An Action Plan for EU-Japan Cooperation
European Union - Japan Summit
Brussels 2001




  1. 1.1 - United Nations Reform
  2. 1.2 - Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
  3. 1.3 - Human Rights, Democracy and Stability
  4. 1.4 - Conflict Prevention and Peace-building
  5. 1.5 - Specific Regional Issues


  1. 2.1 - Encouraging our Bilateral Trade and Investment partnership
  2. 2.2 - Strengthening Cooperation on Information and Communication Technology (IT)
  3. 2.3 - Reinforcing Co-operation on Multilateral Trade and Economic Issues
  4. 2.4 - Strengthening the International Monetary and Financial System
  5. 2.5 - Development and Fight Against Poverty


  1. 3.1 - Ageing Society and Employment
  2. 3.2 - Gender Equality
  3. 3.3 - Education
  4. 3.4 - Environment
  5. 3.5 - New Challenges
  6. 3.6 - Science and Technology
  7. 3.7 - Energy and Transport
  8. 3.8- Terrorism, Transnational Crime, Drug Trafficking, and Judicial Co-operation


  1. 4.1 - In the Academic World
  2. 4.2 - For Young People Starting Out in Life
  3. 4.3 - Developing Civil Society Links and Encouraging Inter-Regional Exchanges

Shaping Our Common Future
- EU-Japan Agenda for Co-operation -

  1. We, the European Union and Japan, have decided to launch a Decade of Japan-Europe Co-operation. We are determined to shape our common future. We must give new impetus to our relationship, with greater focus on concrete measures and concerted action. As a reflection of our shared responsibility to contribute to international peace, security and prosperity, we have today adopted a broad and forward-looking agenda for EU-Japan co-operation.

Evolution since the Joint Declaration of 1991

  1. This year we celebrate the 10th anniversary of the European Community-Japan Joint Declaration adopted on 18 July 1991 in The Hague. The Declaration's general principles and objectives remain as valid as ever and rest upon a solid foundation of common values including a belief in peace, freedom, democracy and the rule of law, respect for human rights and the promotion of sustainable development.
  2. Our relations have developed steadily since the adoption of the 1991 Declaration. An extensive bilateral political dialogue has evolved. A regular rhythm of annual Summits, Troika ministerials and official level meetings cover a wide range of issues. In the economic sphere, ties have expanded and we have worked closely together to strengthen the multilateral trading system and to pursue a constructive dialogue on investment and trade.
  3. Our relations continue to grow closer. We are working together to address global challenges and we are actively involved in each other's region. Mutual links have grown across the whole spectrum of relations: political co-operation, trade and investment flows, business collaboration, and a remarkable rise in the number of exchanges and visits to and from Japan and EU Member States. These developments are welcome, but, at the same time, they underline the untapped potential for more extensive contacts and co-operation.

The changes in Europe and the Asia-Pacific Region

  1. We have witnessed significant changes in Europe and the Asia-Pacific Region over the past ten years. The end of the cold war has ushered in great opportunities for dynamic regional, inter-regional and global co-operation. In Europe, the EU has advanced in political integration and achieved economic and monetary union. It is now preparing for enlargement of its membership, while striving to promote stability and prosperity among its other neighbours. It has considerably strengthened its capacity for external actions, including through the development of its crisis management policies by using both military and civilian means in accordance with the principles of the UN charter.
  2. In the Asia-Pacific Region, ARF, APEC and ASEAN+3 are examples of growing regional dialogue. The continued development in the Asia-Pacific Region, overcoming the financial and economic crisis, has great impact on the political and economic landscape of the world as a whole. An important feature of the growing EU-Japan political relationship in recent years is co-operation in promoting regional dialogue both at the multilateral level and bilaterally. Japan and the EU also encourage and support cross-regional links of co-operation, e.g. through ASEM and the OSCE.

Enhanced EU-Japan co-operation in the age of globalisation

  1. We have achieved a significant convergence of views and policies on a range of global and regional issues, including the promotion of peace and stability in regions of conflict. This provides a solid foundation for further developing our political co-operation to prevent such conflicts and the human suffering they entail and to ensure good governance, the rule of law and respect for human rights.
  2. The EU and Japan are totally committed to the international fight against terrorism. We will actively engage in this fight and take concrete measures to demonstrate clearly our determination, including continued support to the global coalition and the provision of humanitarian assistance to those who suffer. We have issued a separate declaration on terrorism at this summit meeting and will continue to exchange information on the measures each side is taking.
  3. As the trend toward globalisation presents both opportunities and challenges to our societies and to the international community as a whole, we are determined to take its advantage and to share with developing countries its inherent opportunities, while mitigating its adverse effects.
  4. Closer co-operation is a true necessity. As global partners, accounting for major share of world GDP, and the world's largest donors of development assistance, we have a special responsibility to the global community. With this in mind, we will intensify our efforts to promote sustainable development and to reduce poverty, while striving to make our assistance more efficient and better directed to those most in need.
  5. We aim to ensure that our bilateral economic relations continue to foster an open environment for trade and investment and develop the potential offered, for example, by information technology and biotechnology, that will serve as important and complex driving forces in realising growth in new economy and forming the world of the 21st century. As the fast evolution brought by the knowledge-driven economy naturally directs us towards strengthening mutually beneficial economic relations, we will continue our partnership in support of the multilateral trading system and our efforts to ensure a stable macro-economic environment.
  6. Pursuit of economic growth must go hand in hand with the promotion of social cohesion. The EU and Japan are both facing challenges to their own social systems and quality of life, among other things unemployment, aging populations and the need to review social security arrangements. We are also intent on promoting gender equality.

Action Plan for EU-Japan Co-operation

  1. The time is therefore ripe to strengthen further the bilateral relationship and to express this in a new political commitment. At the EU-Japan Summit in Tokyo in July 2000, we decided to elaborate an Action Plan. Through strong policy co-ordination and concrete joint initiatives, both immediate and over the long term, we aim to address the challenges which Japan and the EU confront together, both at home and globally.
  2. Our co-operation rests on shared global responsibilities with a view to promoting human security for the benefit of all. Furthermore, our co-operation should enhance engagement in each other's region and be based on a spirit of mutual respect and with due consideration to cultural diversity.
  3. The Action Plan addresses four major objectives: (1) Promoting Peace and Security; (2) Strengthening the Economic and Trade Partnership Utilising the Dynamism of Globalisation for the Benefit of All; (3) Coping with Global and Societal Challenges, and (4) Bringing Together People and Cultures. The attached Action Plan is intended to lay the foundation for well diversified EU-Japan relations over the decade ahead. So that our cooperation strategy is energetically pursued and kept current, we will coordinate regularly, and update the Action Plan as necessary at the annual EU-Japan Summit.
  4. We are committed to implementing the Action Plan, putting to full use the mechanisms already in place. Across the range of the Action Plan, the EU Presidency and European Commission will be fully associated and implicated in line with their responsibilities, as will the Government of Japan.

    In order to deepen the existing political dialogue in the foreign policy sphere, the EU and Japan will intensify their contacts. On behalf of the EU Council, the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) will keep the Foreign Minister of Japan informed of important developments in the CFSP, including the European Security and Defence Policy. The Japanese Minister will, in turn, inform the EU of key developments in Japanese foreign policy.
  5. Ultimately, it is people who breathe life into the EU-Japan relationship. That is why we attach such importance to the development of people-to-people links. Only with their active support will we succeed in attaining our goals.


We have a particular ambition to develop our relations in the political sphere. Tapping the unrealised potential for co-operation in this area can help us attain the many objectives we have in common, and also broaden the base of our own relationship.

Reflecting the values and objectives we share, this co-operation will be organised in the first instance around three central themes:

  • the strengthening of the UN;
  • continued co-operation designed to achieve the elimination of all Weapons of Mass Destruction, based on the principle of undiminished security for all ; and
  • the promotion and the protection of human rights.

The promotion of regional dialogue and political stability already constitute a growing area of our mutual co-operation. We shall pursue these efforts, through work both at multilateral level (through the UN, and organisations and fora such as the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM)) and bilaterally in areas such as the Balkans, East Timor, and the Korean Peninsula.

Sharing responsibility for promoting peace and prosperity in the world, we will enhance human security for the benefit of all, and encourage enhanced engagement in each other's region. In this context, Japan will continue various forms of support to the EU candidate countries and other countries in the region, with a view to contributing to regional stability and development. The EU will similarly continue its support in strengthening economic infrastructures and democratisation of Asian countries.

United Nations Reform

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • In the light of the Millennium summit and assembly, and in view of the challenges posed to the organisation, the EU and Japan reaffirm their commitment to reform, strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of the UN system, including the intensification of their efforts to achieve a comprehensive reform of the Security Council in all its aspects, which has primary responsibility to maintain international peace and security.
  • Active co-operation will also be pursued regarding the strengthening of UN peace operations on the basis of the Brahimi report and relevant reports of the Secretary-General, and the full implementation by all member states of the decision to reform UN finances, including a solution for arrearages.

Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Continued co-operation to achieve the elimination of all Weapons of Mass Destruction, based on the principle of undiminished security for all, including:
    • promoting the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty as soon as possible, as well as urging all states to maintain global existing moratoria on nuclear testing pending the entry into force of the CTBT; in the first instance through follow-up to the conference on this subject held in 2001;
    • making efforts for the establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the Conference on Disarmament as soon as possible in its 2002 session, to negotiate the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty with a view to its conclusion within five years and, pending its entry into force, a moratorium on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons;
    • Joint efforts aimed at strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) including in multilateral negotiations on the BWC Protocol, to be concluded at an early date;
    • promoting universal ratification of and adherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention and working to ensure the full and effective implementation of all its provisions.
  • Active co-operation on combating the destabilising accumulation and spread of small arms and light weapons, through:
    • working together in the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects, which was held in July 2001;
    • implementing the "Weapons for Development" project, in particular in Cambodia, where the EU and Japan will develop joint or closely co-ordinated parallel projects, in conjunction with that country, the UN, and other international organisations;
    • addressing the problem of illicit trade in, uncontrolled spread, and excessive accumulation of small arms and light weapons in the Western Balkans.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Strengthening co-operation on disarmament and non-proliferation issues, both bilaterally and in relevant multilateral fora, on the basis of mutual understanding on each other's security concerns, including the universalisation of the International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation. To this end, regular consultations will be strengthened, targeting also non-state actors such as terrorists.
  • Co-operation towards the total elimination of anti-personnel landmines, including:
    • the possibility of closely co-ordinated parallel efforts in one or several countries;
    • promoting adherence to the Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines;
    • the destruction of these weapons.
  • The exchange of information, between Europe and Japan, on co-operation with Russia in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation, such as the disposition of surplus weapon-grade plutonium.
  • Close co-operation towards ensuring that strengthened IAEA safeguards are universally applied.

Human Rights, Democracy and Stability

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • The holding of regular EU-Japan meetings on human rights, in principle, before the annual session of the UN Commission on Human Rights and before the meeting of the 3rd Committee of the UN General Assembly. Held at expert level, in troika format, these meetings will develop co-operation on geographic and thematic human rights initiatives, and consider the possibility of the joint submission of resolutions.
  • Co-operation against commercial sexual exploitation of children notably in preparing and following up the Second World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, to take place in Yokohama, Japan, in December 2001 and in the framework of the preparation of and the follow up to the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Children that will take place in New York in May 2002.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Coordinated efforts to establish and render fully operational the International Criminal Court.
  • Working together in overseas aid programmes, to ensure respect for human rights, promotion of democracy, and good governance. The coordination of efforts to promote democracy can include strengthening the functioning of judicial, legal, administrative, and electoral systems, through the dispatch of experts, the acceptance of trainees, and the organisation of seminars and symposia.
  • Specific joint actions against child labour, notably in the context of strategies for poverty eradication and social development, will also be considered.

Conflict Prevention and Peace-building

Intiatives to be launched immediately

  • The EU and Japan will cooperate in improving the international community's institutions and instruments for conflict prevention and will pursue sustained efforts in the UN and regional bodies to promote a spirit of tolerance among and within nations. In this context, noting that 2001 is the "United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilisations", they will cooperate in following up on the "Global Agenda for Dialogue among civilisations" adopted at the 56th session of the UN General Assembly.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Encouraging efforts by non-governmental organisations in both the EU and Japan to develop their capacity to play a larger role in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peace-building.
  • The exchange of information on the civilian aspects of crisis management (including humanitarian aid), covering both the general instruments used and specific actions undertaken.
  • Strengthen the capacity of international and regional organisations to carry out conflict prevention and to ensure a smooth transition once a conflict is settled, from emergent humanitarian assistance to rehabilitation development co-operation.
  • The EU and Japan will follow up the Seminar on Education and Protection of Cultural Heritage in South Eastern Europe which was held in Japan in March 2001. In this context the EU and Japan will examine the possibility of taking effective measures in the United Nations and other international fora to prevent the destruction of important cultural heritage, such as the Buddhist statues destroyed in Bamiyan.

Specific Regional Issues

Initiatives to be launched immediately Korean Peninsula

  • The EU and Japan will reinforce their efforts:
    • to support the process of reducing tensions on the Korean Peninsula including through the Republic of Korea's "engagement policy", and continue their support for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO);
    • to urge the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to comply with and commit itself fully to relevant international norms with regard to nuclear non-proliferation and weapons of mass-destruction and stop its missile related activities including deployment; and
    • to urge the DPRK to respond positively to international concerns especially on humanitarian issues;
    • to exchange information on each other's policies towards the DPRK, including on the EU's efforts to improve the human rights situation and to promote dialogue on economic reform.

The Balkans

  • Sustained and substantial efforts in the Balkan region, to promote security, democratisation, and economic development. In the context of EU-Japan co-operation, these efforts will include in particular:
    • co-operation within the framework of the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe, extending help to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (including Kosovo), Bosnia-Herzegovina, and other parts of the Balkan region in support of democratisation and economic recovery;
    • the exchange of information, and strengthened co-operation, on humanitarian assistance to refugees and displaced persons in the region.

Other actions to be pursued

  • As regards Russia, the EU and Japan will exchange information on their support for reforms, strengthening the rule of law and building of civil society. In their technical assistance activities, they will continue to support economic reforms including in such areas as the development of small and medium-size entreprises.
  • As regards China, continued co-operation in supporting its reform and open policy, based on the recognition that a stable, open and developing China is significant for the peace and development of the Asia-Pacific region and the entire world. The EU and Japan will exchange information in order to improve co-ordination and policy implementation on their technical assistance activities.
  • As regards the Middle East Peace Process, the EU and Japan will continue to support any efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict built on the general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, and particularly the formula 'Land for Peace', as well as the agreements of Madrid and Oslo.
  • Strengthened support for efforts by African regional organisations (including the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, and the Southern African Development Community) and African countries to prevent and resolve conflicts in the region. In this context, the EU and Japan will cooperate closely to implement at an early date the G8 Initiatives for Conflict Prevention issued at Miyazaki (2000) and Rome (2001).
  • Both parties will support the creation of an independent, self-sustaining, and viable state in East Timor as an important element of stability in the region and will continue to support its efforts to bring this about.
  • Both parties will continue to work together to support the efforts of the UN Secretary General to achieve a comprehensive settlement on Cyprus, consistent with the relevant UNSC resolutions.


We, two of the largest economies in the world, commit ourselves to advance the global economy. We will therefore develop a deeper and wider economic and trade partnership between ourselves, with a firm belief in the multilateral trading system, in a way which promotes economic stability worldwide, and ensures that all countries benefit from this process.

We want particularly to facilitate the two-way flow of trade and investment, so that our bilateral economic relationship can realise its full potential - in the interests of all, consumers, producers, and society at large. To this end, we intend to:

  • create an open environment for trade and investment, through working on a forward-looking agenda, taking into account the recommendations made by the EU-Japan Business Dialogue Round Table;
  • reinforce existing efforts, in particular through our regulatory reform dialogue, to remove obstacles and barriers to trade and investment with the aim to develop an appropriate regulatory framework;
  • harness for both economies the dynamism of the information technology revolution, to develop a "Global Information Society".

We already co-operate closely to strengthen the multilateral trading system, and will continue our joints efforts to further liberalise trade, to strengthen the WTO rules, to address the challenges of the 21st century, to support the goal of sustainable development, and to integrate developing countries into the world economy. This will be achieved by ensuring successful negotiations based on the comprehensive work programme enshrined in Ministerial Declaration adopted at the Qatar Ministerial Conference in November 2001. Convinced of the importance of these negotiations for the prosperity of the world economy, we will do so in a way which promotes economic stability world-wide and ensures that all countries benefit from the process.

We share an understanding that a stable international macroeconomic environment is indispensable for the sound and continued development of the global economy. In this context, we intend to discuss measures to strengthen the international monetary and financial system, particularly in the area of monetary and financial coordination in Europe and East Asia, continuing our close co-operation since the Asian financial crisis.

We are the principal donors of development assistance in the world. Closer co-operation could help ensure effective implementation of our respective efforts to promote sustainable development and to eradicate poverty, to the greater benefit of the recipient countries.

Encouraging our Bilateral Trade and Investment partnership

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Identify ways to foster the economic partnership for an open environment for trade and investment, including broadening co-operation into rapidly growing areas of the economy. As a first step, start implementing the EU-Japan Agreement on Mutual Recognition which is expected to facilitate market access and promote trade between EU and Japan. In further proposing concrete measures to stimulate bilateral trade and investment, particular attention will be given to establish an attractive business environment, including for innovative small and medium sized enterprises, drawing thereby on existing best practices by central and regional authorities.
  • Reinforcing their regulatory reform dialogue in order to foster self-sustained growth by removing obstacles and barriers to trade and investment. This will be achieved notably by reinforcing dialogue at technical level between the relevant authorities, by making better use of consultations and expanding those as necessary. In the areas of specific importance for each side, taking into account their relative impact on bilateral trade and investment, both sides will regularly review changes in the regulatory framework and their implementation. Moreover, further cooperation will be pursued between the competent authorities in a variety of areas (including standards and conformity assessment) and sectors (notably telecommunications, environment, energy supply, commercial transport services and construction) in order to follow a consistent regulatory approach in the future.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Support and encouragement for, notably:
    • private sector exchanges, in particular the activities of the EU-Japan Business Dialogue Round Table, whose recommendations provide useful input to the overall trade and investment partnership;
    • contacts between consumer groups, including at an appropriate stage further editions of the EU-Japan Consumer Dialogue; and
    • exchanges between small-and medium-sized entreprises, including through the "Gateway to Japan" programme and the EU-Japan Centre for Industrial Co-operation's human resources training programme.
  • Co-operating to develop and promote the use of international standards and of international guides and standards for conformity assessment procedures so as not to create unnecessary obstacles for international trade, and encourage the establishment of international rules in general.
  • In the framework of the implementation of the EU-Japan Agreement on Mutual Recognition, consultations will be initiated concerning possible sectoral extensions of the agreement.
  • Promoting customs co-operation for the purpose of facilitating legitimate trade and combating illegitimate practices. The EU and Japan will consider the feasibility of concluding a customs mutual assistance agreement which is equally beneficial for Japan and the EU and also compatible with their respective laws and regulations.
  • Co-operation to enhance effective bidding by European companies in Japan and by Japanese companies in the EU, taking account of information and recommendations from the EU and Japan business communities and notably the EU-Japan Business Dialogue Round Table.
  • A particular effort to facilitate the movement of employees with specific skills, of EU nationals working in Japan and Japanese nationals working in the EU, for example through the simplification of formalities for visas, work permits, and other requirements, as well as through equitable arrangements for pensions.
  • Work to increase mutual understanding of the agricultural situation in the EU and in Japan, to resolve bilateral agricultural issues, and to intensify dialogue on issues of common concern.
  • Complementing the Co-operation Agreement Concerning Anti-competitive Activities with:
    • the exchange of information and opinions between the relevant authorities, with a view to the full enforcement of competition policy;
    • efforts to enhance understanding by business and the public of the importance of competition policy;
    • assisting developing countries to acquire the capacity to enforce competition laws and policy in response to the globalisation of the economy.

Strengthening Cooperation on Information and Communication Technology (IT)

Initiatives to be launched immediately:

  • Co-operate towards the creation of a "Global Information Society", by taking a range of measures to encourage co-operation in the IT sector, that include as first steps:
    • closer technical consultations on the fourth generation mobile communication system to ensure its realisation via international standards on the basis of annual progress reviews;
    • close cooperation on development and further implementation of regulatory reform in order to encourage competition relying upon open market principles in the telecommunications service sector respecting our respective rights and obligations in the WTO/GATS, this will also help to improve our mutual understanding of the regulatory frameworks of the EU and Japan;
    • enhanced co-operation to establish high standards of data protection based on best international practices that will ensure the free and secure flow of information between the EU and Japan; this enhanced co-operation will also include certification service and cryptography and exploring the feasibility of mutual recognition of electronic signatures, with the objective to facilitating its cross-border use;
    • establishing close co-operation on issues related to new network security and the timely introduction of new internet protocol IPv 6;
    • exploring ways to bridge the international digital divide, inter alia through the follow -up of the G8 Dot Force set up at the Okinawa Summit and in other international fora such as the ITU and the OECD.

Other actions to be pursued:

  • Further development of a "Global Information Society" through:
    • research and development on information and communications technology, including co-operation in the private sector;
    • fora, symposia, and expert meetings, aimed at various actors, including regional and local governments;
    • support the development of e-networks between European and Japanese universities and research institutes to foster common projects by European and Japanese researchers, including information exchange and the development of science and technology applications and research activities;
    • seminars, working groups and possible joint research on IT-related transport issues such as Intelligent Transport System (ITS).

Reinforcing Co-operation on Multilateral Trade and Economic Issues

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Continued close co-operation to strengthen the multilateral trading system by ensuring a successful outcome of the new round of trade negotiations based on the Ministerial Declaration adopted at the Qatar Ministerial Conference in November 2001, so as to respond to the members' wide-ranging interests, including those of developing countries.
  • Efforts to facilitate the accession of existing applicants to the WTO, including support for the advancement of Russia's accession process. Recognising the importance of encouraging China, as a new WTO member, to implement the WTO Agreements and its commitments, the EU and Japan will exchange views and information in this regard.
  • Close co-operation on how best to integrate developing countries fully into the multilateral trading system, including through trade-related technical assistance for the least developed, and initiatives such as the EU's "Everything but Arms" initiative or other improved forms of market access for less developed countries.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Continue dialogue on regional economic matters and trade policies, including on economic integration and enlargement of the EU, and on the regional trade agreements between Japan and third countries.
  • Work together to improve the functioning, transparency, and efficiency of the WTO as well as working to strengthen the coherence in international and economic policy-making between the WTO, the Bretton Woods Institutions and other relevant international organisations.
  • Co-operation within the WTO framework on the review underway of the Plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement.

Strengthening the International Monetary and Financial System

Initiatives to be launched immediately include

  • The discussion of measures for strengthening the international monetary and financial system, in particular measures in the area of monetary and financial integration and co-operation in Europe and East Asia. In this context, the EU and Japanese authorities will set up a Working Group to exchange information on the macro-economic assistance and monitoring which the European Union and Japan offer their neighbouring countries with the aim of promoting financial stability.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Extending the bilateral dialogue on financial issues to cover subjects such as best practices in financial regulation and supervision, and the regulatory implications of financial innovation. The EU and Japan will also start discussions on a possible framework to enhance information sharing among supervisors.

Development and Fight Against Poverty

Actions to be pursued

  • Policy co-ordination in the preparation, implementation and monitoring of sector-wide approaches, as appropriate, in countries and sectors of mutual concern. The EU and Japan will also promote exchange of information and co-operation in order to cope with infectious and parasitic diseases, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis and malaria.
  • Joint comparison and assessment, when appropriate, of each other's development policies and programmes, with a view to increased effectiveness and improved monitoring. This may include: consultations at expert level, the organisation together of seminars and symposia, and the dispatch of joint assessment missions.
  • The exchange of personnel between the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) and the relevant parts of the European Commission including aid administration in EU Member States, to deepen mutual understanding of policies and procedures.
  • Increasing the effectiveness of international financial institutions' support to developing countries, in particular when the fight against poverty is concerned.
  • Co-operation in African development, given its significance in the policies of both the EU and Japan. This will be done on the basis of the guidelines contained in the Tokyo Agenda for Action adopted at the Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II) and in the Cotonou Agreement based on the discussions at the TICAD Ministerial-level Meeting and Africa-EU Ministerial Conference.


The future offers great opportunities but also significant challenges:

  • the events of 11 September 2001 show that we have to cooperate - multilaterally and bilaterally - to fight as a priority terrorism in all its expressions and whatever its cause;
  • in our own societies, demographic trends oblige us to review employment and social policies, where gender equality is at the forefront of our attention; internationalisation of crime and drug trafficking also require a comprehensive response;
  • in the world at large, where dealing with the threat to our global environment remains of primordial importance. Science can help us to understand the problems, and technology help find solutions.

Some of these challenges demand a response which the EU and Japan can help develop and apply together. Others may not in themselves require coordinated action, but call for open exchange and discussion - between ourselves and more widely - if we are to confront them effectively and in ways beneficial to all.

Ageing Society and Employment

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • The holding of a joint symposium on older workers and employment, in 2002 at senior level, focusing on improvement of new employment opportunities and on promoting "active ageing".

Other actions to be pursued

  • The exchange of experience between the EU and Japan in various areas, including: pension and welfare policies, the promotion of social inclusion (social policy area) and health care, medical insurance, care systems for the elderly and hospital management (health policy area).
  • The stimulation of greater direct contact - between the EU and Japan - involving officials, employers, and worker representatives; as already happens with the annual tripartite visit which takes place alternately in each location.
  • Co-operation to launch an international dialogue on the social dimensions of globalisation, with the participation of governments, international organisations within their respective mandates, and civil society representatives, to undertake analysis and to exchange experience on the interfaces, while rejecting sanctions-based approaches.

Gender Equality

Actions to be pursued

  • EU and Japan will work jointly to promote gender equality in our societies as well as internationally with a view to ensuring full and equal opportunities to both sexes. This will include:
    • integrating a gender equality perspective in all policies both at national and international levels, with particular emphasis on mainstreaming;
    • dialogue between policy makers and experts;
    • regular exchanges of expertise between relevant institutes and centres;
    • the comparison of how, from the perspective of "gender equality", policies are evaluated, assessed, and monitored;
    • promoting gender equality in all areas of international cooperation, for example in UN policy, development cooperation, poverty eradication, and the respect of human rights.


Actions to be pursued:

  • The exchange of experience on "education policy", with a view both to promoting respect and understanding for other traditions and cultures, and to enabling the EU and Japan to address better the education problems they each face. This may include:
    • setting up a regular round-table dialogue on education policy;
    • supporting efforts by UNESCO and others to implement the conclusions of the World Education Forum held in April 2000 in Dakar;
    • the further development, through exchange and discussion, of "lifelong learning" for vocational training, allowing individuals to adapt to new opportunities and requirements.


Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Co-operation to ensure the successful preparation and negotiation of the UN "Rio + 10" Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development due to be held in 2002. This will require, among other things, the adoption of a focused and forward-looking agenda.
  • Additional efforts to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002 and co-operation to seek the effective participation of all countries.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Co-operation to step up the effective implementation of all the relevant conventions on environmental issues adopted since the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development , and to address other global environmental issues through early high level consultations on the environment.
  • Work together with developing countries to assist their pursuit of sustainable development. In particular, the EU and Japan will:
    • seek to improve co-operation with the developing countries - within the UN Forum on Forests to establish effective mechanisms for the conservation of forests, as well as the development and implementation of sustainable forest management;
    • conduct research into desertification with affected countries, and pursue effective and durable solutions under the UN Convention to combat Desertification;
    • examine ways to combat illegal logging, including export and procurement practices.
  • Jointly support the efforts of the developing countries to elaborate national strategies for sustainable development to be implemented by 2005. Through enhanced bilateral efforts, the EU and Japan will:
    • explore possibilities of equivalency between the EU and Japanese approaches designed to encourage more sustainable production and consumption, and promote greater environmental awareness among producers and consumers;
    • develop a dialogue to promote co-operation on conformity assessment and mutual recognition of environmental standards.
  • Strengthen bilateral co-operation aimed at achieving mutual support between the rules of the multilateral trading system and the objectives of multilateral environmental arrangements, as well as the broader conservation of the environment, including the sustainable use of natural resources.

New Challenges

Actions to be pursued

Biotechnology opens new horizons to tackle health or environmental problems in novel ways, and to create new industries. It also raises largely-unprecedented ethical issues, and must develop with those in mind.

  • The EU and Japan will therefore pursue the following actions:
    • encourage dialogue between intellectuals, scientists, and civil society at large, on the whole range of bio-ethics issues (cloning, research on human ES cells and human genome, genetic manipulation, organ transplants, etc) including those related to safety;
    • exchange information between regulatory authorities on safety-related issues, including the implementation of the Carthagena Protocol on Biosafety;
    • exchange views on other regulatory issues, such as the protection of personal data, intellectual property.

The application of new technology, and the industrialisation of agriculture, similarly offer new opportunities in food production, but prompt new concerns about food safety.

  • The EU and Japan will therefore pursue the following action:
    • utilize relevant multilateral fora to enhance mutual understanding, improve standards and procedures, promote inclusive dialogue and a more rapid flow of information, and multilateral co-operation.

In the area of public health, new and re-emerging diseases pose a particular threat.

  • The EU and Japan will therefore pursue the following actions:
    • co-operate to strengthen existing networks for epidemic alert and response as cost-effectively as possible, through work in international fora such as the World Health Organisation;
    • promote exchanges of information and visits of personnel between research institutes specialising in infectious diseases, and in particular to facilitate the use of laboratories specialising in highly-dangerous diseases (so-called "P4" laboratories) in EU member states.

Science and Technology

Actions to be pursued

  • Expanding co-operation in the field of science and technology. The EU-Japan Science and Technology Forum, held since 1994, has led to enhanced mutual understanding of policies and systems in this area, and will be maintained. The EU and Japan will also discuss the possibility of a framework agreement with a view to facilitating this co-operation.
  • Co-operation on major international projects aimed at understanding the environment and the earth system, in particular:
    • to deploy floats under the ARGO (A Global Array for Profiling Floats) Project, and share the resultant data;
    • to promote the IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Programme) that will, in 2003, start providing information on climate change and geo-dynamics; as well as on:
    • new satellite-based approaches for the global monitoring of the environment;
    • seismic research, on the international harmonisation of seismic parameters, and on evaluation of seismic risk.
  • Support for the development of biotechnology, as a major new field offering great potential, through:
    • academic and technological exchanges involving Europe and Japan;
    • organising workshops and other activities to encourage the development of biotechnology by the private sector, through exchanges involving the industrial sector, capital providers, private laboratories and universities;
    • private-sector activities, and exchanges on bio-venture business between the industrial sector, private laboratories, and universities; workshops will be held on this issue.
  • Continued EU interest and involvement in the Japanese-inspired Human Frontier Science Programme, as described in 1997 HFSP Intergovernmental Conference Joint Communiqué.
  • The pursuit of joint or coordinated research activities in the areas of:
    • nuclear fusion;
    • nuclear materials and measurements.
  • The organisation of symposia, workshops, and scientific meetings in the following areas:
    • life sciences (including biotechnology, infectious diseases, nanobiotechnology, risk assessment, and in vitro testing);
    • materials (such as superconductivity materials, and new plasma engineering and surfacing techniques);
    • space (satellite navigation);
    • prospective studies, including technology.

Energy and Transport

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Efforts to conclude the agreement which has been negotiated between the EU and Japan, providing a framework for stable long-term co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy including nuclear trade, and research and development, for the needs of their respective nuclear energy programmes.
  • Promotion of joint efforts to advance clean urban transport including through establishing a joint working group to identify future co-operation as well as the contribution to be made to the successful conclusion of the Ministerial Conference on "Transport and Environment" to be held in January 2002.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Cooperation to give a high priority to actions which help to reduce energy demand, to share information on efforts to increase diversification of energy supply, to develop sources of energy which have less environmental impact than current ones, to encourage the efficient use of energy and to intensify dialogue with oil and gas producing countries.
  • Strengthened cooperation in multilateral fora and processes, including to make a success of the 8th International Energy Forum in Osaka scheduled for September 2002 and to expand the membership of the Energy Charter Treaty, as well as in the context of the International Energy Agency.
  • The exchange of information on and co-operation aimed at developing transport systems. This will involve seminars, working groups, and possibly joint research projects, on the whole range of issues relating to transport such as: the so-called "Intelligent Transport System" (ITS), new transport systems, promotion of public transport, efficient goods distribution, demand-management, road networks and structures, environmentally-friendly maintenance, technological development and regulations, barrier free transport accessible to all, including persons with reduced mobility, road safety management and disaster prevention, research on automotive emissions and safety (including with regard to pedestrian safety), etc.
  • The improvement of maritime safety, through bilateral contacts and multilateral efforts in the International Maritime Organisation, including:
    • the exchange of information between European and Japanese authorities, in particular through the use of the EQUASIS database for identifying substandard vessels.
  • The development of satellite navigation systems which, in order to enhance transport safety in general, are interoperable around the world.

Terrorism, Transnational Crime, Drug Trafficking, and Judicial Co-operation

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Further promote co-ordinated international action to prevent and combat international terrorism by taking the following joint measures as first steps:
    • enhanced co-operation in all relevant international and regional fora;
    • early signature and ratification of relevant counter-terrorism conventions and protocols, and smooth and rapid implementation of relevant UN Security Council Resolutions;
    • early finalisation of the UN Comprehensive Convention against International terrorism;
    • enhancing common efforts to stop the financing of terrorism, including freezing of funds and other financial assets of terrorists;
    • reinforcement of technical co-operation to developing countries for their capacity buildings in the field of counter-terrorism.

Actions to be pursued

  • Continue combating terrorism through:
    • early finalisation of the international convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism;
    • strengthening of non-proliferation regimes of weapons of mass destruction and related materials and technologies connected with terrorism;
    • cooperation between the European Police Office (Europol) and Japanese police authorities;
    • enhanced drugs control and active measures to reduce the supply and demand of drugs.
  • Co-operation to facilitate the early entry into force of the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, and its related Protocols (Smuggling of Migrants, by Land, Sea and Air; Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition).
  • Increased support for multilateral efforts to combat crime and strengthen judicial co-operation, notably through:
    • the activities of the G8 including within the Senior Experts' Group on Transnational Organised Crime (Lyon Group);
    • "capacity-building" in countries where the criminal judicial system is vulnerable and law enforcement is inadequate, with a view to eliminating "safe havens" around the world;
    • improving international mechanisms and procedures, such as those dealing with extradition, legal assistance, and the detention and repatriation of nationals (the latter subject, for example, being covered by the Council of Europe Convention on the transfer of sentenced persons).
  • The progressive development of bilateral co-operation, in particular between Europol and the Japanese police departments fighting transnational crime with a particular focus on:
    • money laundering and other illicit practices;
    • illegal drugs (including stimulants , other synthetic drugs and precursors);
    • special investigation techniques and technologies for drugs, such as controlled delivery and signature analysis;
    • the trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants;
    • new forms of crime, such as cyber-crime (illegal disclosure of personal data, hacking, computer-related piracy and fraud, child pornography on line and cyber-terrorism).


The links between the peoples of Europe and Japan are many and varied, and we want to enhance the mutual understanding of life and culture that they bring. The diversity of cultures is a source of spiritual richness, and bringing people together helps promote mutual respect and peaceful coexistence. Greater contact of this sort will help underpin the wider and deeper EU-Japan relationship we have in mind for the political and economic spheres.

Various programmes to encourage people to people contact already exist. We intend to build on this base, as resources allow, and aim over the years:

  • to extend contacts at all levels of academic life, from pupils and schools, through students and universities, to professors and research institutes;
  • to promote schemes offering periods of training and/or work experience, especially for those early on their careers (the Executive Training Programme in Japan is one successful example of this);
  • and, more generally, to encourage exchange and contact across civil society as a whole.

We hope in this way to enhance mutual understanding, to encourage the learning of each other's' languages and in general to broaden public involvement in the partnership between the EU and Japan.

In the Academic World

Actions to be pursued

  • The establishment of a framework for sustainable mutual co-operation between the EU and Japan in the field of education. This will focus on higher education, and aim to facilitate reflection and cross fertilisation on education policy and education provision.
  • The reduction of obstacles to the mobility of teachers, administrators, and students.
  • The comparison, for example through the organisation of expert workshops, of the respective EU and Japanese systems of study credits, with a view to facilitating the exchange of students in the future.
  • The expansion of the exchange of researchers for instance, through a possible extension of Jean Monnet professorial chairs to Japan and by exploring the possibility of inviting Japanese researchers to study at the European Institute in Florence.
  • Encouragement of "twinning" between individual schools in Europe and Japan.
  • The identification of appropriate higher education institutions and research institutes, which might link and promote intellectual exchange in specific areas. These "centres of excellence" (which may develop their connections in new ways, for example through use of the internet) could, in the first instance, include those specialising in:
    • foreign and security policy;
    • European affairs (especially integration).

For Young People Starting Out in Life

Actions to be pursued

  • Upgrade and expand EU-Japan programmes for exchange of interns, in both directions. This can draw on the experience of the Vulcanus programme, the pilot Europe-Asia Business Internship Programme and the Japan-EU Industrial Co-operation Programme, which introduce European business and technology students to Japanese companies, and vice-versa.
  • The promotion of internships linked to official structures of the EU and of Japan, using the experience of the European Commission's "stagiaire" scheme, the European Parliament's "Schuman scholar" and MEP assistant schemes, and pursuing in particular a "parliamentary intern exchange", in which there would be European interns attached to the Diet and Japanese interns attached to the European Parliament. The EU and Japan take note with satisfaction of this initiative, which contributes to strengthening the links between their political institutions.
  • The intensification and further development of various programmes, notably:
    • in the field of exchanges of young people: the invitation programmes for young Japanese people and students to Europe, the Japan Exchange and Teaching Programme, the Study Programme in Japan for European Youth, the Global Youth Exchange, and the Asia-Europe Young Leaders Symposium.
    • in the field of training: the various programmes managed jointly through the EU-Japan Centre for Industrial Co-operation.
  • The progressive extension over time of the working holidays visa scheme for young Europeans visiting Japan and young Japanese visiting Europe, based on careful examination of the situation of each country. This successful scheme currently operates only between some parts of the EU and Japan.
  • Personnel exchanges, including the dispatch of young Japanese diplomats to the Collége d'Europe in Brugge and of young European diplomats to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Developing Civil Society Links and Encouraging Inter-Regional Exchanges

Initiatives to be launched immediately

  • Japan, in collaboration with the EU, will organise a symposium in the first half of 2002, consisting of intellectuals, politicians, experts and journalists with expertise, with a view to considering how best the EU and Japan can develop civil society links, cultural contacts and people to people exchanges.

Other actions to be pursued

  • Consideration of how to encourage and praise - for example through the award of an annual prize - the contribution made to enhancing dialogue and relations between the EU and Japan, be it by an individual or an organisation.
  • The promotion of general exchanges covering all parts of society, and including:
    • the encouragement of inter-regional exchanges in various fields, based upon the recognition that such exchanges will contribute to strengthening the civil level mutual understanding between the EU and Japan;
    • "twinning" and other arrangements between local governments in the EU and Japan, and between regions and prefectures;
    • exchanges in the field of sports across the whole age and ability range ("lifelong sports").
  • The support of contacts and exchanges between specific groups; including dialogue between:
    • non-governmental organisations, in the EU and Japan, such as that already underway between consumer associations;
    • journalists, given the importance of the media to comprehensive mutual understanding; in this context, the annual EU-Japan Journalists' conference, and the respective invitation programmes, can be further developed;
    • young leaders, for example through an annual meeting to exchange views on issues of mutual concern for the EU and Japan.
  • Promoting greater virtual mobility, for example, by encouraging universities and other educational institutions to use information technology to teach European languages in Japan and the Japanese language in the EU.
  • Further co-operation, in multilateral fora such as UNESCO and Asia Europe Meeting, to implement projects aimed at maintaining and protecting cultural diversity.

Back to Index