Japan's International Counter-Terrorism Cooperation
I. Global Cooperation
1. UN Security Council
The UN tackles counter-terrorism issues, with intensive effort taken by the UN Security Council. The UNSC adopted the UNSCR 1267 on 15 October 1999 in response to terrorist bombing in Kenya and Tanzania. The Resolution deals with economic sanction and asset freezing on Taliban related groups and individuals. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the UNSC adopted the UNSCR 1373, which set the duties of the member states to address comprehensive counter-terrorism measures. Japan annually reports its implementation on counter-terrorism, including domestic measures to combat the financing of terrorism, to the UNCTC (Counter-Terrorism Committee) established by the UNSCR 1373.
With in the framework of G8, international counter-terrorism cooperation has been developed in areas including transportation security and technical assistance to developing countries since G8 leaders issued a joint statement on September 19, 2001 and instructed relevant ministers to strengthen counter-terrorism measures.
At the Kananaskis Summit in 2002, leaders of G8 agreed to state "Cooperative G8 Action on Transport Security" and "the G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction".
At the Evian Summit in 2003, two statements were completed, "Building International Political Will and Capacity to Combat Terrorism: G8 action Plan" and "Enhance Transport Security and Control of Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS): G8 Action Plan".
At the Sea Island Summit this year, "Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative (SAFTI): G8 Action Plan" was adopted. This Action Plan is comprised of projects in the fields of "Document Interoperability through International Standards", "International Information Exchange", "MANPADS Threat Reduction", and "Capacity Building and Collaboration" including aviation security, port security, and document security. Currently G8 countries are implementing this Action Plan.
II. Regional Cooperation
1. ASEAN+3, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and APEC
At the regional level, there has been intensive development of regional cooperation in the fight against terrorism through frameworks such as ASEAN+3, APEC and ARF, and Japan has been actively engaged in the activities in these frameworks.
With regard to ASEAN, Japan hosted the Japan-ASEAN Commemorative Summit in December 2003, and adopted the Japan-ASEAN Plan of Action, which addresses enhanced counter-terrorism measures of both parties. In November 2004, Japan and ASEAN issued "the ASEAN-Japan Joint Declaration for Cooperation in the Fight against International Terrorism", which deals with enhanced cooperation on counter-terrorism between two parties.
In APEC, leaders condemned the terrorist attacks of the September 11th attacks, and agreed to take possible measures to fight against international terrorism ("Leaders' Statement on Fighting Terrorism and Promoting Growth" in October 2002). As a specific forum dealing with counter-terrorism, the Counter-Terrorism Task Force (CTTF) has been established within APEC. In November 2004, the Santiago Declaration was adopted by the leaders at the summit in Chile, and it addresses their commitment to enhanced counter-terrorism measures including start of issuance of machine readable travel documents originally proposed by Japan.
With respect to ARF, ARF has established intersessional meeting on counter-terrorism (ISM on CT), and adopted "Statement on Cooperative Counter-Terrorism Action on Border Security". Japan co-hosted the counter-terrorism Workshop on CT in Tokyo in October 2002, with co-chairs of South Korea and Singapore, in which lessons of the 2002 Japan-Korea FIFA World Cup were shared. In the ARF ministerial meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia, held in July 2004, "ARF Statement on Strengthening Transport Security against International Terrorism" was adopted.
2. Bali Process (Ministerial Commitment on Counter-Terrorism Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region)
In February 2004, the Bali Regional Ministerial Meeting on Counter-Terrorism was held, co-chaired by Indonesia and Australia, for the purpose of exchanging the views on counter-terrorism issues in the Southeast Asia. 25 countries in the region and EU participated, and Mr. Aisawa, Japanese Senior-Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, participated in this meeting. Participants agreed to enhance their coordination in the legal frameworks of each country, and cooperation between law-enforcement agencies in the Asia-Pacific region.
In August 2004, the Legal Issues Working Group (LIWG) was held in Canberra, Australia, and the Law-Enforcement Working Group was held in Bali, Indonesia, as follow-up of the ministerial commitment. Japan has become the coordinator concerning ratification and implementation of international counter-terrorism Conventions and Protocols in the LIWG, and held the Seminar on the Promotion of Accession to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism in December 2004.
3. Regional Talks
In Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and National Police Agency have held regional counter-terrorism dialogues every year since 1996 (except 2000). Officials from Asia, Pacific, Latin America and Middle East region have been invited. Participants discussed the issues such as the situation of Islamic extremism and CT cooperation in Southeast Asia.
III. Bilateral Cooperation
1. Bilateral Dialogues
Since Ambassador in charge of International Counter-Terrorism was appointed in March 2003, Japan has actively held bilateral and trilateral consultations on counter-terrorism as followed;
|May 2002||Japan-ROK Consultations on CT (Soul)|
|Aug. 2002||Japan-Australia Consultations on CT (Canberra)|
|Nov. 2002||Japan-Russia Consultations on CT (Tokyo)|
|Dec. 2002||Japan-Australia Consultations on CT (Tokyo)|
|Feb. 2003||Japan-U.S. Consultations on CT (Tokyo)|
|Jun. 2003||Japan-Russia Consultations on CT (Moscow)|
|Nov. 2003||Japan-U.S.-Australia Trilateral Talks on CT (Canberra)|
|Nov. 2003||Japan-Australia Consultations on CT (Canberra)|
|Oct. 2004||Japan-EU Consultations on CT (Brussel)|
|Dec. 2004||Japan-Russia Consultations on CT (Tokyo)|
Ambassador in charge of International Counter-Terrorism has visited various countries such as India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand, and exchanged the views on international terrorism with his counterparts and relevant officials.
2. Adoption of Joint Declaration on Counter-Terrorism
|Dec. 2001||EU-Japan Joint Declaration on Terrorism (by heads of government, at Brussels)|
|Feb. 2002||Russia-Japan Joint Statement on Combating International Terrorism (by Foreign Ministers, at Tokyo)|
|Jun. 2003||Japan - Indonesia Joint Announcement on Fighting against International Terrorism (by Foreign Ministers, at Tokyo)|
|Jul. 2003||Australia-Japan Joint Statement on Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism (by heads of government, at Tokyo)|
|Nov. 2004||ASEAN-Japan Joint Declaration for Cooperation in the Fight against International Terrorism (by heads of governments, at Vientiane, Lao PDR)|
IV. International Counter-Terrorism Conventions and Protocols
1. 12 Conventions and Protocols on Counter-Terrorism
It is important to ratify and implement 12 international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols, which criminalize acts of terrorism, and address obligations of parties to either prosecute or extradite the terrorist to another country, in order to terminate safe-heaven of terrorists. In particular, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing on Terrorism is significant in the sense that the convention criminalizes the acts of financial support for terrorist, and aims at regulating roots of terrorist activities.
2. Ratification and Implementation
Japan had ratified 10 of them when the UNSCR 1373 was adopted. Following UNSCR 1373, Japan ratified International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings in November 2001, and International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing on Terrorism (TFC) in June 2002, and then completed ratification of 12 international agreements relating to terrorism. Regarding its implementation of the TFC, some laws are established, and others are amended. The Act on Punishment of Financing to Offences of Public Intimidation (Law No.67 of 2002) was introduced for the purpose of punishing patron of terrorist. Law for Customer Identification (Law No.32 of 2002) was also made so that anybody whose identity is not clear cannot use financial institution. Also the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law was amended to facilitate information exchange among relevant ministries and agencies for asset freezing.
V. Fighting the Financing of Terrorism
1. Cooperation in Fighting the Financing of Terrorism
Terminating the funding of terrorism is one of the most important measures to suppress international terrorism, since it cuts off roots of terrorist activities. Japan has ratified the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. At the same time, Japan actively joins anti-terrorist financial frameworks within the UN (CTC: Counter-Terrorism Committee), G8 (CTAG: Counter-Terrorism Action Group) and the OECD (FATF: Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering), and contributes to international effort to eradicate terrorist finance.
2. Japan's Asset-Freezing Measures
In addition to ratifying and implementing the TFC, Japan has made full use of legal instruments to give an end to international terrorism. As of January 2005, 442 individuals / entities have been covered by the decision of UN Sanctions Committee on al-Qaeda members, and 28 individuals / entities have been targeted by the decision of UNSC CTC. In December 2004, the inclusion of additional names of "JAMA'AT AL-TAWHID WA'AL-JIHAD", which the Government of Japan submitted for the first time to the UNSC Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1267 concerning Al-Qaeda and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities with the United Kingdom and Germany, was approved.
VI. Capacity Building Assistance on Counter-Terrorism
1. Capacity Building: Its Purpose
Some of developing countries cannot afford to arrange counter-terrorism measures in both international and domestic arena. In order to deny terrorists a safe haven anywhere in the world, Japan attaches a great importance to capacity building assistance, especially to the countries in Southeast Asia.
2. Capacity Building: Japan's Concrete Assistance
Japan has extended capacity building assistance to combat terrorism, mainly to Asian countries, in the following 9 areas: (1) immigration control, (2) aviation security, (3) port and maritime security, (4) customs cooperation, (5) export control, (6) law-enforcement cooperation, (7) anti-terrorist financing, (8) counter-CBRN terrorism, and (9) international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols. Japan accepted 235 officials in FY2001 and 264 officials in FY2002 and received approximately 306 officials in FY 2003. Examples of Japan's capacity building assistance are as followed:
(i) Technical Assistance to introduce computer system identifying finger print, for the purpose of enhancing criminal investigation and counter-terrorism capacity (about 1 billion yen, in 2003).
(ii) The Seminar on Prevention and Crisis Management of Chemical Terrorism as a part of cooperation for SEARCCT (Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism) (about 50 officials from ASEAN countries, China and Korea participated, in Malaysia in July 2004).
(iii) Grant assistance of equipment to strengthen airport and port security in Indonesia. (about 747 million yen, decided in 2004).
(iv) Contribution to FRTFSI (Fund for Regional Trade and Financial Security Initiative) of ADB (Asia Development Bank), which was agreed to be established in the APEC summit in 2003 (1 million US dollar, in 2004).
(v) The Seminar on the Promotion of Accession to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (about 50 officials from ASEAN and Pacific countries participated, in Tokyo in December 2004).
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