the Czech Republic, assisted by High Representative Dr Javier Solana, and Mr. José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, and Mr. Taro Aso, Prime Minister of Japan, met in Prague on 4 May 2009 for the 18th Summit between the European Union (EU) and Japan.
- Summit leaders were determined to further promote the EU-Japan strategic partnership, based upon the longstanding cooperation and shared fundamental values and principles, such as democracy, the rule of law, human rights, good governance, sustainable development and a market-based economy.
- Summit leaders reiterated the importance they attached to the 2001 Action Plan for EU-Japan Cooperation as the basis of the current fruitful dialogue and cooperation between both sides and their commitment to its continued implementation. They indicated their intention to begin reflections on how to replace the current Action Plan once it elapsed in 2011, with a view to launching official talks at the 2010 Summit.
ASSUMING GLOBAL RESPONSIBILITY
- Summit leaders, fully assuming their responsibility to deal with global challenges, reaffirmed their willingness that the EU and Japan continue to play leading roles, for instance, in working for the recovery of the global economy, in addressing climate change, in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with special reference to the development of Africa, as well as in supporting the maintenance of international peace and security. Summit leaders emphasised that close synergies exist between the climate change and development agendas, and action in each of these areas should be mutually reinforcing. Sharing concerns over evolving Influenza A/H1N1 new outbreak, Summit leaders expressed their determination to take all measures to stem the further spread of the disease, underlining the importance of coordinating respective efforts by the international community through the existing mechanism for global collaboration and closely working with the World Health Organisation and other international bodies.
- Summit leaders restated that the stabilisation of financial markets and the recovery of the global economy remained their top priority. In this respect, they reaffirmed their commitment to continue cooperating closely with one another and with other international partners to implement the decisions taken at the G20 Summit in London on 2 April 2009, namely: undertaking the financial, monetary and fiscal actions necessary to restore growth and jobs, while ensuring long-term fiscal sustainability and price stability; strengthening supervision and regulation of the financial system; strengthening and reforming the International Financial Institutions, including through a substantial increase in IMF resources; combating all forms of protectionism and promoting and facilitating global trade and investment; and ensuring a fair and sustainable recovery for all.
- Summit leaders reaffirmed their determination to ensure that an ambitious, effective and comprehensive global climate agreement be reached in Copenhagen in December 2009. They asserted that the current economic downturn should not weaken our efforts to achieve this goal and that economic recovery measures offer opportunities to achieve low carbon economic growth. They stressed that current negotiation processes under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) should be advanced in a comprehensive manner toward such an agreement. They jointly underlined the urgency of substantially reducing global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a timely way in order to achieve the ultimate objective of stabilising GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, recognising the significance of the findings of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- The agreement to be reached in Copenhagen must therefore contain binding commitments for all developed countries including OECD members and should also contain similar commitments for countries that are not OECD members but whose economic development stage is equivalent to that of the OECD members and for countries which voluntarily wish to be treated as developed countries. The respective emissions reduction commitments for each developed country should be set in a fair manner, which ensures comparability of efforts based on such elements as past efforts and analysis on mitigation potential including sectoral analysis.
- Summit leaders reaffirmed the importance and urgency of adopting appropriate measures to accelerate transfer and diffusion of existing technologies and stimulate development of innovative technologies and practices, as well as prompting a transition to a low-carbon society. With regard to the peaking out period and mid- and long-term emission reduction targets, they recalled the discussions at the 17th EU-Japan Summit including on the ranges referred to in the contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC.
- Summit leaders urged developing countries to develop or update their national action plans towards low carbon development including policies and measures for mitigation in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner. In line with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, developing countries, in particular the most advanced among them, are expected to take further meaningful nationally appropriate mitigation actions in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner, with a view to ensuring a substantial deviation below business-as-usual emissions growth.
- Summit leaders shared the view that addressing climate change required greater mobilisation of public and private financial resources, both domestically and internationally, and indicated that both the EU and Japan supported efforts to scale up adequate, predictable and timely financial support to developing countries and would contribute appropriately for the implementation of the Copenhagen agreement. Summit leaders recognised the importance of augmenting, streamlining and accelerating mitigation and adaptation support to developing countries through utilisation of all kinds of financial resources in the most efficient manner. In this regard, Summit leaders recognised the necessity of involving existing multilateral development banks to the full extent, the effectiveness of sectoral technology cooperation with advice by public and private experts, and the importance of disseminating latest scientific knowledge on adaptation in order to make financial flow more efficient and effective.
- Summit leaders recognised that the international aviation and maritime transport sectors were growing sources of GHG emissions. The EU and Japan will work closely within the UNFCCC, the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, in order to achieve an effective reduction of GHG emissions from both sectors.
- Recognising the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs from sources and enhancing removals of GHGs by sinks, Summit leaders also recalled the importance of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing countries (REDD). The developing countries would be rewarded for emission reductions achieved by actions to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Summit leaders recognised the necessity of early actions on REDD and supported its inclusion in the framework beyond 2012, acknowledging the need for appropriate financial mechanisms to support developing countries in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and halting global forest loss. In this context, Summit leaders expressed particular concern for tropical deforestation.
- Summit leaders reaffirmed the importance of the development, deployment and transfer of technologies; active use of the market-based instruments such as emissions trading, performance-based regulation and consumer labelling; the enhancement of the public private partnership to reduce emissions and improve energy efficiency; and appropriate adaptation measures to tackle inevitable effects of climate change. They intended to promote such policies and measures in accordance with their respective circumstances and to share experience on the effectiveness of the different policies and measures and to work cooperatively in this regard. They also recognised that the environmental integrity of the Clean Development Mechanism should be further strengthened through ensuring efficiency and effectiveness of the mechanism and meaningful actions by developing countries.
- Summit leaders underlined their shared interests in the field of energy and emphasised the importance of continued bilateral cooperation on energy security, sustainable energy policies and energy technologies. They underlined the need to promote open, transparent, efficient and competitive energy markets, to strengthen energy security including through enhanced dialogue and cooperation between producing and consuming countries, and to promote sustainable energy choices. They welcomed the success of the recent EU-Japan joint strategic workshop on energy research and technological development. Summit leaders underlined the importance of working closely within the multilateral context, including in the framework of the G8, the International Energy Agency, the International Energy Forum and the Energy Charter Treaty. Given the potential for energy efficiency worldwide and its role in addressing energy security and climate change mitigation, Summit leaders underlined the need to improve and to further enhance both bilateral and global cooperation on this issue. Summit leaders also reaffirmed the need to work towards launching the operational phase of the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation as soon as possible.
- Summit leaders underlined the importance of cooperating closely on other key global environmental challenges. Summit leaders reiterated the commitment of the EU and Japan to achieve a significant reduction by 2010 in the current rate of biodiversity loss and to establish an ambitious vision and targets for biodiversity beyond 2010, in the context of UN International Year of Biological Diversity and the tenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to be hosted in Japan. They stressed their commitment to fight illegal logging and related trade and also underlined their support for current international efforts to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Summit leaders welcomed the decision by the twenty-fifth Session of the Governing Council of United Nations Environment Programme to launch intergovernmental negotiations on a global legally binding instrument on mercury. Both sides expressed the view that accelerated action under a voluntary Global Mercury Partnership was needed while this instrument was negotiated and finalised. Summit leaders underlined their commitment to strengthening initiatives aimed at optimal recycling and recovery and efficient use of resources and materials, including the 3R initiative, in an environmentally sound manner consistent with the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste in view of the associated risks, particularly to developing countries.
- Summit leaders discussed the international community's Official Development Assistance (ODA) and expressed concern regarding the slow pace in achieving the MDGs, particularly in Africa. They underlined the need for the G8 to faithfully implement its commitments made at the G8 Summit meetings, inter alia, in Hokkaido Toyako, Heiligendamm and Gleneagles and the importance of burden sharing. Both sides expressed their determination to implement the Accra Agenda for Action on aid effectiveness. Summit leaders acknowledged the serious impact on developing countries of the global financial and economic crisis, following last year's steep global food and oil price rises, combined with adverse effects of climate change. Mindful of the internationally decided development goal including MDGs and the efforts towards the goal of providing 0.7% of Gross National Income to ODA, they called on the international community to maintain and deliver on all existing commitments to ODA including in particular assistance for Africa despite global financial crisis. As key players in the development field, both sides decided to hold an annual development policy dialogue beginning in the second half of 2009 focusing on global issues like Africa, the MDGs, climate change, their respective aid policies and approaches to further promote mutual cooperation for aid and development effectiveness. Summit leaders welcomed the intensified cooperation between their implementing agencies so that political decisions could be implemented promptly.
- Summit leaders highlighted the urgent need for a successful conclusion of the WTO Doha Development Agenda as a way to stimulate the world economy. In this respect, both sides considered it important to move towards the conclusion of an ambitious, balanced and comprehensive outcome in all negotiating areas, based on the progress already made, including with regard to modalities. Summit leaders reaffirmed their commitment made in Washington Summit and extended in London Summit to refrain, until the end of 2010, from raising new barriers to trade and investment, imposing new export restrictions, or implementing WTO inconsistent measures to stimulate exports. Also, they reaffirmed their commitment to rectify promptly any such measures and underlined their commitment to cooperate in addressing such measures wherever they may occur. Both sides will continue their cooperation in fulfilling these commitments.
- Summit leaders underlined the importance of fully implementing the reforms of the UN system adopted at the 2005 UN Summit, including reform of the main UN bodies, as referred to in the outcome document, in order to strengthen the UN's capacity to effectively address global challenges. Summit leaders also underscored the importance of further multilateral cooperation, including in the work of the Human Rights Council and the Peacebuilding Commission. They also stressed the need to achieve concrete results on a new UN scale of assessments.
PROMOTING PEACE AND SECURITY
- Summit leaders exchanged views on a number of issues of common concern. They shared their intention to strengthen their operational cooperation to be more action-oriented and promote international peace and stability. They underlined the usefulness of strategic dialogues between the EU and Japan in building common views on East Asia and Central Asia, in the light of, among others, the still existing security concerns. Japan stressed the view that the issue of arms embargo deserves careful consideration in the light of the regional security environment.
- Condemning the contravention of the UN Security Council Resolution 1718 by North Korea with its launch conducted on 5 April, Summit leaders decided to continue cooperating in addressing the issues concerning North Korea in particular the complete and verifiable denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula, especially on the basis of agreements reached in the Six-Party Talks; the elimination of the threat posed by ballistic missiles, especially through implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1718; the improvement of the humanitarian situation; and addressing the human rights concerns including by resolving the abduction issue.
- Summit leaders underlined the importance of the international community maximising its collective input on Afghanistan, in particular in support of Afghanistan's electoral process and the government's efforts to achieve peace and stability for its people. Japan expressed its appreciation for the activities of the European Union Police Mission (EUPOL Afghanistan) and the EU expressed its appreciation for Japan's efforts through the Disbandment of Illegal Armed Groups (DIAG) facility. Both sides would continue their close cooperation on assistance to Afghanistan in the fields of rural development, police and judicial reforms. They welcomed the successful outcome of the international conference on Afghanistan in The Hague on 31 March.
- Summit leaders stressed that the challenges faced by Pakistan and Afghanistan could not be tackled in isolation and that relations in the wider region must be strengthened. Summit leaders underlined their continued support for democracy, good governance and the rule of law in Pakistan as the government faced complex security and economic challenges. They welcomed the successful outcome of the Pakistan donors' conference held in Tokyo on 17 April.
- Reaffirming the importance of fostering the stability and prosperity in Central Asia, Summit leaders appreciated the recent cooperation on enhancing border management capacity in Tajikistan. Also reaffirming the usefulness of political dialogues with the countries of the region and of supporting them in reforms and democratisation, both sides decided to explore the possibility of further cooperation in Central Asia in other areas where EU and Japan are actively engaged. Both sides shared the common view that the stability and prosperity of Central Asia is crucially important for the stability of the whole region including neighbouring countries and pointed out the importance of mutual cooperation of all actors in Central Asia in this regard.
- While recognising the need to tackle the root causes of piracy and underlining their support for development activity in Somalia to this end as well as their support for related anti-piracy capability in Somalia and the wider region, both sides would take appropriate steps to contribute to ensuring the safe passage of vessels in need through the Gulf of Aden, the EU through its deployment of NAVFOR Atalanta and Japan through the dispatch of escort ships of Maritime Self-Defence Forces.
- Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen Africa's Peace and Security Architecture by the African Union, to improve Africa's peacekeeping capabilities. Both sides stressed the importance of dealing with humanitarian crisis such as in Darfur, Chad/Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- The EU and Japan, sharing serious concerns over the Iranian nuclear issue, called on Iran to comply fully with UN Security Council Resolutions 1696, 1737, 1747, 1803 and 1835. Both sides renewed their commitment to the ongoing efforts in the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Security Council to resolve it and confirmed their determination to work for a peaceful and diplomatic resolution to this issue. Both sides called on Iran to cooperate with E3/EU+3 (France, Germany, UK, the EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, China, Russia and the US) in a more constructive manner.
- Summit leaders shared the view that the Middle East Peace Process remained a top priority for the EU and Japan. A just, lasting and comprehensive peace is urgently needed. They would do all they could to drive the peace process forward, working closely with international partners, in particular the Quartet, to promote a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict on the basis of two states living in peace and security. Both sides recalled the importance of the Arab Peace Initiative in this regard. They noted the importance of international support to deliver humanitarian support to the Palestinians and also to build the institutions of a Palestinian State, comprising the West Bank and Gaza, that is viable, independent, democratic and sovereign, living in peace and security alongside Israel within secure and recognised borders. In this context, they underlined the value of the EU's PEGASE mechanism, which is at the disposal of the international donor community. They also noted the importance of Japan's Corridor for Peace and Prosperity initiative, as a contribution to creating a viable Palestinian economy.
- Summit leaders expressed their hope that the Government of Myanmar tackles the country's severe political, structural and economic problems and fosters a peaceful transition to a legitimate, democratic and civilian government without delay. They pointed out that elections planned for 2010 could be welcomed by the international community if they were based on an inclusive dialogue among all the stakeholders in Myanmar. In this context, they called on Myanmar to release political prisoners and detainees, including Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and to lift all restrictions imposed on political parties immediately. They expressed their readiness to respond positively to substantive political progress and steps towards respect for human rights undertaken by Myanmar. Summit leaders reaffirmed their full support for the UN Secretary General's Mission of Good Offices and UN Special Rapporteur on situation of human rights in Myanmar and called on the Government of Myanmar to cooperate fully with them. They recalled their determination to help the Government and the people of Myanmar achieve stability and prosperity in democratic freedom.
- Summit leaders expressed deep concern over the large number of civilians who are still caught in the conflict area in Northern Sri Lanka, in particular the many continuing reports of civilian casualties and fatalities. They condemned efforts by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) to prevent civilians from leaving and urged them to free all civilians, and the Sri Lankan military to guarantee their safe passage. They called on the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE to comply fully with international humanitarian law and to end the conflict. They fully supported the UN Secretary-General's call for UN staff to be allowed into the conflict zone to facilitate relief operations and the evacuation of civilians and to allow UN and International Committee of the Red Cross access to all sites where newly arrived displaced persons are being registered and provided shelter. Summit leaders called on all parties in Sri Lanka to engage in an inclusive political process that addressed the legitimate concerns of all communities.
- Japan welcomed the EU's constructive contributions to the Asia-Pacific regional political architecture. The EU welcomed the East Asia's efforts to strengthen open and transparent regional co-operation based upon universally recognised values and global rules, and expressed appreciation for Japan's constructive and active role in this respect. Recognising that the East Asia Summit (EAS) was a forum driven by ASEAN in close partnership with its other participants, Japan welcomed the EU's continued interest in greater EAS engagement and will cooperate closely with ASEAN partners to amend the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia so as to allow for EU/EC accession.
- Summit leaders reaffirmed their intention to cooperate in the area of human security by promoting this concept in the UN and other international fora, and to pursue dialogue on human security. They also stressed the need for the General Assembly of the United Nations to continue consideration of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity and its implications, bearing in mind the principles of the Charter and international law, as stated in the 2005 World Summit Outcome.
- In the context of the EU's policies and programmes directed towards stabilising the EU's neighbourhood, the EU and Japan looked forward to discussing further possible areas of cooperation within the framework of the EU's Eastern Partnership.
BILATERAL COOPERATION ON ECONOMIC AND SECTORAL ISSUES
- Summit leaders welcomed recent progress in their bilateral cooperation and renewed their determination to continue working together in this vein to ensure greater prosperity and quality of life in the EU, Japan and the rest of the world.
- Summit leaders reaffirmed the crucial importance of the EU-Japan bilateral economic and commercial relationship for their own and global prosperity. Both sides underlined the need to fulfil their responsibility in leading the international efforts for maintaining open economy, especially in light of the current global economic situation. Both sides expressed the intention to cooperate in strengthening the integration of their economies with a view to better exploiting the full potential of their economic relationship. Towards this end, in order to tackle trade restrictive barriers, to increase market access opportunities and to create the best possible environment to promote bilateral direct investment flows, they underlined the importance of putting focus on a few specific non-tariff issues which are expected to bring concrete outcomes, in a mutually beneficial way and in a short period, utilising existing mechanisms such as the High-Level Consultation, the bilateral Regulatory Reform Dialogue, the High-Level Trade Dialogue, the Industrial Policy and Industrial Cooperation Dialogue and the other bilateral dialogues more effectively. They will review the progress made at the latest at the Summit in 2010.
- Summit leaders welcomed the progress made in implementing the 2007 Summit Annex on Promoting Research and Innovation towards Prosperity. In particular, they welcomed the initialling of the Agreement between the European Community and the Government of Japan on Cooperation in Science and Technology on 19 February 2009 and reaffirmed their intention of working closely towards signature and entry into force at the earliest possible opportunity.
- Summit leaders expressed their firm intention to strengthen EU-Japan cooperation in criminal matters and welcomed the opening of negotiations for an agreement on mutual legal assistance. They expressed the wish that constructive negotiations would lead to early conclusion of a mutually satisfactory agreement, thereby bringing significant added value to their relations.
- Summit leaders welcomed the progress made in the field of customs cooperation, in particular on supply chain security, including through mutual recognition of Authorised Economic Operators Programmes, and on Intellectual Property Rights border enforcement since the entry into force of the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the European Community on Cooperation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters in 2008. Japan reaffirmed its support for the EC's timely accession to the World Customs Organisation.
- Summit leaders welcomed the progress in EU-Japan aviation relations accomplished since the 2008 Summit. They welcomed the shared understanding that the principles of Community designation are to be reflected in the implementation of all the bilateral air services agreements between the EU Member States and Japan and about the need to complete this work as soon as possible. Summit leaders expressed their intention to expand and deepen cooperation in all areas of civil aviation, in particular aviation safety, security and air traffic management.
- Summit leaders took positive note of further progress in the implementation of the 2007 EU-Japan Action Plan on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Protection and Enforcement and renewed their determination to pursue their close cooperation on IPR at both bilateral and multilateral levels. Summit leaders remained deeply committed to the negotiations of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement and they expressed their intention to make all efforts towards the speedy completion of the negotiation of an ambitious agreement.
- Summit leaders reiterated the importance of continuing and reinforcing higher education cooperation by supporting joint academic cooperation and student mobility projects. They also reaffirmed the intention to hold an ad-hoc higher education policy seminar at the earliest possible date, if possible by the end of 2009.
- Summit leaders welcomed recent dialogue on the issue of visa waiver and encouraged further progress with a view to achieving full visa waiver for the citizens of all the EU Member States at the earliest possible opportunity. In this regard the EU underlined the importance of ensuring equal treatment for their citizens, including full visa waiver reciprocity.
- Both sides confirmed their commitment to the ongoing cooperation in the field of financial services. Both sides reaffirmed the need to strengthen supervision and regulation with a view to rebuilding trust in the financial system. The EU welcomed Japan's on-going reflections, started in October 2008, concerning its policy towards adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards. Japan welcomed the EC decision to recognise the equivalence between EU and Japan-adopted accounting standards and expressed its support for inclusion of a specific certification regime for smaller non-EU credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the forthcoming EU regulation on CRAs. Both sides reaffirmed their intention to continue efforts towards mutual reliance on each other's audit oversight systems.
- Summit leaders recognised the importance of ensuring high levels of consumer protection and reaffirmed their intention to continue to implement the 2008 Summit Annex EU-Japan Cooperation on Consumer Safety and Protection.
- Summit leaders recognised the value of the work of the EU-Japan Business Round Table and continued to have an interest in the discussions between the business communities of both sides. They took note of BRT's intention to continue its discussions for strengthening EU-Japan economic cooperation.
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