Diplomatic Bluebook 2019

Chapter 2

Japan's Foreign Policy that Takes a Panoramic Perspective of the World Map

3 Collaboration with European Regional Institutions, and the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)

(1) Cooperation with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

As a military alliance aimed at providing collective defense for its 29 member countries, NATO provides collective defense for its member countries, and engages in crisis management inside and outside of the region that could pose a direct threat to the security of the territories and peoples of NATO member countries, including security-keeping operations in Kosovo, support in Afghanistan, and counter-terrorism efforts. Also, NATO makes efforts in cooperative security through coordination with countries and organizations outside of the region. As a partner that shares fundamental values with NATO, Japan is taking specific steps toward collaboration based on the Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (IPCP), which Prime Minister Abe signed while visiting NATO headquarters in May 2014. In May, the IPCP was revised to further facilitate smoother cooperation between Japan and NATO, and in July, the Mission of Japan to the NATO was established. To date, Japan has participated as an observer in NATO's crisis management exercises (CMX), as well as training exercises related to cybersecurity and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR). Japan also dispatches female self-defense force officials to the NATO headquarters in order to promote cooperation on matters concerning women, peace and security (WPS). Through the Partnership for Peace (PfP) Trust Fund, a project that aims to promote arms control and disarmament, as well as democratization and regional stabilization through the utilization of NATO's specialized military expertise, Japan is also providing support for clearing unexploded ordnance in Azerbaijan, removing unexploded ordnance and landmines and conducting explosive ordnance disposal training in Georgia, as well as training women in the military in Jordan.

(2) Cooperation with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

OSCE is a regional security organization with 57 member countries across Europe, central Asia, and North America, that works to bridge differences between member countries and foster trust through conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict recovery and review in these regions through a comprehensive approach. Japan has taken part in OSCE activities since 1992 as an Asian Partner for Co-operation. Japan provides support for preventing terrorism through means such as strengthening border patrol in Afghanistan and central Asia including through the Border Management Staff College (a capacity building organization) and other organizations, and also lends support in conducting election monitoring as well as to the projects that support women's social advancement. OSCE plays an important role in improving the situation in Ukraine. Japan provides financial support to the OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) and has been dispatching experts to the SMM since August 2015. State Minister for Foreign Affairs Abe attended the Ministerial Council in Milan, Italy, in December, where she pointed out that amidst the upheavals in international order, the security of Asia and Europe have a mutual impact on each other. She also refers to the security environment of East Asia, including the North Korea issue and maritime security, and called for understanding and cooperation toward the early resolution of the abductions issue.

(3) Cooperation with the Council of Europe (CoE)

The CoE is a regional organization comprising 47 member states in Europe. It has played a key role in establishing international standards in areas concerning democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. As the CoE's sole observer country in Asia, Japan has made active contributions to a range of CoE activities since it began participating in the organization in 1996. In July, Japan provided financial support for the Octopus Conference 2018 (Strasbourg, France), which aims to promote international cooperation against cybercrime. It also dispatched Japanese staff from international organizations to the 7th World Forum for Democracy (also held in Strasbourg) in November, and delivered a statement about Japan's efforts in the area of women's policies.

(4) Cooperation through the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)

ASEM was established in 1996 as the sole forum for dialogue and cooperation between Asia and Europe. It currently comprises 51 member states and two institutions, and works through Summit Meetings, Ministers' Meetings, seminars, and other activities focused on three pillars, namely (1) politics, (2) economy and (3) society and culture.

The 12th Summit Meeting was held on October 18 and 19 in Brussels, Belgium. Prime Minister Abe attended the meeting, where he spoke about the need to promote efforts to resolve excessive production capacity and eliminate market-distorting measures with regard to a free trade system, the need to establish international standards for Quality Infrastructure toward strengthening connectivity and the development of Asia and Europe, and further, emphasized that achieving a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific” that Japan is promoting will also contribute to strengthening connectivity between Asia and Europe.

With regard to the North Korea situation, Prime Minister Abe spoke about the need for the international community to work in solidarity and ensure the full implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions toward the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula. At the same time, he reiterated Japan's determination to resolve the abductions issue at the earliest possible date. With regard to maritime security, he emphasized the need for peaceful settlements of conflicts in accordance with international law, without the use of force or coercion, and reiterated that unilateral changes in the status quo are absolutely unacceptable.

The chair's statement issued at this Summit Meeting set out the importance of peaceful settlement for maritime security conflicts in accordance with international law, and called on North Korea to completely, verifiably, and irreversibly dismantle (CVID) all its nuclear weapons, other Weapons of Mass Destruction, and ballistic missiles as well as related programmes and facilities. Furthermore, it also incorporated a strong message through the declaration by leaders on their determination to support a comprehensive solution of the issue through the full implementation of the UN Security Council Resolutions. The abductions issue was clearly set out in the chair's statement following the previous Summit Meeting and Foreign Ministers' Meeting. In addition, Japan supports ASEM's activities through funds contributed to the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) and co-organizing the ASEM Symposium on Promoting Tourism in Jakarta (February) with the Government of Indonesia.

Major Frameworks of Europe