Dakar Preparatory Meeting for TICAD Ministerial-level Meeting
Chairman's Summary Report
The following report was agreed on by the participants of the Preparatory Meeting, and was sent to the TICAD Ministerial-level Meeting to be used as the basis of the discussion.
- The Preparatory Meeting for the TICAD Ministerial-level Meeting was held on 30 and 31 October, 2001, in Dakar, Senegal. The meeting was co-organised by the Governments of Senegal and Japan, UN-OSCAL, United Nations Development Programme, Global Coalition for Africa and the World Bank.
- The meeting was co-chaired by the Government of Japan and the Global Coalition for Africa. The meeting was attended by 200 participants, representing 48 African countries and 19 partner countries (5 of which are from Asia), as well as 25 international, regional and sub-regional organizations.
- H.E. Mr. Abdoulaye Diop, Minister of Economy and Finance of Senegal delivered the keynote address.
- The objective of the Preparatory Meeting was to review at the technical level, progress achieved so far in the TICAD process and to finalise documentation to the Ministerial-level Meeting to be held in Tokyo, Japan from 3 and 4 December, 2001.
- With accelerated globalization and the participation of more diversified stakeholders in the international development arena, African countries have been endeavoring to achieve sustainable development by strengthening their ownership in development and partnership with the international community since TICAD II was held in October 1998.
- The Preparatory Meeting provided an opportunity for African countries, development partners and international organisations to meet and discuss further the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), launched by African leaders. The Meeting also recognised the extent of efforts made by African countries and the international community for strengthening ownership and partnership, by reviewing the progress of the Tokyo Agenda for Action (TAA) adopted at TICAD II. Furthermore, the Meeting discussed outstanding development issues as well as future directions of activities to be undertaken by Africa and the international community.
- Based on the discussions at the Preparatory Meeting and taking into account the outcomes of other international fora focusing on the same development issues, the participants reached a consensus that they need to seek and articulate a direction for the future TICAD process.
III. Post TICAD II Review and NEPAD: Challenges and Issues in Africa
- The TICAD process has greatly contributed to strengthening ownership by Africa and partnership with the international community since TICAD I in 1993. TICAD II, held in 1998, sought to identify measures to be taken to reduce poverty in Africa and to integrate Africa into the international economy. It also adopted the Tokyo Agenda for Action (TAA) which provides a strategic, action-oriented, and comprehensive guideline. The Meeting recognised the increasing relevance of TAA. The Meeting further recognised the importance of continuous monitoring of the progress of implementation of the TAA at the country-level.
- The Meeting also observed that Africa is steadily deploying its efforts to strengthen its commitment in pursuit of the development targets indicated in the TAA. The NEPAD, conceived and launched by Africans, is a framework for realising the vision set by African leaders and for strengthening partnership for implementation of that vision. The Meeting commended this effort, and emphasised the need to support the NEPAD through TICAD process. The Meeting took note that timing, capacity, and political will are key elements of success for NEPAD.
- The Meeting also took note of various initiatives of cooperation between African countries and the international community, including, among others, the dialogue between African leaders and G8, the drawing-up of the "The Declaration of Cairo" between OAU and EU, the conclusion of the "Cotonou Agreement" between ACP and EU, the approval of the African Growth & Opportunity Act (AGOA) by the US, and the "Beijing Declaration for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation" and the "Program for China-Africa Cooperation in Economic and Social Development". It was emphasised that NEPAD does not seek to replace or compete with other initiatives, but rather to consciously establish linkages and synergy between NEPAD and these initiatives. The Meeting emphasized that NEPAD is an overarching framework for African development.
- It was observed that, in spite of all these efforts, however, African countries are still confronted with numerous obstacles which hinder them from achieving sustainable development and which destabilize their societies and hamper peace. The Meeting noted strengthening of the role of the TICAD process in support of NEPAD is a common expectation among African countries and the international community. It also recognised that concerns of Africa and the international community about tackling Africa's problems are consistently being raised. In this context, the Meeting noted that debt relief is an important element in the strategy for addressing poverty reduction.
IV. Priority Areas
- The Meeting acknowledged that, while progress had been made in addressing several of the priority issues raised in the TAA, much more needed to be done. The Meeting reached a consensus about the increasing relevance of the Guidelines for Action contained in the TAA. What is essential for African countries and their development partners is to steadily implement at the national, sub-regional, regional and international levels, the specific actions and programmes under TAA, NEPAD and other initiatives supporting these processes. Furthermore, the participants in this Meeting exchanged views and opinions in detail on the priority areas. These are summarized below:
(1) Foundation of Development
- The Meeting recognised that internal peace, security, and stability are prerequisites for achieving sustainable development in any society and economy. It also acknowledged that good governance is critical in attaining Africa's sustainable development. The participants welcomed the progress made in the area of democratic governance in the continent and acknowledged the necessity of realising good governance and eliminating corruption. It noted that while free and fair elections were central to democratic governance, it observed that the holding of free and fair elections was not an end itself but an important beginning. It was also noted that some African countries in post-conflict situations had recorded economic growth. It welcomed the reported decrease in military expenditure as a percentage of GDP in African countries to be a step in the right direction.
- In order to realise good governance that encompasses democracy, transparency, accountability, respect for basic human rights, rule of law, and participation of citizens in decision-making, it is important to anchor democratic governance on solid economic foundations and to strengthen the political and administrative framework in African countries, in accordance with NEPAD. Therefore, the Meeting urged to continuing support for African countries in: (i) carrying out free and fair elections (ii) implementing administrative and civil service reform (iii) strengthening legislative performance and parliamentary oversight (iv) promoting decentralisation efforts and enhancing administrative capacity at the local level (v) establishing effective measures for good economic governance including combating corruption (vi) instituting police and judicial reform (vii) improving the sensitivity at the grass-root level and fostering civil society for strengthening reform and (viii) reducing poverty.
- Conflict hampers the economic growth and sustainable development of African countries. Some regional and sub-regional organisations in Africa (e.g. OAU and ECOWAS) are actively involved in preventing, managing, and resolving conflicts by mediating between different groups in countries in conflict and by dispatching cease-fire monitoring groups to them. Considering Africa's efforts and progress, the Meeting supported the NEPAD, which seeks to strengthen the ability of African countries address conflict prevention, management, and resolution. It was stressed that implementing peace agreements should receive as much attention as negotiating them. The Meeting also recognised that further efforts are necessary for voluntary repatriation or integration and resettling of refugees and internally displaced persons, disarming and demobilizing soldiers and ex-combatants, de-mining affected land, promoting the collection of small arms and light weapons and banning their circulation, and strengthening control of illegally obtained natural resources trade, including diamonds. The participants proposed that the international community should continue to support efforts of African countries towards reconciliation, rehabilitation, and reconstruction during the post-conflict period. The Meeting noted linkage between conflicts and poverty.
(2) Investing in People
(a) Human Resources Development and Education
- The enrolment ratio at secondary and tertiary education levels has continued to rise in recent years but exhibited only slight improvement at the primary level. The Meeting noted that further improvement of access to education, particularly to primary education, is necessary. In this regard, the Meeting acknowledged the need for access, continuation and completion of education for girls. It also noted the need to put particular emphasis on prioritizing education for women and on promoting education for refugee children. Moreover, in order to improve the quality of education, it recognised the importance of creating appropriate curricula, promoting teacher education, strengthening educational management based on regional context, popularizing education in science and technology taking full advantage of South-South Cooperation, and promoting education for preventing infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS. The Meeting discussed that the functional literacy should be promoted.
(b) Health (Infectious Diseases, especially HIV/AIDS)
- HIV/AIDS is not only an issue of the health sector but should be addressed through cross-sectoral efforts, since the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, is a menace to human security and undermine African development.
- The Meeting commended the achievement of some African countries in arresting the spread of HIV/AIDS, through education and prevention campaigns. It was advocated that all African countries should, in accordance with the Addis Ababa Consensus and Abuja Declaration, implement the appropriate actions aimed at combating as well as mitigating the negative socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS, particularly at the community level. The Meeting acknowledged that this could be achieved through the sharing of experiences at the regional level, and through South-South Cooperation.
- The Meeting, moreover, recognised that efforts are necessary in both preventing new cases and caring for those infected and affected. Measures for prevention include the promotion of education for prevention (particularly the sensitization of the youth), promotion of access to prevention products and information provision services, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and promotion of voluntary counselling and testing. Curative measures include strengthening health systems to enable those infected to access medical services, establishing a system to offer affordable care, as well as treating those left as orphans. In addition to the HIV/AIDS issue, the Meeting recognised the necessity of improving access to basic health and reproductive health services for all.
- Furthermore, the Meeting appreciated the establishment of the HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Fund, and encouraged the setting up, without delay, of the mechanism for its implementation. It also noted the efforts to promote the linkages between institutions, involved in HIV/AIDS research in Africa and Asia. The Meeting stressed that attention should also be given to combating other infectious diseases such as those epidemic prone diseases and malaria.
(3) Poverty Reduction through Economic Growth
(a) Agricultural Development (including food security)
- Agriculture is the backbone of the African economies. It accounts for a large portion of African GDP, labor force, and exports. It is also the main resource supplier for the manufacturing sector in Africa. The majority of Africa's population live in rural areas and depend on agricultural production for income and food. The Meeting recognised the need to improve productivity, strengthen farmer organisations taking into account the role of women, institute measures to issues relating to land utilisation and tenure from policy perspectives, promote access to agricultural input and output markets, and promote farmers' access to capital. Improvement of rural infrastructures and promotion of environmentally sustainable agriculture, including water resource management, were also emphasized. In addition, since high-yielding varieties (HYVs) suitable for the African context are currently being developed in Africa as part of the trilateral cooperation, the Meeting recognised the importance of the applicability of Asian experience to the African context in introducing and extending HYVs.
- Infrastructure is the key to private sector development. The lack or low quality of infrastructure, such as energy, water and sanitation, and transportation systems, greatly restricts the establishment and operation of sustainable and efficient business activities. The Meeting noted the need to further develop basic infrastructure, in view of their importance as one of the major parameters of economic growth. The Meeting emphasised that a policy and institutional framework needed to be created for attracting investments and utilising the technology of the private sector, in order for African countries to develop a new infrastructure, expand and upgrade the current infrastructure, and strengthen operation and maintenance capacity and management for service delivery. For instance, the privatisation and deregulation in the power sector, which have already been accomplished by several African countries, are part of the challenge for creating a sound environment for promoting private sector participation. Participants also shared the concept of the necessity to promote the development of networks of infrastructure beyond boundaries of countries, so as to enhance regional cooperation and trade activities, as well as to encourage investment from the private sector.
(c) Private-sector development
- The Meeting noted the necessity to stimulate private sector development as a driving force for sustained economic and social development. It recognised that a sound environment, conducive to dynamic and vibrant private sector activities, should be created by establishing and implementing sound macroeconomic policies, improving the transparency and predictability of legal and administrative procedures, strengthening the financial sector, and efficiently using the infrastructure through deregulation or privatization. Participants recognised the need for improving the capacity and skills in management and technology of the private sector, including small and medium-sized enterprises and the informal sector. For this purpose, it was agreed that effective measures might include providing training and technical cooperation, introducing micro-credit schemes for increasing access to capital, and establishing regional networks such as chambers of commerce and professional associations to increase access to information.
- The Meeting also recognised that expanding trade by increased foreign direct investment and exports from Africa could greatly contribute to further developing the private sector. In some African countries, strong policies for promoting foreign direct investment have recently stimulated diversification of their products, making their economic bases stronger and more competitive. It was pointed out that the development of the private sector would require strengthening and removing trade and investment barriers; supporting the WTO trade regime, taking into account the circumstances of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs); promoting and diversifying exports from Africa; encouraging foreign direct investments including investments in infrastructure; and providing the know-how in finance, technology, and management. The Meeting emphasised the necessity for strengthening the public-private sector dialogue on a continuous basis.
V. Main Approaches
- Enhancement of African ownership and establishment of strong partnership with donor countries and African countries and effective use of ODA resources are essential elements of the TICAD process. To respond appropriately to diversified and increased development needs in African countries, it is important for various actors to mobilize more effectively and in a coordinated manner their assistance, based on experiences and know-how consistent with the development strategy of African ownership.
- The Meeting recognised that the characteristic approaches in the TICAD process, South-South Cooperation, regional cooperation, and information and communication technology for development, are becoming more and more important. It also agreed to positively utilise the approach, especially focusing on assistance and cooperation among development partners in the African continent.
(1) South-South Cooperation
- South-South Cooperation is an effective approach for strengthening partnership and collective self-reliance among developing countries. The approach will also contribute to the concerted efforts of the developing countries to address development issues of mutual interest and common concern, such as trade and investment, ICT for development, science and technology and HIV/AIDS. South-South Cooperation has now been firmly established as a cost effective instrument of international cooperation for development that can effectively utilise the resources allocated for operational activities for development.
- With reference to partnership for trade and investment, the Meeting observed that the Second Africa-Asia Business Forum had provided Asian and African business enterprises the opportunity to further explore mutual interests as business partners by promoting corporate linkages, and agreed to continue supporting the creation of additional business opportunities. The Meeting also noted that the Hippalos Centre (AAITPC) is conducting activities to promote trade and investment between Asia and Africa. It took note of the Zambia-Malawi-Mozambique Growth Triangle (ZMMGT) as an example of application of Asian experiences.
- In relation to partnerships for sharing knowledge and experience, the Meeting agreed that it was beneficial to promote South-South Cooperation, focusing on the agricultural, health, and human resource development sectors (for instance, in the agricultural sector, NERICA rice has been developed based on Asian varieties contributing to food security in west Africa.) It acknowledged that it was also important to explore the applicability of Asian and African experiences in preventing and controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases in African countries. It also recognised the importance of expanding technical training programmes to include overseas participants and of the need to increase possibilities for human resource development through personnel exchange among African countries. Asian partners expressed their continued commitment to sharing their experiences and knowledge for African development.
(2) Regional Cooperation
- While noting many constraints hampering regional cooperation in Africa (lack of infrastructure, tariff and non-tariff barriers, lack of political commitment, weak harmonisation of policies, overlapping and multiplicity of organisations, etc.), the Meeting recognised that it was becoming increasingly important for African development to strengthen regional cooperation and facilitate regional integration and commended Africa's movement to evolve the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU). It also acknowledged that it was important to eliminate duplication of efforts and to rationalise organisational activities in order to optimize utilisation of limited resources and thus strengthen capacities for their activities.
- The participants agreed that supporting African regional organisations was extremely important in (i) conflict prevention, management, and resolution towards peace-building in Africa (ii) expansion of market and creation of incentives for investors through regional economic integration (iii) promotion of trade and investment, marketing of commodities and sharing information between regions through infrastructure development (iv) strengthening of preventive and protective measures for infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, which requires international management and (v) stimulation of human capacity building through personnel interchange in intra-African countries. They also acknowledged that regional cooperation should be facilitated effectively by strengthening not only intergovernmental organisations, but also grass-root level activities, including the private sector and NGOs.
(3) Information and Communication Technology for Development
- In spite of the fact that the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is expected to change our economy and way of life more profoundly in the 21st century, there is concern that ICT could contribute to widening the gap in availability of information between regions in the world. In this respect, attention should be paid not only to gaps between Africa and other regions in the world but also to gaps among countries in Africa. Recognizing that there are numerous factors underlying these gaps, such as the lack of an ICT infrastructure and weakness of legal and policy frameworks as well as a shortage of human resources in the industry, the Meeting agreed on the importance of creating a sound environment for establishing and developing the ICT industry, in particular, through the active participation of the private sector, and through the efforts of governments in developing relevant institutions, creating conducive environment for human resources development and basic infrastructures.
- In addition, ICT could play a significant role in promoting social development. In particular, it provides the opportunity to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of activities in such areas as governance, peace building, measures against infectious diseases, support for refugees, human resource development, and economic development. Thus, ICT applications adapted to the local circumstances should be pursued. Furthermore, utilising ICT to create networks of knowledge and information within the countries, within the sub-regions, and among the sub-regions in Africa could greatly contribute to strengthening human resource exchanges and mutual understanding of people in the vast and diversified continent of Africa. In this regard, the Meeting noted that considerations for using ICT to create such networks should be incorporated when development projects and programmes are planned and implemented.
VI. Closing remarks
- The Meeting reemphasized that people should be at the center of development cooperation in Africa. It also recognised that the planning and implementation of development strategies and programs should fully consider the social and economic circumstances of each country and sub-region and that these processes crucially require the participation of stakeholders. In this context, efforts must be made to firmly reflect the voice of people in Africa, who are the ultimate beneficiaries, in the process of developing Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and sector programs. It was further noted that the experience and know-how of various groups in the international community should be shared with Africa to support it in its challenging tasks.
- The Meeting expressed strong support for the efforts of Africa and the international community to strengthen the principles of TICAD: the establishment of ownership of African countries and partnership between Africa and development partners to support African ownership. It also stressed that it was necessary to continually endeavor to further promote the TAA, as support to the NEPAD in order to achieve peace, stability, and prosperity in Africa.
- All participants were satisfied with the discussion based on the issue papers prepared by the co-organisers and the presentation on NEPAD. It was considered that the Dakar Meeting was successful in effectively preparing the groundwork for the Ministerial-level Meeting to be held in Tokyo in December. All participants expressed their thanks to the Government of Senegal for excellent arrangements.
31 October 2001
Back to Index