1996 Diplomatic Bluebook


Note 1: At the 2nd ARF Meeting, the participants agreed to hold the following inter-governmental meetings: 1) the Inter-sessional Support Group on Confidence-Building Measures co-chaired by the Republic of Indonesia and Japan; 2) the Inter-sessional Meeting on Peace-keeping Operations co-chaired by Malaysia and Canada; and 3) the Inter-sessional Meeting Seminar on Search and Rescue Coordination and Cooperation co-chaired by Singapore and the United States.

Note 2: The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC): This Convention prohibits the development, production, and retention of chemical weapons, and calls for the abolition of chemical weapons currently possessed by the countries of the world and the destruction of chemical weapons production facilities. Furthermore, the Convention creates a rigid verification system for the chemical industry and, in the event that there is suspicion of a treaty violation, it defines a system through which an inspection can be conducted on one State Party to the Convention, in response to a request to that effect by another State Party, and the Convention defines when and which facilities are subject to such an inspection. States acceding to the Convention which currently possess chemical weapons are at present obliged to destroy all such chemical weapons no later than ten years after entry into force of the Convention.

Note 3: Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW): Located in The Hague, this organization will ensure the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and will provide a forum for cooperation and consultations among States party based on the Convention. The Technical Secretariat of the OPCW will conduct investigation into States party.

Note 4: London Guidelines Part 1 controls items specialized for nuclear energy, while London Guidelines Part 2 controls dual-use items which can be used for both nuclear and non-nuclear purposes.

Note 5: Named after the city in the suburb of The Hague, Netherlands where negotiations have been held.

Note 6: Scheduled to be formally inaugurated after the Plenary Meetings in April and July 1996.

Note 7: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Note 8: See Outlook, OECD. GDP figures are for OECD members (except Turkey), and were adjusted for inflation.

Note 9: Since 1981, the average rate of economic growth has been 7.3% in East Asia, 1.7% in Latin America, and 4.7% in developing countries as a whole. That of the G-7 countries registered 2.5%.

Note 10: Over the previous year, Japan's ODA increased 8.1% in yen terms and 17.6% in dollar terms.

Note 11: Grant element is an index of financial terms of assistance, calculated according to interest rate and grace period.

Note 12: Grants include grant aid, technical cooperation and disbursements for international organizations. In 1994, Japan's grants amounted to US$8.90084 billion (excluding grants to Eastern Europe).

Note 13: 57.3% of Japan's bilateral ODA, or US$5.54 billion, was for Asian countries.

Note 14: In 1993, Japan was the largest donor of ODA for 34 countries, and the second largest for another 29 countries.

Note 15: In 1994, ODA provided by all DAC countries amounted to US$57.75 billion (on a net disbursement basis). In that year, the amount provided by all countries except Japan was US$0.64 billion less than that of 1993, while Japan's ODA rose US$1.98 billion.

Note 16: Two important conferences held during 1995 were the World Summit for Social Development and Fourth U.N. World Conference on Women.

Note 17: To complete the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) process, it is necessary that economic conditions in EU member countries converge. The Maastricht Treaty stipulates that in order for the countries to participate in the EMU, they must meet specific criteria in five areas: inflation rate, ratio of government deficit to GDP, ratio of government debt to GDP, exchange rates, and long-term interest rates.

Note 18: The Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act stipulates that foreigners staying in Japan three months or longer must register with the proper authorities.

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