Diplomatic Bluebook 2017
Japan's Foreign Policy to Promote National and Worldwide Interests
4.Disarmament, Non-proliferation and the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
(1) General Overview
As a responsible member of the international community, Japan is striving to achieve disarmament and non-proliferation, both to ensure and maintain its own safety and to achieve a safe and peaceful world, based on the principle of pacifism advocated by the Constitution of Japan. Japan's efforts in this area encompass weapons of mass destruction (which generally refers to nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons), conventional weapons, missiles and other means of delivery, and related materials and technology.
As the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings, Japan has been engaged in various diplomatic efforts to achieve a world free of nuclear weapons8. The Treaty on the Non- proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Under a principle of coming up with realistic and practical proposals to maintain and strengthen the NPT regime, Japan has been making concrete contributions through frameworks such as the G7 and the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI), a group consisting of 12 non-nuclear-weapon States9.
Japan's endeavors also focus on enhancing the operation of the convention and universal realization of conventions targeting weapons of mass destruction, other than nuclear weapons, namely biological and chemical weapons, as well as those targeting conventional weapons.
In addition, Japan is making efforts to begin negotiations on new disarmament treaties, such as a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) in the Conference on Disarmament (CD), as well as to strengthen and increase the efficiency of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)10 safeguards11.
Japan is also actively involved in various international export control regimes, the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)12, and initiatives aimed at enhancing nuclear security13.
Furthermore, Japan is actively engaging in disarmament and non-proliferation diplomacy through bilateral dialogue with many countries, including the U.S. and Russia14. Japan's basic stance is to secure nuclear non-proliferation while promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; to that end, Japan is undertaking wide-ranging activities to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy such as the conclusion of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements.
- 8 For more details about Japan's policy in the fields of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, please refer to “Japan's Disarmament and Non- Proliferation Policy” (7th Edition) published in March 2016.
- 9 Established by Japan and Australia in September 2010, it now has 12 members. The other members are Canada, Chile, Germany, Poland, Mexico, the Netherlands, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the Philippines and Nigeria.
- 10 The IAEA was established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to prevent it from being diverted from peaceful to military uses. Its secretariat is located in Vienna. Its highest decision-making body is the General Conference, which consists of all member countries and meets once a year. The 35-member Board of Governors carries out the IAEA's functions, subject to its responsibilities to the General Conference. As of February 2016, the IAEA has 168 member countries. Mr. Yukiya Amano has been its Director General since December 2009.
- 11 Verification measures (inspections, checks of each country's material accountancy (management of its inventory of nuclear material) records, etc.) undertaken by the IAEA in accordance with the safeguards agreements concluded by each individual country and IAEA, in order to guarantee that nuclear material is being used solely for peaceful purposes and is not being diverted for use in nuclear weapons or the like. Pursuant to Article 3 of the NPT, the non-nuclear states that are contracting parties to the NPT are required to conclude safeguards agreements with the IAEA and to accept safeguards on all nuclear material within their borders (comprehensive safeguards).
- 12 A framework established in May 2003 to prevent the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related materials, where each country implements and reviews possible measures jointly available within the scope of international and domestic laws. As of December 2016, 105 countries take part in PSI activities and cooperation. Japan conducted PSI maritime interdiction exercise twice in 2004 and 2007. In November 2010, it hosted the Operational Experts Group (OEG) meeting in Tokyo, and in July 2012, it hosted the PSI air interdiction exercise, the first activity conducted in Japan. Japan also proactively participates in the exercises and related meetings organized by other countries; it attended a High-Level Political Meeting held in Poland in May 2013 to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the PSI, as well as a Mid-Level Political Meeting held in the U.S. in January 2016. Most recently, Japan participated in the Operational Expert Group (OEG) meeting held in the UK in April 2016, and the “Deep Sabre 16” PSI maritime interdiction exercise hosted by Singapore in September 2016.
- 14 In 2016, consultations on disarmament and non-proliferation were held with the EU (January, Tokyo), Iran (February, Tokyo), the ROK (May, Tokyo), the U.S. (July, Washington D.C.), Russia (July, Tokyo), India (August, New Delhi), Egypt (September, Cairo), and Israel (September, Jerusalem). On top of that, Japan also engaged in bilateral dialogues with many other countries through international conferences and other forums.
(2) Nuclear Disarmament
A Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Japan places great importance on Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which comprises the three pillars of nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as the foundation for the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Japan has continuously emphasized this point, for example, in “the Hiroshima Declaration on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation” at the G7 Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in April, and the resolution on the elimination of nuclear weapons that Japan annually submits to the UN General Assembly. In May 2017, the Preparatory Committee meeting will be held towards the NPT Review Conference which is supposed to be held once in every five years, and its next conference is scheduled to be held in 2020.
B G7 and calls to visit atomic-bombed sites
In 2016, Japan, as the presiding country of the G7, which comprises both nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States, and G7 Foreign Ministers issued “the Hiroshima Declaration on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation” to send a powerful message for “a world free of nuclear weapons” as one of the outcomes of G7 Hiroshima Foreign Ministers' Meeting which was held in Hiroshima, the site of atomic bombing for the first time. The visit by leaders from around the world, including President Obama of the United States of America, to sites of atomic-bombings to experience the realities of the use of nuclear weapons, coupled with the Hiroshima Declaration, was a turning point for revitalizing international momentum toward achieving “a world free of nuclear weapons.”
C The Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)
The NPDI has taken a bridging role between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States, taking the lead on efforts in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation through its concrete and practical proposals, and with the involvement of the Foreign Ministers of its member states. The NPDI also continues to make proactive efforts, including the submission of 18 working papers and a draft outcome document for the 2015 NPT Review Conference, held from April to May 2015, in order to take the lead in the international community, and participating in joint statements condemning North Korea's nuclear tests in January and September 2016, at fora such as the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly.
D Contributions in the UN
In order to realize a world free of nuclear weapons, it is important to build up concrete and practical measures through the cooperation of nuclear weapon and non-nuclear-weapon States. From this basic point, Japan has been annually submitting the resolution on the elimination of nuclear weapons to the UN General Assembly since 1994. At the 71st UN General Assembly held in December, the resolution was adopted with an overwhelming majority of 167 in favor, 4 against, and 16 abstention.
E Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)15
Japan prioritizes the early entry into force of the CTBT, as it is a key pillar of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regimes based upon the NPT. Japan continues its diplomatic efforts to persuade those countries that have not yet ratified it to do so. For the two years from September 2015 to September 2017 Japan served as a co-coordinator for facilitating entry into force of the Treaty, and has taken the lead in initiatives toward the early entry-into-force of the CTBT. Furthermore, Foreign Minister Kishida co-chaired the 8th Ministerial Meeting of the Friends of the CTBT held in September 2016, with Julie Bishop, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia. In the same month, the UN Security Council resolution 2310 concerning the CTBT, jointly proposed by 42 states including Japan, was adopted by the UN Security Council with a significant majority.
- 15 CTBT prohibits any nuclear test explosions or any other nuclear explosion, whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, underwater and underground. Although it has been opened for signature since 1996, it had not yet entered into force as of December 2016 because China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the U.S. have yet to ratify it, while India, North Korea and Pakistan, which are included in the 44 countries whose ratification is required for the treaty to enter into force, have yet to sign it.
F Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT: Cut-off Treaty)16
In light of a situation where negotiations on an FMCT have not been started in the CD for years, a total of four Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) meetings were held in 2014 and 2015. Former Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Japan to the Conference on Disarmament, Akio Suda, attended the GGE meetings as Japan's governmental expert. Through these meetings, a report containing a recommendation on future FMCT negotiations was produced. Based on this report, the decision was made in December 2016, at the UN General Assembly, to establish a High-Level Experts Preparatory Group, and to discuss the substantive elements of an FMCT in 2017 and 2018. In February 2017, Japan was selected as a member state of the Group, and Japan decided to send former Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Japan to the Conference on Disarmament, Toshio Sano to serve on the Group as an expert.
- 16 A proposed treaty that seeks to halt the quantitative increase in nuclear weapons by prohibiting the production of fissile material (including highly-enriched uranium and plutonium) for use as raw material in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
G Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education
In recent years, the international community has become increasingly aware of the importance of educating citizens about disarmament and non-proliferation, in order to further promote disarmament and nonproliferation efforts. As the only country to have ever suffered the atomic bombings, Japan is actively promoting disarmament and non-proliferation education. As part of efforts by Japan to support activities aimed at conveying the reality of the devastation caused by the use of nuclear weapons to people both within Japan and overseas, Japan has translated testimonies of atomic bomb survivors into other languages, conducted training courses for young diplomats from other countries in the sites of atomic bombings, and commissioned atomic bomb survivors as “Special Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons” and invited them to speak at international conferences. In recent years, with the atomic bomb survivors aging, Japan has also placed high priority on initiatives to pass on across borders the current understanding of the realities of the use of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, launching the “Youth Special Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons” program in 2013 for the younger generation in Japan and overseas in addition to the existing “Special Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons” program. Taking into account the fact that the number of Youth Special Communicators had exceeded 100 by March 2016, the “Youth Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons in Hiroshima Forum – What Young People Can Do to Realize a World free of Nuclear Weapons” was held in Hiroshima City. During this Forum, Japan announced to expand the qualification of “Youth Communicators” for young people all over the world. In addition, the “International Conference in Nagasaki – towards a world free of nuclear weapons,” comprising “the 26th United Nations Conference on Disarmament Issues” and the “Forum for Youth Communicators for a World without Nuclear Weapons,” was held in December in Nagasaki City. The Government also provides assistance for holding atomic bomb exhibition overseas through its diplomatic missions overseas, in cooperation with Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities. Permanent atomic bomb exhibitions have been opened in New York (U.S.), Geneva (Switzerland), and Vienna (Austria).
H Other Bilateral Initiatives
Through the Japan-Russia Committee on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in the Former Soviet Union, Japan has provided its assistance to Russia in dismantling decommissioned nuclear submarines, with the objective of furthering nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as preventing environmental pollution17. Japan was also engaged in cooperation to enhance nuclear security and other efforts through committees on cooperation for the elimination of nuclear weapons reduced in Ukraine and Kazakhstan respectively18.
- 17 The “Star of Hope” program, for dismantling decommissioned nuclear submarines was implemented as part of the G8 Global Partnership agreed to at the 2002 Kananaskis Summit held in June (Canada) and was completed in December 2009 after dismantling a total of six submarines. Since August 2010, Japan has extended its assistance for the construction of facilities for ensuring the safe onshore storage of reactor compartments removed from the dismantled nuclear submarines.
- 18 In January 2011, Japan undertook efforts to enhance nuclear security at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology through the Japan-Ukraine Committee on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in Ukraine. In November, Japan also extended assistance to strengthen the nuclear security of the Ulba Metallurgical Plant in Kazakhstan through the Committee on Cooperation for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons Reduced in Kazakhstan.
A Efforts to Prevent the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Japan has made efforts to strengthen non-proliferation regimes. As a member state of the IAEA Board of Governors designated by the Board19, Japan contributes to the activities of the IAEA in both personnel and financial terms. Since 2009, Yukiya Amano has been serving as the Director-General of the IAEA. He has established the vision of “atoms for peace and development,” implemented safeguards, and tackled the nuclear issues of Iran and North Korea. He has also made efforts in addressing development challenges by using nuclear technology. These initiatives under the leadership of Director-General Amano have been highly appraised by countries around the world. With respect to the IAEA safeguards, which is a central measure to the international nuclear non-proliferation regimes, Japan encourages other countries to conclude Additional Protocols of the IAEA safeguards20 by providing personnel and financial support for the IAEA's regional seminars, as well as through other fora. Some specific examples include the Additional Protocol Seminar organized by IAEA in Niger in May, as well as in July, the dispatch of staff to the seminar on Additional Protocol and commodity identification training for weapons of mass destruction organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN), and the governments of the U.S. and Myanmar, to discuss the importance of Additional Protocols and introduce Japan's efforts to date.
With respect to nuclear weapons, biological and chemical weapons, missiles21, and conventional weapons, Japan participates in relevant export control regimes, which are coordinating frameworks for countries supporting appropriate export controls and capable of supplying respective weapons and related dual-use goods and technologies. In particular, the Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna serves as the Point of Contact of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA), which is the export control regime for conventional weapons, Japan hosted an awareness-raising workshop for non-member countries in 2016 at the Permanent Mission of Japan to the International Organizations in Vienna.
In addition to actively taking part in the activities of the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), Japan is working to promote understanding of the non-proliferation regime and enhance regional efforts particularly in Asia by hosting the Asia Senior-Level Talks on Non- Proliferation (ASTOP)22 and the Asian Export Control Seminar23. Furthermore, through the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Japan is also contributing to international scientific cooperation and efforts to prevent the proliferation of knowledge and skills in the field of weapons of mass destruction. More specifically, scientists from Russia and Central Asia, among others, who were previously involved in research and development focused on weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, are now employed by the ISTC, where they undertake research for peaceful purposes.
Following up on UN Security Council Resolution 154024, which was adopted in 2004 with the aim of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means (missiles) to non-state actors, Resolution 2325 was adopted in December 2016, drawing upon the outcomes of the comprehensive review conducted on the basis of Resolution 1977 (2011). Japan and other countries will strengthen non-proliferation efforts based on Resolution 2325.
- 19 13 countries designated by the IAEA Board of Governors. Japan and other countries such as G7 members that are advanced in the field of nuclear energy are nominated.
- 20 Protocols concluded by each country with the IAEA, in addition to their Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, etc. The conclusion of Additional Protocol subjects countries to more stringent verification activities, extending the scope of information about nuclear activities that should be reported to the IAEA. As of October 2016, 129 countries have concluded such protocols.
- 21 In terms of missile-related commitments other than export control regimes, the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC) consists of the principle of exercising restraint in the development and deployment of ballistic missiles. Japan served as the HCOC chair from May 2013 to May 2014. In June 2016, India joined the HCOC.
- 22 A multilateral meeting hosted by Japan to discuss various issues related to the strengthening of non-proliferation efforts in Asia with the participation of the ten ASEAN member states, China, the ROK, the U.S., Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and France. ASTOP was most recently held in January 2017.
- 23 A seminar hosted by Japan to exchange views towards the objective of strengthening export controls in Asia, with the participation of export control officials from Asian countries and regions. Organized annually in Tokyo since 1993, the seminar was most recently held in February 2017 and attended by approximately 30 countries and regions.
- 24 Adopted in April 2004, Resolution 1540 requires all countries to: (1) exercise restraint in providing support to terrorists and other non-state actors attempting to develop weapons of mass destruction; (2) enact laws prohibiting the development of weapons of mass destruction by terrorists and other non-state actors; and (3) implement domestic controls (protective measures, border control, export controls, etc.) to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The resolution also establishes under the UN Security Council the 1540 Committee composed of Security Council members, with a mandate to review and report to the Security Council the implementation status of Resolution 1540.
B Regional Non-proliferation Issues
North Korea's continued development of nuclear and missile program is a grave threat to the international peace and security, and poses a serious challenge to the global nuclear non-proliferation regime.
Since the beginning of 2016, North Korea has conducted two nuclear tests and launched more than 20 ballistic missiles. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2270 in March 2016 and Resolution 2321 in November 2016, but North Korea has continued to ignore the series of resolutions launching ballistic missiles again in February and March 2017.
North Korea declared that it had succeeded in a hydrogen bomb test after the nuclear test conducted in January 201625, and that it had succeeded in the explosion of a nuclear warhead after the nuclear test conducted in September the same year26. The report issued by the Director General of the IAEA in August 2016 stated that throughout the period of observation by the IAEA (August 27, 2015 to August 19, 2016), there were indications of reactor operation at the 5MWe graphite-moderated reactor in Nyongbyon.
With regard to the ballistic missile development situation in North Korea, the Final Report of the Panel of Experts for the 1718 Sanctions Committee of the UN Security Council, published in March 2017, notes that North Korea's ballistic missile technology has advanced significantly in a short period of time, such as the extension in flight distance through the introduction of medium-range ballistic missiles, and shift toward solid fuels in the launch of SLBMs.
North Korea's enhanced nuclear and missile capabilities pose a new level of threat to the region, including Japan, as well as to the international community at large. Japan will continue to work closely with the relevant countries, including the U.S. and the ROK, and strongly demand that North Korea steadily implement measures aimed at the abandonment of its nuclear and missile programs. In addition, to ensure that countries fully and strictly implement sanctions imposed through the UN Security Council Resolutions, Japan will work on capacity building for export controls particularly in Asia through the Asia Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation (ASTOP), Asian Export Control Seminar, and other efforts. (See 2-1-1 (1)).
On the other hand, Iran's nuclear issue showed some developments during the period of 2015 to 2016. In July 2015, the EU3 (the UK, France, Germany) + 3 (the U.S., China, Russia) and Iran agreed on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)27, which is a final agreement regarding the Iran's nuclear issue. The JCPOA imposes restrictions on Iran's nuclear activities while ensuring that they serve peaceful purposes, and clearly sets forth the procedures for lifting the sanctions that have been imposed until now, alongside the implementation of measures by Iran. The UN Security Council Resolution 2231 was also adopted; this resolution covers the approval of JCPOA, as well as requests to IAEA to carry out the necessary verification and monitoring activities.
Iran and the IAEA conducted inspections based on the “Road-map for the Clarification of Past and Present Outstanding Issues regarding Iran's Nuclear Program,” which covers the possible military dimensions of Iran's nuclear issue28. In December 2015, the IAEA Director General issued a Final Evaluation Report29.
Furthermore, in January 2016, IAEA verified that Iran had implemented some of the measures that it had committed to in the JCPOA. Consequently, based on UN Security Council Resolution 2231, some of the sanctions imposed through past relevant UN Security Council resolutions were terminated. However, sanctions continue to be imposed on the transfer activities that are related to Iran's nuclear and missile activities.
Japan supports the JCPOA, and takes the position that its continuous implementation is important. Based on this position, when Foreign Minister Kishida visited Iran in October 2015, he expressed Japan's intention to cooperate in the field of nuclear safety and implementation of IAEA safeguards and transparency measures. In addition, corresponding with the Japan-Iran Foreign Ministers' Meeting held on December 7, 2016, Japan decided to offer assistance, through IAEA, worth 550,000 Euros for cooperation in nuclear safety, and 1.5 million Euros for cooperation in safeguard measures, in order to support continuous implementation of the nuclear agreement.
With regard to Syria's implementation of the IAEA security measures, little progress has been achieved, partly due to the deterioration of the situation in Syria. However, Syria is cooperating fully with the IAEA. In order to clarify the facts, it is important for Syria to sign and ratify the additional protocol, as well as to implement it.
- 25 January 6, 2016, Korean Central News Agency
- 26 September 9, 2016, Korean Central News Agency
- 27 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)
•Sets forth detailed procedures for imposing constraints on Iran's nuclear activities while ensuring that they serve peaceful purposes, and for lifting the sanctions that have been imposed until now.
<Main measures undertaken by Iran>
•Constraints on enriched uranium-related activities
・Limits the number of centrifuges in operation to 5,060 units
・Upper limit of enriched uranium at 3.67%, and limit on the amount of stored enriched uranium at 300 kg, etc.
•Constraints on Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor, and reprocessing
・Redesign/remodeling of the Arak heavy-water nuclear reactor such that it is not able to produce weapon-grade plutonium, and transfer of spent fuel out of the country
・No reprocessing including for research purposes, no construction of reprocessing facilities, etc.
- 28 Possible Military Dimensions (PMD)
In November 2011, the IAEA pointed out, through the Director General's Report, the “possible military dimensions” (PMD) of the signs of nuclear bomb development with regard to Iran's nuclear activities. The PMD comprises 12 items including the development of detonators. Thereafter, this has been treated as an important point of contention in consultations between Iran and the IAEA.
- 29 The IAEA Director-General's Final Evaluation Report on the Possible Military Dimensions (PMD) of Iran's Nuclear Issue (Summary)
The report mentioned the following three points.
(1) All of the activities included in the “Road-map for the Clarification of Past and Present Outstanding Issues Regarding Iran's Nuclear Program” were implemented as scheduled.
(2) The IAEA assessed that Iran had conducted the activities relevant to the development of nuclear explosive device in its organizational structure before the end of 2003, and some activities took place after 2003. At the same time, the IAEA assessed that these activities did not advance beyond feasibility and scientific studies, and acquisition of certain relevant technical competences and capabilities. Also, the IAEA has no credible indications of activities in Iran relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device after 2009.
(3) The IAEA has found no credible indications of the diversion of nuclear material in connection with the possible military dimensions to Iran's nuclear program.
C Nuclear Security
International cooperation on “Nuclear Security” to prevent terrorist organizations from using nuclear materials or other radioactive materials has also been enhanced through various efforts from the IAEA, UN and member countries. In particular, the Nuclear Security Summit that was launched through the initiative of U.S. President Obama, which was held for the fourth and last time in March 2016 in Washington D.C. in the U.S., was attended by 53 countries and three organizations. During this Summit, an action plan was formulated for international organizations/frameworks that will promote nuclear security for the IAEA, UN, and other agencies going forward. Prime Minister Abe attended this Summit, where he announced Japan's initiatives toward strengthening nuclear security in the international community, including minimizing and appropriately managing nuclear substances, and human resource development and capability support in the field of nuclear security. Specifically, he stated that Japan has completed the removal of all highly enriched uranium and plutonium from the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, as it had committed to doing at the previous summit (2014, the Hague, the Netherlands), and converted the Kyoto University Critical Assembly facility to a nuclear reactor that uses slightly enriched uranium, while completely removing all highly enriched uranium fuel from the same facility. In response to the affirmation, at the Nuclear Security Summit, that the IAEA will take on a central role in international nuclear security initiatives going forward, the International Conference on Nuclear Security was organized by the IAEA and held in December 2016 at Vienna (Austria), and attended by more than 2,000 delegates from 130 countries and 17 international organizations. State Minister for Foreign Affairs Sonoura attended the conference from Japan, where he spoke about Japan's continued efforts to minimize and appropriately manage nuclear substances, as well as to develop human resources in the field of nuclear security. Together with IAEA Director General Amano, they expressed that Japan and IAEA will cooperate on measures to counter nuclear terrorism toward the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
(4) Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
A Multilateral Efforts
Along with nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered to be one of the three pillars of the NPT. According to the Treaty, it is the “inalienable right” for any country that meets its obligations to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation to develop nuclear research, production and use for peaceful purposes.
Due to such factors as growing global energy demand and the need to address global warming, many countries are planning to further develop or newly introduce nuclear energy program30. Even after the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (the Fukushima Daiichi accident), nuclear energy remains as an important energy source for the international community.
On the other hand, the nuclear materials, equipment and technologies used for nuclear power generation can be diverted to uses for military purposes, and a nuclear accident in one country may have significant impacts on its neighboring countries. For these reasons, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it is vital to ensure the “3S”31: (1) Safeguards; (2) Nuclear Safety (measures to ensure safety to prevent a nuclear accident, etc.); and (3) Nuclear security. As the country that experienced the Fukushima Daiichi accident, it is Japan's responsibility to share with the rest of the world its experiences and lessons learned from the accident and to contribute in strengthening global nuclear safety. In this regard, Japan and the IAEA are working in cooperation. IAEA Response and Assistance Network (RANET) Capacity Building Centre (CBC) was designated in Fukushima in 2013, where workshops are organized in April, August, October, and December in 2016 for Japanese and foreign officials to strengthen their capabilities in the field of unclear emergency preparedness and response.
Decommissioning, contaminated water management, as well as decontamination and environmental remediation, have been progressing steadily at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. However, this work continues to be difficult in ways that are unprecedented in the world, and efforts are being made to tackle the tasks through the technology and wisdom of the world. Japan has been working closely with the IAEA from the time immediately after the accident. In 2016, Japan hosted marine monitoring experts missions (May and November), and held an Experts' Conference on environmental remediation (February) with the IAEA. In addition, after the publication of a report on radiation impact assessment in 2014 by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), briefing sessions have been held in Fukushima Prefecture (February and November 2016).
Furthermore, it is necessary to disseminate appropriate information at an appropriate time in order to respond to the accident and move forward on reconstruction, while gaining supports and correct understanding of the international community. From this perspective, Japan periodically releases a comprehensive report through the IAEA, covering matters including the progress of decommissioning, contaminated water management at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, results of the monitoring of air dose rate and radioactivity concentration in the sea water, and food safety. Information is also provided through diplomatic missions overseas and briefing sessions held for diplomatic corps.
Nuclear science and technology are applied not only to the field of nuclear power generation, but also to areas including human health, food and agriculture, environment, as well as industrial applications. Promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy in such non-power applications, as well as contributing to development issues, are becoming increasingly important as developing countries make up the majority of NPT member states. IAEA Director General Amano upholding “Atoms for Peace and Development,” the IAEA also places great importance on technical cooperation for developing countries.
Japan has been providing active support through the Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI) and other means. At the NPT Review Conference held in April 2015, Japan announced that it will be contributing a total of 25 million US dollars over the next five years to the PUI. In 2016, Japan provided support through the PUI for projects, including measures against infectious diseases and disasters in developing countries.
- 30 According to the IAEA, as of December 2016, 450 nuclear reactors are in operation worldwide and 60 reactors are under construction (see the IAEA website).
- 31 IAEA's safeguards, typical measures for non-proliferation, and nuclear safety and nuclear security are referred to as the “3Ss” for short.
B Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreement
Bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements are concluded to secure a legal assurance from the recipient country, when transferring nuclear-related materials and equipment such as nuclear reactors to that country, that the transferred items will be used only for peaceful purposes. The agreements especially aim to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and ensure non-proliferation.
Moreover, as Japan attaches importance to ensuring the “3S,” the recently concluded agreements between Japan and a foreign country include provisions regarding nuclear safety. Through conclusion of such agreements, cooperation in the area of nuclear safety can also be promoted.
High expectation for Japan's nuclear technology has been expressed by numerous countries, even after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. It is Japan's responsibility to share with the rest of the world its experience and lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, in order to make contribution in strengthening international nuclear safety, when promoting bilateral nuclear cooperation. Based on this recognition, in its bilateral nuclear energy cooperation, Japan intends to provide nuclear-related materials, equipment, and technology with highest safety standards, while taking into account the situation in and intention of countries desiring to cooperate with Japan in this field. When considering whether or not to establish a nuclear cooperation agreement framework with a foreign country, Japan considers the overall situation in each individual case, taking into account such factors as non-proliferation, nuclear energy policy in that country, the country's trust in and expectations for Japan, and the bilateral relationship between the two countries.
As of the end of 2016, Japan has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with Canada, Australia, China, the U.S., France, the UK, the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), Kazakhstan, the ROK, Vietnam, Jordan, Russia, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, respectively.
(5) Biological and Chemical Weapons
A Biological Weapons
The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)32 is the only multilateral legal framework imposing a comprehensive ban on the development, production, and retention of biological weapons. However, the question of how to enhance the convention is a challenge, as it contains no provision regarding the means of verifying compliance with the BWC.
After the 6th Review Conference held in 2006, decisions were made to establish the Implementation Support Unit (fulfilling the functions of a secretariat), and to hold conferences twice a year; progress has been made in initiatives toward strengthening the implementation of the BWC. However, the Final Document of the 8th Review Conference held in November 2016 stated that conferences will be held once a year due to conflicting opinions among the countries, and the number of items for substantial agreement were reduced. Japan will continue to strengthen its efforts in the implementation of the Convention toward the Meeting of States Parties (MSP) scheduled for December 2017.
- 32 Enacted in March 1975. The contracting states number 178 (as of December 2016).
B Chemical Weapons
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)33 imposes a comprehensive ban on the development, production, storage, and use of chemical weapons and stipulates that all existing chemical weapons must be destroyed. Compliance with this groundbreaking international agreement on the disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is ensured through the verification system (declaration and inspection). The implementing agency of the CWC is the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), which is based in the Hague, the Netherlands. Along with the UN, the OPCW has played a key role in the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons, which has been underway since September 2013, and Japan has provided financial support for these activities. With an aim of identifying responsibility for the repeated use of chlorine gas and other substances in Syria, the UN-OPCW Joint Investigative Mechanism was established pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution in August 2015. There are ongoing efforts to prevent chemical weapons from being used again, including a one-year extension of the term of activities for the Investigative Mechanism in November 2016, and assignment of responsibilities for the use of chemical weapons.
Japan is actively involved in cooperation aimed at increasing the number of States Parties, efforts by States Parties to strengthen measures for national implementation of the convention in order to increase its effectiveness, and international cooperation to this end.
Moreover, under the CWC, Japan has an obligation to destroy chemical weapons of the Imperial Japanese Army left in territory of China, as well as old chemical weapons within Japan. As such, working in cooperation with China, Japan makes its utmost effort to complete the destruction of these weapons as soon as possible.
- 33 Enacted in April 1997. With the Myanmar newly joined in August 2015, and Angola in October, the contracting states numbered 192 (as of December 2016).
(6) Conventional Weapons
A Cluster Munitions34
Japan takes the humanitarian consequences of cluster munitions very seriously. Therefore, in addition to taking steps to address these weapons by supporting victims and unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance, Japan is continuing its efforts to increase the number of States Parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM)35. In addition, Japan is assisting with UXO clearance bomb disposal and victim assistance projects in Laos, Lebanon and other countries that suffer from cluster munitions36.
- 34 Generally speaking, it refers to a bomb or shell which enables numerous submunitions to be spread over a wide area by opening in the air a large container, which holds those submunitions. It is said that there is high possibility that many of them do not explode on impact, which creates problem of accidental killing or injury of civilian population.
- 35 Enacted in August 2010, it prohibits the use, possession, or production of cluster munitions, while obliging the destruction of stockpiled cluster munitions, and the clearance of cluster munitions in contaminated areas. As of December 2016, the number of contracting states and regions is 100, including Japan.
- 36 See the White Paper on Development Cooperation for specific efforts in international cooperation regarding cluster munition and anti-personnel mine.
B Anti-Personnel Mines
Japan promotes comprehensive initiatives focused primarily on the effective prohibition of anti-personnel mines and enhancement of support for mine-affected countries. As well as calling on countries in the Asia-Pacific region to ratify or accede to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Treaty)37, Japan has, since 1998, provided support worth over 67 billion yen to 51 countries and regions to assist them in dealing with the consequences of land mines (for example, landmine clearance and victim assistance).
In December 2016, the 15th Meeting of the States Parties to the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (the Ottawa Treaty) was held in Chile. At this Meeting, Japan looked back on its efforts to universalize the Ottawa Treaty in Japan to date, as well as its initiatives and achievements in supporting mine action. It also expressed its resolve to play a positive role going forward, with the aim of realizing a mine free world.
- 37 While banning the use and production of anti-personnel mines, the Convention, which came into force in March 1999, obliges the destruction of stockpiled mines and clearance of buried mines. As of December 2016, the number of contracting states is 162, including Japan.
C The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)
The ATT38 seeks to establish common international standards to regulate international trade in conventional weapons and prevent illegal trade in them. It was adopted at the UN General Assembly in April 2013, and came into force on December 24, 2014. At the 2nd Conference of State Parties held in August 2016, an official decision was made to establish a voluntary trust fund to promote the effective implementation of the Treaty, as well as to establish an informal working group on universalizing the Treaty. As one of the original co-sponsors of the UN General Assembly Resolution that initiated a consideration of the Treaty, Japan has taken the lead in discussions and negotiations in the UN, and contributed actively to discussions in Conference of State Parties after the Treaty entered into force. It is keeping up efforts to call on nations that have not yet done so to conclude the Treaty without delay.
- 38 As of December 2016, the number of signatory states to Army Trade Treaty (ATT) is 130, and contracting states is 87. Japan signed the Treaty on the day that it was released for signing, and in May 2014, became the first country in the Asia Pacific region to become a contracting state.
D Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW)
The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) prohibits or restricts the use of conventional weapons that are deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects, and comprises a chapeau Convention that sets forth the procedural matters, etc., as well as five annexed Protocols that regulate the individual conventional weapons, etc. The chapeau Convention came into force in 198339. Japan has ratified the chapeau Convention and the annexed Protocols I to IV, including the revised Protocol II. At the 5th Review Conference held in December, a decision was made to establish a governmental Meeting of Experts on Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS), in response to concerns among the international community against a background of the growing military use of robots in recent years.
- 39 As of December 2016, 123 countries have ratified the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW).
E Small Arms and Light Weapons
Described as “weapons of mass destruction” in terms of the carnage they cause, small arms and light weapons continue to proliferate due to their ease of operation, and cause the drawing out and escalation of conflict, as well as hinder the restoration of public security and post-conflict reconstruction and development. In addition to contributing to efforts within the UN, such as the annual submission to the UN General Assembly of a resolution on small arms and light weapons, Japan supports various projects to combat small arms and light weapons across the globe, including weapons recovery and disposal programs and training courses.