Diplomatic Bluebook 2019
Japan's Foreign Policy to Promote National and Global Interests
4 Disarmament and Non-proliferation and the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy3
- 3 For more details about Japan's policy in the fields of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, please refer to “Japan's Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Policy” (7th Edition) published in 2016 by MOFA.
(1) Nuclear Disarmament
As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings during the war, Japan has the responsibility to take the lead in efforts by the international community to realize a world free of nuclear weapons.
In recent years, the global security environment has been severe, and as seen in discussions over the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons adopted in July 2017, apparent divergence of views on the ways of advancing nuclear disarmament exists not only between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States, but also among non-nuclear-weapon States that are exposed to the threat of nuclear weapons and those that are not. Considering these circumstances, it is necessary to persevere in realistic and practical measures with the cooperation of nuclear-weapon States in order to advance nuclear disarmament.
Japan continues to pursue bridge building between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States with the aim of realizing a world free of nuclear weapons, through measures such as holding meetings of the “Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament,” submitting a draft resolution for the total elimination of nuclear weapons to the UN General Assembly, and utilizing the framework of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) and individual consultations. Moreover, Japan intends to carry out realistic and practical measures that also involve nuclear-weapon States, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT).
A Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Japan places importance on maintaining and strengthening the NPT, which is the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. At the NPT Review Conference, which is held once every five years with the aim of achieving the goals of the Treaty and ensuring compliance with its provisions, discussions that reflected the international situation of the time have been held since the Treaty entered into force in 1970. At the Review Conference held in 2015, discussions regarding the establishment of a Middle East Zone Free of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction and other issues could not reach a consensus, and the conference ended without document of consent. Against this backdrop, there is growing importance of efforts toward the next NPT Review Conference, to be held in 2020, which marks the 50th anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty.
Foreign Minister Kono attended the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference, which was held in Geneva from April to May in 2018, and in addition to introducing recommendations from the “Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament,” he stated that Japan believes the way toward abolishing nuclear weapons is to accumulate realistic and practical efforts in cooperation with both nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States.
B Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament
The “Group of Eminent Persons for Substantive Advancement of Nuclear Disarmament,” was launched in 2017 with the goals of rebuilding trust among countries with divergent views on how to proceed with nuclear disarmament and of obtaining recommendations that will contribute to the substantive advancement of nuclear disarmament. The Group compiled its recommendations based on discussions in the first meeting in November 2017 and the second meeting in March 2018. At the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference in April, Foreign Minister Kono introduced the contents of the recommendations, including transparency, verification, and interactive discussions, and called for concrete actions of the international community. The third meeting was held in Nagasaki in November, and, based on its recommendations, discussions were held from a medium- and long-term perspective on the issues including hard questions regarding the relationship between nuclear disarmament and security that should be resolved on the way to eliminating nuclear weapons.
C The Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)
The NPDI, which is a group of non-nuclear-weapon States from various regions established under the leadership of Japan and Australia in 2010, has served as a bridge between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States, and is leading in efforts in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation through its realistic and practical proposals, based on the involvement of the Foreign Ministers of its Member States.
Followed by the submission of the six working papers to the First Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference in 2017, at the Second Session of its Preparatory Committee held from April to May in 2018, the NPDI submitted a total of four working papers, including a working paper on transparency, and held a side event on transparency and reporting. It also contributed to concrete discussions by carrying out joint statements and engaging in dialogues with nuclear-weapon States, Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) countries, and the New Agenda Coalition (NAC).
D Initiatives Through the United Nations (Resolution on Nuclear Disarmament)
Since 1994, Japan has submitted a draft resolution on the elimination of nuclear weapons to the UN General Assembly. This draft resolution incorporates issues of the time related to nuclear disarmament, as well as concrete and practical measures toward the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The 2018 resolution aimed to provide common ground on which the international community can work together toward a world free of nuclear weapons, even in the current severe international security environment. As a result, this resolution was adopted with the wide support of 162 countries at the UN General Assembly in December. 69 countries, including the UK, a nuclear weapon State, co-sponsored the resolution. The resolution received wide support from many countries, including 101 out of 122 countries that had voted in favor of the resolution that established a mandate for the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons adopted in July 2017. Japan's draft resolution enjoyed the support of a larger number of states in comparison with other draft resolutions. It has also maintained the wide support of states with divergent views in the international community for more than 20 years.
E Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
Japan attaches great importance to promoting the entry into force of the CTBT as a realistic measure of nuclear disarmament where both nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States can participate. Starting with a meeting with Pakistan's Foreign Minister Asif in January 2018, Foreign Minister Kono has continued diplomatic efforts to urge countries to sign and ratify the CTBT, whose ratifications are required for its entry-into-force, In addition, Foreign Minister Kono visited Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna in February and exchanged views on the CTBT verification system. Furthermore, at the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2020 NPT Review Conference held from April to May and at the G20 Buenos Aires Foreign Ministers' Meeting in May, Foreign Minister Kono urged North Korea to sign and ratify the CTBT. In addition, in order to make the CTBT universal, he clearly emphasized the importance of the CTBT at the 8th Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting (PALM8) in May. Foreign Minister Kono met with Dr. Lassina Zerbo, Executive Secretary, Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-ban Treaty Organization in July in Vienna and called for the promotion of entry into force, the universalization and the reinforcement of verification regime of the CTBT, including calls on North Korea to sign and ratify the CTBT. In September, in addition to Thailand ratifying the Treaty and Tuvalu signing it, the Ninth Ministerial Meeting of the Friends of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (held every other year in years which do not have a meeting for promotion of the CTBT) was held at the UN General Assembly High Level Week. Foreign Minister Kono co-chaired with Australian Foreign Minister Payne and issued a Foreign Ministers' Statement calling for the promotion of entry into force, the universalization and the reinforcement of verification regime of the CTBT, including calls on North Korea to sign and ratify the CTBT.
Jaona Andriamampandry (Madagascar)
Invited by the CTBTO to attend the 2nd Science Diplomacy Symposium, I participated in a presentation contest about the youth vision of the CTBT. Then, I won the contest, and I was invited to make a statement at the ninth Ministerial Meeting of the Friends of the CTBT on September 27, 2018.
In the years between Article XIV Conferences, Foreign Ministers of the “Friends of the CTBT” particularly dedicated to entry into force of the CTBT, meet on the margins of the UN General Assembly in New York in September. The aim of these meetings is to sustain and generate further political momentum for the entry into force of the treaty. To that end, the ministers adopt and sign Joint Ministerial Statements that are open for adherence by other countries.
The initiative for these meetings was taken by Japan in cooperation with Australia and the Netherlands, who organized the first “Friends of the CTBT” Foreign Ministers' Meeting in 2002. Today, the group also includes Canada, Germany and Finland.
Since I became a member of the CTBT Youth Group (CYG), I have witnessed my fellow members make every possible effort to encourage their representatives to support the CTBT. While this might be a tiny step, I believe this tiny step contributes to the global effort in establishing a legally binding CTBT. With the little knowledge I had about the existence of the ministerial meetings, I knew it would be a great opportunity to share the importance of youth involvement with regards to the CTBT. The youth are a source of enthusiasm and inspiration in finding original ways to promote the entry into force of the Treaty.
As a scientist and a youth from a developing country, I also knew that this would be THE opportunity to raise the attention of African leaders regarding the importance of the Treaty.
“We are all equally affected, regardless of nationality, religion or economic status” when it comes to the consequences of the nuclear testing. (Statement by Jaona Andriamampandry at the ninth Ministerial Meeting of the Friends of the CTBT)
During my presentation at the science diplomacy symposium, I emphasized the importance of education to promote entry into force, because some of the African leaders do not even know about the CTBT. The voices needed to bring the CTBT into force would grow through education.
The meeting was remarkable and my first reaction was that I wanted to do it again. My expectation for Japan and the CTBT is that in future ministerial meetings, more of my fellow members would be granted with the same opportunity as I had. There are several CYG members with different backgrounds and ideas that are worth listening to in order to promote the entry into force.
This initiative gave me the opportunity to be heard by the entire world. This is why it was an unforgettable experience for me and I would like to express my gratitude to Japan and the CTBTO for this wonderful experience.
F Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT: Cut-off Treaty)4
The FMCT has great significance from the perspectives of both disarmament and non-proliferation, as it prevents the emergence of new states possessing nuclear-weapons by banning the production of fissile materials (such as highly-enriched uranium and plutonium) that are used in nuclear weapons, and at the same time, limits the production of nuclear weapons by nuclear-weapon States. However, for many years, an agreement has not been reached on the commencement of negotiations of the treaty in the Conference on Disarmament (CD). In view of this situation, it was decided at the 71st UN General Assembly in December 2016 to establish an FMCT High-Level Experts Preparatory Group. Japan actively participated in the Group's discussions, and through discussions in the 1st meeting (August 2017) and the 2nd meeting (June 2018), a report was adopted that includes possible options for the outline of a future treaty and content to consider in negotiations. The report was submitted to the 73rd UN General Assembly.
- 4 A treaty concept that aims to prevent the increase in the number of nuclear weapons by prohibiting the production of fissile materials (such as enriched uranium and plutonium, etc.) that are used as the materials for the production of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices.
G Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education
As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings, Japan places great importance of education on disarmament and non-proliferation. Specifically, Japan has been actively engaged in efforts to convey the realities of the devastation caused by the use of nuclear weapons to people both within Japan and overseas, through activities such as translating the testimonies of atomic bomb survivors into other languages, invitations for young diplomats from other countries to go to Hiroshima and Nagasaki through the UN Programme of Fellowships on Disarmament5, providing assistance for holding atomic bomb exhibition overseas through its diplomatic missions overseas6, and commissioning atomic bomb survivors who have given testimonies of their atomic bomb experiences as “Special Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons.”
Additionally, with the atomic bomb survivors aging, it is becoming increasingly important to pass on the current understanding of the realities of the use of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki across the generations and borders. In this regard, since 2013 and until the present, Japan has named more than 300 youths within Japan and overseas as “Youth Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons.” In November 2017, the 3rd Forum of Youth Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons was held in Hiroshima, with the aim of revitalizing the activities of the Youth Communicators, and strengthening their networking within Japan and overseas. Youth Communicator alumni from Japan and overseas attended the Forum.
- 5 Implemented since 1983 by the UN to nurture nuclear disarmament experts. Participants of the program are invited to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and efforts are made to promote understanding of the realities of atomic bombing through tours of museums and talks by victims about the experience of atomic bombing, etc.
- 6 Opened as a permanent exhibition about atomic bombing in New York (U.S.), Geneva (Switzerland) and Vienna (Austria), in cooperation with Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City. In 2018, the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Exhibition was held in Caen (France), Ypres (Belgium), and Porto (Portugal).
(2) Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security
A Japan's Efforts of Non-Proliferation
Japan has been making efforts to strengthen non-proliferation regimes. In particular, as a measure on nuclear non-proliferation, Japan has made various efforts, including supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a member of the IAEA Board of Governors designated by the Board7. Japan, for example, enhances the understanding and implementation capabilities of safeguards of other countries, based on the view that the IAEA safeguards are a core of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. In addition, Japan encourages other countries to conclude the Additional Protocol (AP)8 to the IAEA safeguards agreements by supporting the IAEA's regional seminars, as well as through other fora. As a part of such efforts, the second training course on the implementation of safeguards hosted by the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was held for Iran in July 2018. This was held with support through the IAEA's Nuclear Nonproliferation Fund9, to which Japan contributes independently.
Furthermore, Japan actively contributes to regional and international efforts to strengthen safeguards through the IAEA's Safeguards Symposium held in Vienna from October to November 2018, and through the Annual Meeting of Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN), which the IAEA participates in.
In addition, Director General of the IAEA Amano, who has been serving as Director General since 2009 (the term of office is from December 2017 to the end of November 2021), has made efforts to deal with issues such as enhancement of efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards, North Korea's nuclear issue and the “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)”10
concerning Iran's nuclear issue. Prime Minister Abe and Foreign Minister Kono have exchanged views on various challenges such as these issues through meetings with Director General Amano.
Japan also actively contributes to export control regimes. They are coordinating frameworks for countries supporting appropriate export controls and capable of supplying respective weapons and related dual-use items and technologies, and they have become an important part of the international non-proliferation regime. Each export control regime, namely the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Zangger Committee on nuclear weapons, the Australia Group (AG) on chemical and biological weapons, the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) on missiles11 and the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) on conventional weapons, establishes a list of dual-use items and technologies which contribute to development of weapons. Participating countries to the regimes implement export control measures on the listed items in accordance with their domestic laws. In addition, the export control regimes also conduct information exchanges on trends in countries of proliferation concern and outreach activities to non-participating countries to the regimes in order to strengthen their export control. Japan actively engages in such international rule-making and application of rules, and makes various contributions. In particular, the Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna serves as the Point of Contact of the NSG.
In addition, Japan actively participates in the activities of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)12. Japan hosted the Maritime Interdiction Exercise “Pacific Shield 18” in Yokosuka City, off the Boso Peninsula and the Izu Peninsula in July 2018. Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the ROK, Singapore, and the U.S. participated in the exercise with their assets and personnel, and 19 countries from the Indo-Pacific region and other countries sent observers. As a result, each country and related organizations worked to strengthen cooperation with each other and demonstrated the strong will of the international community to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Japan also holds the Asia Senior-level Talks on Non-Proliferation (ASTOP)13 and the Asian Export Control Seminar14 in order to promote understanding of the non-proliferation regimes and strengthen regional efforts mainly in Asian countries. At the 14th ASTOP, held on January 31, 2018, India joined it for the first time, and the meeting had discussions on North Korea's nuclear and missile issues, strengthening export control, the universalization of the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), and the PSI. Furthermore, officials responsible for export control from 33 countries/regions participated in the 25th Asian Export Control seminar, which was held from February 27 to March 1, 2018, to build their capacity through discussions on the role of export control to prevent terrorism and efforts to strengthen export control in Asia.
Furthermore, Japan actively contributes to strengthening the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 154015, which was adopted in 2004 with the aim of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery (missiles) to non-state actors. For example, Japan's contributions are used to support efforts to strengthen non-proliferation systems in Asian countries, which contributes to the maintenance and strengthening of international non-proliferation regimes.
- 7 13 countries designated by the IAEA Board of Governors. Japan and other countries such as G7 members with advanced nuclear energy capabilities are designated.
- 8 A protocol concluded between a respective country and the IAEA in addition to a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, etc. The conclusion of the Additional Protocol expands the scope of nuclear activity information that should be declared to the IAEA, and gives the IAEA strengthened measures to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities. As of December 2018, 134 countries have concluded the Additional Protocol.
- 9 A special contribution that Japan makes independently to the IAEA, with the aim of strengthening the international non-proliferation regime. The Fund was established in 2001 based on arrangements between Japan and the IAEA.
- 10 Sets forth detailed procedures for imposing constraints on Iran's nuclear activities while ensuring that they serve peaceful purposes, and for lifting the imposed sanctions.
<Main measures undertaken by Iran>
●Constraints on enriched uranium-related activities
・ Limits the number of centrifuges in operation to 5,060 units
・ Upper limit of enriched uranium at 3.67%, and limit on the amount of stored enriched uranium at 300 kg, etc.
●Constraints on Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor, and reprocessing
・ Redesign/remodeling of the Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor such that it is not able to produce weapon-grade plutonium, and transfer of spent fuel out of the country
・ No reprocessing including for research purposes, no construction of reprocessing facilities, etc.
- 11 Apart from export control regimes, the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), which includes the principle of exercising restraint in their development and deployment, addresses the issue of ballistic missiles. 139 countries have subscribed to the HCOC.
- 12 105 countries have endorsed the PSI as of December 2018. In the past, in addition to hosting PSI maritime interdiction exercises in 2004, 2007, and 2018, and air interdiction exercises in 2012, Japan also hosted an Operational Experts Group (OEG) meeting in 2010 in Tokyo. Japan has also participated in events hosted by other countries, including rotation exercise in the Asia-Pacific region and the Mid-Level Political Meeting in the U.S. in January 2016. Japan participated in the High-Level Political Meeting of the PSI on its 15th anniversary held in France in May.
- 13 A multilateral Director-General-level meeting hosted by Japan to discuss various issues related to the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime in Asia among the ten ASEAN Member States, China, India, the ROK, as well as the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and France, which have common interests in Asian regional security. The last ASTOP was held in March 2019.
- 14 A seminar hosted by Japan to exchange views and information to strengthen export controls in Asia, with the participation of export control officials from Asian countries and regions. It is organized annually in Tokyo since 1993. The seminar was most recently held in February 2019.
- 15 Adopted in April 2004, Resolution 1540 obliges all countries to: (1) refrain from providing support to terrorists and other non-state actors attempting to develop weapons of mass destruction; (2) adopt and enforce laws prohibiting the development of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists and other non-state actors; and (3) implement domestic controls (protective measures, border control, export controls, etc.) to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The resolution also establishes, under the UN Security Council, the 1540 Committee composed of Security Council members, with a mandate to review and report to the Security Council the status of the implementation of Resolution 1540 by member states.
B Regional Non-proliferation Issues
North Korea has not carried out the dismantlement of all weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles of all ranges in a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner, in accordance with a series of relevant UN Security Council resolutions, and there has been no essential change in North Korea's nuclear and missile capabilities.
A historic U.S.-North Korea Summit was convened in Singapore in June 2018, where U.S. President Trump and Chairman of State Affairs Commission Kim Jong Un agreed on the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. The second U.S.-North Korea Summit was held in Hanoi, Viet Nam, in February 2019. It is important that the international community remains united to support the process between the U.S. and North Korea toward the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, taking into account the results of the summits.
On the other hand, the IAEA Director General's Report in August pointed out that there were indications of operation at North Korean nuclear facilities and that the continuation and further development of North Korea's nuclear program are a cause for grave concern and these activities are clear violations of UN Security Council resolutions. Also, at the IAEA Board of Governors meeting in November, the IAEA Director General pointed out that further activities were observed at Yongbyon in North Korea since August.
Japan has been affirming close cooperation with the IAEA on various levels with regard to the North Korea's nuclear issue. For example, in the meeting between Foreign Minister Kono and Director General Amano in July, they exchanged views on the North Korea's situation and Director General Amano gave an explanation about the measures of establishing the stringent verification system in light of the past experiences of the IAEA, and they reaffirmed the cooperation between Japan and the IAEA.
Japan will continue to coordinate closely with related countries, including the U.S. and the ROK, and international organizations such as the IAEA toward the complete, verifiable, and irreversible dismantlement of all of North Korea's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles of all ranges in accordance with the UN Security Council resolutions. In addition, from the viewpoint of the full implementation of sanctions based on the UN Security Council resolutions, Japan will work on capacity building for export control particularly in Asia.
As for Iran, the IAEA has continuously monitored and verified Iran's implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) since January 2016. In May 2018, the U.S. announced its withdrawal from the JCPOA, and sanctions against Iran were reapplied in August and November. Under these circumstances, Director General Amano stated at the IAEA Board of Governors meeting in November that Iran was implementing its nuclear-related commitments under the JCPOA and it is essential that Iran continues to fully implement those commitments.
With regard to Syria's implementation of the IAEA safeguards, in order to clarify the facts, it is important for Syria to cooperate fully with the IAEA, and to sign and ratify the Additional Protocol, as well as to implement it.
C Nuclear Security
With regards to nuclear security which aims at the prevention of acts of terrorism such as those using nuclear and other radioactive materials, the IAEA, the UN and like-minded countries have strengthened international cooperation on nuclear security through various efforts. They include the Nuclear Security Summit, which was launched by then U.S. President Obama and held four times between 2010 and 2016, and the International conference on Nuclear Security, organized by the IAEA. Japan actively participates in and contributes to these efforts.
In February 2018, in the presence of Foreign Minister Kono and Director General Amano, the “Practical Arrangements between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the International Atomic Energy Agency on Cooperation in the Area of Support to the Implementation of Nuclear Security Measures on the Occasion of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games” was signed. The set of arrangements establishes a framework for cooperation, including support by the IAEA experts in events related to the Tokyo 2020 Olympics and Paralympic Games, information exchanges related to nuclear security issues, and the rental of equipment for detection of radioactive materials.
(3) Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
A Multilateral Efforts
Along with nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered to be one of the three pillars of the NPT. According to the Treaty, it is the “inalienable right” for any country that meets its obligations to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation to develop nuclear research, production and use for peaceful purposes. Against a backdrop of the expansion of international energy demand, many countries use or are planning to use nuclear power16.
On the other hand, these nuclear materials, equipment and technologies used for nuclear power generation can be diverted to uses for military purposes, and a nuclear accident in one country may have significant impacts on its neighboring countries. For these reasons, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it is vital to ensure the “3S”17: (1) Safeguards; (2) Nuclear Safety (measures to ensure safety to prevent a nuclear accident, etc.); and (3) Nuclear Security. As the country that experienced the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, it is Japan's responsibility to share with the rest of the world its experiences and lessons learned from the accident and to contribute to strengthening global nuclear safety. In this regard, Japan and the IAEA are working in cooperation. The IAEA Response and Assistance Network (RANET) Capacity Building Centre (CBC) was designated in Fukushima in 2013, where workshops were held in July and August in 2018 for Japanese and foreign officials to strengthen their capabilities in the field of emergency preparedness and response.
Decommissioning, contaminated water management, as well as decontamination and environmental remediation have been progressing steadily at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. However, this work continues to be difficult in ways that are unprecedented in the world, and efforts are being made to tackle the tasks through the technology and collective knowledge of the world. Japan has been working closely with the IAEA since the occurrence of the accident. In 2018, Japan hosted an expert mission of the IAEA on marine monitoring (October) and IAEA international peer review mission on the reactor decommissioning (November). In addition, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) published a report on the levels and impact of radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2014, and since 2018 the report has been revised to carry out an assessment based on the latest information.
It is necessary to disseminate appropriate information at an appropriate time in order to deal with the aftermath of the accident and move forward on reconstruction, while gaining support and correct understanding of the international community. From this perspective, Japan periodically releases a comprehensive report through the IAEA, covering matters including the progress of decommissioning, contaminated water management at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, results of the monitoring of air dose rate and radioactivity concentration in the sea water, and food safety. Briefing sessions are held for diplomatic corps, and information is also provided through diplomatic missions overseas.
Nuclear energy is applied not only to the field of power generation, but also to areas including human health, food and agriculture, environment, and industrial applications. Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in such non-power applications, and contributing to development issues, are becoming increasingly important as developing countries make up the majority of NPT member states. As Director General Amano upholds “Atoms for Peace and Development,” the IAEA also contributes to technical cooperation for developing countries and to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Japan has been providing active support, to the IAEA's activities, through the Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI) and other means. At the NPT Review Conference held in April 2015, Japan announced that it would be contributing a total of 25 million US dollars over the five years to the PUI. In 2018, Japan provided support through the PUI for projects, including on measures against infectious diseases, strengthening cancer treatment capacity, and water resource management in developing countries.
In November 2018, the first IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Science and Technology was held with the objective of promoting efforts to achieve the SDGs and the application of nuclear science and technology. The Ministerial Declaration was adopted with the attendance of Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Tsuji, who co-chaired with Costa Rica.
- 16 According to the IAEA, as of December 2018, 454 nuclear reactors are in operation worldwide and 54 reactors are under construction (see the IAEA website).
- 17 IAEA's Safeguards, typical measures for non-proliferation, and Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security are referred to as the “3S” for short.
B Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
Bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements are concluded to secure a legal assurance from the recipient country, when transferring nuclear-related materials and equipment such as nuclear reactors to that country, that the transferred items will be used only for peaceful purposes. The agreements especially aim to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ensure non-proliferation.
Moreover, as Japan attaches importance to ensuring the “3S,” recent nuclear agreements between Japan and other countries set out provisions regarding nuclear safety and affirm mutual compliance with international treaties on nuclear safety, while facilitating the promotion of cooperation in the field of nuclear safety under the agreements.
Numerous countries continue to express that they have high expectations for Japan's nuclear technology even after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. While taking into account the situation and intentions of the partner countries desiring to cooperate with Japan in this field, Japan can continue to provide nuclear-related materials, equipment, and technology with the highest safety standards. Furthermore, as bilateral nuclear cooperation, Japan is called upon to share with other countries its experience and lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident and to continue cooperating with other countries on improving nuclear safety. When considering whether or not to establish a nuclear cooperation agreement framework with a foreign country, Japan considers the overall situation in each individual case, taking into account such factors as non-proliferation, nuclear energy policy in that country, the country's trust in and expectations for Japan, and the bilateral relationship between the two countries. As of the end of 2018, Japan has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with Canada, Australia, China, the U.S., France, the UK, the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), Kazakhstan, the ROK, Vietnam, Jordan, Russia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and India.
Jun Hatazawa, Professor, Department of Nuclear Medicine
and Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine
I had an opportunity to attend the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Science and Technology held from November 28 to 30 in Vienna, Austria. The conference theme was nuclear science and technology as the foundation of “Atoms for Peace and Development” advocated under the leadership of IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. Japan co-chaired the meeting with Costa Rica. Panel discussions by experts in the fields of health and medicine, agriculture and food, environment, water resources, and gender equality were conducted and speeches by member country representatives were delivered over three days. The Ministerial Declaration affirmed joint global awareness of the importance of nuclear science and technology and IAEA activities.
I delivered a report on nuclear medicine, the point of overlap between nuclear science and medicine. Radionuclides play an important role in medical examinations for cancer, heart disease, and dementia. In this field, technologies, medical equipment, and methods originating in Japan have spread and taken hold worldwide. Japan also engages in advanced initiatives on patient and medical staff safety management. In the future, nuclear medicine will serve as a bridge between nuclear science and medicine based on the standpoint of further “application of nuclear power to medicine.”
During the conference period, the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine presented materials at a booth at the site. With more than 400 government representatives from various countries and conference participants coming to the booth, it was an excellent opportunity to explain Japan's advanced technologies in medical and health/welfare fields. In particular, there was great interest shown in radioactive therapies, an area in which Japan excels and which alleviate the burden on patients and enable quick recovery after treatment, such as heavy ion therapy, boron neutron capture therapy, and alpha therapy. The top priority in leveraging nuclear science in society is human resources development. The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine formed a human resources development consortium with the participation of 11 universities and medical institutions nationwide to promote the international proliferation of nuclear medicine and concluded an agreement with the IAEA during the conference. The consortium plans to accept human resources from various countries with the aim of improving the quality of medical care in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and other regions and cultivate experts in nuclear medicine. This form of agreement is also the first such attempt for the IAEA, and it is expected to produce great outcomes.
I strongly felt Japan's influential presence at the conference. It made me very proud to observe the active participation of Director General Amano, who gave the opening speech, Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Tsuji, who managed the conference as the representative of the co-chair country and delivered a speech, Mr. Mitsuru Kitano, Ambassador to the Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna, who oversaw the Ministerial Declaration, and Japanese officials working at the IAEA. I intend to make further contributions through my work in medicine, technology development, and education.
(4) Biological and Chemical Weapons
A Biological Weapons
The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)18 is the only multilateral legal framework imposing a comprehensive ban on the development, production, and possession of biological weapons. However, the question of how to reinforce the convention is a challenge, as there is neither a provision regarding the means of verifying compliance with the BWC nor an implementing organization for the Convention.
Since 2006, decisions were made to establish the Implementation Support Unit (fulfilling the functions of a secretariat), and to hold inter-sessional meetings twice a year in between the Review Conference held every five years; progress has been made in initiatives toward strengthening the implementation of the BWC.
It has been agreed to discuss the five topics of international cooperation, review of developments in the field of science and technology, national implementation, assistance, response and preparedness support, and institutional strengthening of the Convention in the inter-sessional meetings until the 9th Review Conference, scheduled to be held in 2021.
- 18 Enacted in March 1975. The contracting states number 182 (as of December 2018)
B Chemical Weapons
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)19 imposes a comprehensive ban on the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and stipulates that all existing chemical weapons must be destroyed. Compliance is ensured through the verification system (declaration and inspection) and hence this Convention is a groundbreaking international agreement on the disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The implementing body of the CWC is the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is based in the Hague, the Netherlands. Along with the UN, the OPCW has played a key role in the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons. Its extensive efforts toward the realization of a world free of chemical weapons were highly appraised, and the organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013. Japan has provided financial support for OPCW activities concerning the elimination of chemical weapons in Syria. In addition, Japan, which has a highly developed chemicals industry and numerous chemicals factories, also accepts many OPCW inspections. Apart from these, Japan cooperates actively with the OPCW in concrete ways, such as measures to increase the number of member States, and strengthening national implementation measures by States Parties with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the Convention.
Moreover, under the CWC, Japan aims to complete, as soon as possible, the destruction of chemical weapons of the former Japanese Army abandoned in territory of China by working in cooperation with China.
- 19 Enacted in April 1997. The contracting states number 193 (as of December 2017)
(5) Conventional Weapons
A Cluster Munitions20
Japan takes the humanitarian consequences brought about by cluster munitions very seriously. Therefore, in addition to taking steps to address this issue by victim assistance and unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance21, Japan continues its efforts to increase the number of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM)22.
- 20 Generally speaking, it refers to a bomb or shell which enables numerous submunitions to be spread over a wide area by opening in the air a large container, which holds those submunitions. It is said that there is high possibility that many of them do not explode on impact, which creates problem of accidental killing or injury of civilian population.
- 21 See the White Paper on Development Cooperation for specific efforts in international cooperation regarding cluster munition and anti-personnel mine.
- 22 Enacted in August 2010, it prohibits the use, possession, or production of cluster munitions, while obliging the destruction of stockpiled cluster munitions, and the clearance of cluster munitions in contaminated areas. As of November 2018, the number of contracting states and regions is 104, including Japan.
B Anti-personnel Mines
Year of 2019 marks the 20th anniversary of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Treaty)23 has entered into force. To date, Japan has continued to promote comprehensive measures with a focus on the effective prohibition of anti-personnel mines and strengthening of support for mine-affected countries. As well as calling on countries in the Asia-Pacific region to ratify or accede to the Convention, Japan has, since 1998, provided support worth over 71 billion Japanese yen to 51 countries and regions to assist them in dealing with the consequences of land mines (for example, landmine clearance and victim assistance).
In November 2018, the 17th Meeting of the States Parties to the Ottawa Treaty was held in Geneva. At this meeting, Japan looked back on its efforts to universalize the Ottawa Treaty in Japan to date, as well as its initiatives and achievements in supporting mine action. It also expressed Japan's continuous resolve to play a positive role with the aim of realizing a mine-free world.
- 23 While banning the use and production of anti-personnel mines, the Convention, which came into force in March 1999, obliges the destruction of stockpiled mines and clearance of buried mines. As of November 2018, the number of contracting states and regions is 164, including Japan.
C The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)24
The ATT, which seeks to establish common standards to regulate international trade in conventional arms and prevent illicit trade in them, came into force on December 24, 2014. As one of the original co-authors of the UN General Assembly Resolution that initiated a consideration of the Treaty, Japan has taken the lead in discussions and negotiations in the UN, and contributed actively to discussions in Conference of States Parties after the Treaty entered into force. In August 2018, Japan hosted the 4th Conference of States Parties to the Arms Trade Treaty as the first chair country elected from the Asia-Pacific region.
- 24 As of November 2018, the number of contracting states and regions to Army Trade Treaty (ATT) is 99. Japan signed the Treaty on the day that it was released for signing, and in May 2014 become a contracting state.
D Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW)25
The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) prohibits or restricts the use of conventional weapons that are deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects and comprises a framework Convention that sets forth the procedural and other matters, as well as five annexed Protocols that regulate the individual conventional arms, etc. The framework Convention came into force in 1983. Japan has ratified the framework Convention and the annexed Protocols I to IV, including the amended Protocol II. Against a background of concerns in the international community about the rapidly advancing military applications of science and technology, meetings of Group of Governmental Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) on the CCW framework have been held.
- 25 As of November 2018, 125 countries and regions have ratified the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW).
E Small Arms and Light Weapons
Described as “weapons of mass destruction” in terms of the carnage they cause, small arms and light weapons continue to proliferate due to the ease of obtaining and operating them, and are one of the causes behind the drawing out and escalation of conflict, as well as hindrance to the restoration of public security and post- conflict reconstruction and development. Since 1995, Japan has been making an annual submission to the UN General Assembly of a resolution on small arms and light weapons. Japan supports various projects to tackle small arms and light weapons across the globe, including weapons collection and disposal programs and training courses.