(3) Assistance for Security and Stability
Globalization, the advancement and proliferation of high-tech devices, and expanded mobility have turned transnational organized crime and acts of terrorism into a threat to the entire global community. In recent years, transnational organized crime, including illicit trafficking in drugs and firearms, trafficking in persons*, cybercrime, and money laundering*, has become increasingly diversified and sophisticated in its methods. Groups that are affiliated with and influenced by ISIL and other international terrorist organizations are becoming increasingly active not only in the Middle East and Africa but also in the Asia region, and individual acts of terrorism influenced by violent extremism as well as foreign terrorist fighters also pose a grave threat. In addition, piracy and armed robbery against ships off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden in eastern Africa, the Gulf of Guinea in western Africa, as well as in the waters of Southeast Asia, are still a concern.
There are limitations for any one nation in effectively dealing with transnational organized crime, acts of terrorism, and piracy. Therefore, not only must each nation strengthen its countermeasures in each respective area, but the entire international community must work together to eliminate legal loopholes through assistance to build capacity in the fields of criminal justice and law enforcement in developing countries.
•Enhancing the Capabilities of Security Authorities
In the area of capacity building of police agencies that constitute a cornerstone in maintaining domestic security, Japan provides support with a combination of the transfer of knowledge and technology based on the track records and experiences of the Japanese police in international cooperation, with maintenance of facilities and provision of equipment, while emphasizing human resources development that includes the development of institutions and enhancement of administrative capabilities.
In 2017, Japan offered technical cooperation, such as support for police officers including female officers, to Afghanistan where the security situation remains unpredictable. Japan provided approximately $1.98 billion (approximately ¥196 billion) in assistance to Afghanistan over the period of 2001 to the end of October 2017 in order to improve public safety in the country. As a result of the assistance from Japan as well as the international community, the Afghan National Police (ANP) more than doubled its workforce from 72,000 in 2008 to 157,000 in 2016.
The National Police Agency (NPA) of Japan dispatches experts to and accepts trainees mainly from Asian countries such as Indonesia, through which Japan conveys the modalities of the democratically controlled Japanese police, who are trusted by the Japanese people.
In 2017, frequent terror attacks happened around the world, including those in London (March and June) and Manchester (May), the United Kingdom, as well as one in Barcelona, Spain (August).
As the threat of terrorism and violent extremism is ever-expanding not only in the Middle East and Africa but also in Asia, there is a need for the steady implementation of “G7 Action Plan on Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism,” drawn up at the G7 Ise-Shima Summit. The international community must make every effort to prevent the means of terrorism from falling into the hands of terrorists and to deny them safe havens. Japan provides capacity building assistance in counter-terrorism to developing countries that are not necessarily equipped with sufficient capabilities.
At the G7 Ise-Shima Summit, Japan announced that under the philosophy of “The Best Way is to Go in the Middle,” it would provide comprehensive assistance totaling approximately $6 billion, including human resources development for approximately 20,000 people, over the next three years from 2016 to 2018, in order to prevent the expansion of violent extremism and build a “tolerant and stable society” in the Middle East. Based on this, Japan has been steadily providing assistance in the areas of food, education, power, and water supply and sewage, as well as support for economic and social development.
Furthermore, in 2016 when Japan chaired the open debate of the UN Security Council as the Security Council president, then Foreign Minister Kishida emphasized Japan's strong commitment towards peace and security in Africa, and announced that Japan would provide assistance of $120 million (approximately ¥14 billion), including human resources development for 30,000 people, from 2016 to 2018 for counter-terrorism measures in Africa.
Moreover, taking the opportunity of TICAD VI held in 2016 in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, Prime Minister Abe announced that, in order to work towards “Priority area 3: Promoting social stability for shared prosperity,” one of the three priority areas in the Nairobi Declaration, Japan would implement efforts that contribute to laying the foundations for peace and stability, through such measures as providing education and vocational training for African youth.
At the Japan-ASEAN Summit Meeting held in 2016, Japan announced that it would provide approximately ¥45 billion over the next three years to Asia as comprehensive counter-terrorism assistance consisting of: (i) improvement of counter-terrorism capacity, (ii) measures to counter violent extremism conducive to terrorism, and (iii) social and economic development assistance for creating a foundation for a moderate society, and that in addition it would help develop 2,000 personnel for counter-terrorism over the next three years.
Japan, in cooperation with each country and international organizations, is steadily implementing projects that utilize Japanese technology, towards the realization of “Asia resilient to terrorism.” These include the introduction of state of the art technology for counter-terrorism developed in Japan such as biometrics authentication systems (face recognition, fingerprint identification, etc.) and detection equipment for explosives and drugs. By the end of March 2017, Japan has provided more than ¥35.5 billion in assistance and human resource development for more than 670 people.
•Measures against Transnational Organized Crime
As globalization advances, the threat of transnational organized crime that is conducted on a large-scale and systematically across different countries is becoming more serious. Transnational organized crime undermines the security of civilian society, rule of law and market economy, which form the foundation of social prosperity and well-being. Thus, transnational organized crime is an issue that needs to be addressed uniformly by the international community. To combat transnational organized crime efficiently, Japan concluded the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) in July 2017, which is a legal framework for preventing transnational organized crime including terrorism. Additionally, Japan mainly makes the following international contributions.
■Measures against Drug Trafficking
Alongside its active participation in international conferences such as the Commission on Narcotic Drugs under the United Nations, Japan has also provided financial contribution to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), to support counter-narcotics efforts. Japan is making efforts to prevent the illicit drug trafficking through support to strengthen regulatory capacity in Afghanistan and the neighboring regions where the narcotics problem is particularly serious, border control support in North Africa and Central Asia.
Additionally, the NPA of Japan invites senior drug investigators mainly from the Asia-Pacific region to attend discussions about the narcotics situation in their countries, narcotics crime investigation methods and international cooperation in the field. It is aimed at establishing and strengthening international networks on drug enforcement of relevant countries.
■Measures against Trafficking in Persons
With regard to measures against trafficking in persons,* which is a serious violation of human rights and an extremely malicious crime, Japan provides various forms of assistance to eradicate it, under the “2014 Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.”
Through contributions to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Japan assists the safe repatriation of victims of trafficking in persons protected in Japan and provides education, vocational training, and other forms of independence assistance to these individuals in their home country in order to prevent them from falling victims of trafficking in persons again after repatriation. Japan also contributes to the Law Enforcement Agencies Capacity Strengthening Project of UNODC, and actively participates in the Bali Process, which is an Asia-Pacific regional framework on people smuggling, trafficking in persons and transnational crime. In July 2017, Japan became a party to the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, which is a comprehensive international commitment on trafficking in persons.
- *Trafficking in persons
- Trafficking in persons refers to the act of the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons for the purpose of exploitation, such as forced labor or prostitution.
■Measures against Money Laundering
There is a high risk that the proceeds of transnational organized crime would be used to fund further organized crime or acts of terrorism, and thus eliminating flows of these illicit funds is an important task for the international community. Therefore, Japan actively participates in discussions on international measures against money laundering* and terrorist financing, through intergovernmental frameworks such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) established based on the Economic Declaration of the Arch Summit in 1989.
Through UNODC, Japan is also engaged in countermeasures against terrorist financing in Iran and Southeast Asia.
- *Money laundering
- Money laundering refers to the act of disguising criminal proceeds as legally obtained assets, or the act of hiding such funds. For example: An act where a drug dealer hides money obtained through drug trafficking in a bank account opened under a false name.
•Capacity Building for Maritime, Outer Space, and Cyberspace Issues
As a maritime nation, Japan depends largely on maritime transport for the import of energy resources and food. Ensuring maritime safety is an issue that has a direct link to Japan's existence and prosperity as a nation, and is of crucial importance for the economic development of the region. However, the threat of piracy exists in the sea lanes between Japan and the Middle East, from which Japan imports approximately 80% of its crude oil, and in the internationally important sea lanes such as off the coast of Somalia, in the Gulf of Aden, and in the Sulu and Celebes Sea.
For that reason, to encourage regional cooperation in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea in Asia, Japan was at the forefront of efforts to formulate the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP). Each of the contracting parties shares information regarding piracy and armed robbery against ships at sea and cooperates via the Information Sharing Centre (ReCAAP-ISC) established in Singapore under the Agreement. Japan supports the activities of ReCAAP-ISC by sending its Executive Director and an assistant director, in addition to the provision of financial support. On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of founding ASEAN, Japan conducted “Capacity Building Executive Programme on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia” for officers of maritime law enforcement agencies from 10 ASEAN member states, in cooperation with other relevant ministries and agencies, from September 30 to October 7, 2017.
Moreover, in order to establish and promote the “rule of law” at sea, Japan is utilizing tools such as ODA to seamlessly support improvement of law enforcement capacity of maritime security agencies, etc. in ASEAN countries through provision of patrol vessels, technical cooperation, human resource development, while promoting international cooperation for the capacity building of Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) for recipient countries. Specifically, Japan completed the provision of seven used vessels to Viet Nam by February 2017 and is advancing preparations for provision of newly-built patrol vessels. With respect to the Philippines, in FY2013, Japan decided to provide ten newly-built patrol vessels through financial cooperation using ODA loans. Out of these, eight vessels have arrived in the Philippines and have been put into operation. In January 2017, Japan decided to provide small high-speed vessels through grant aid. Furthermore, at the Japan-Philippines Summit Meeting held in November 2017, Japan announced its intention to provide coastal surveillance radar equipment to the Philippines through grant aid. Japan is providing not only the vessels but also relevant equipment related to maritime security to these two countries. In addition, it is proceeding with human resource development through training, the dispatch of experts, etc., for coastal countries including Indonesia and Malaysia.
Furthermore, accidents that occur on the sea lanes, including accidental oil leaks from vessels, may cause not only a negative impact on the safety of the navigation of vessels, but also fatal damage on the fishery and tourism industries of coastal countries due to coastal pollution. In this regard, capacity building to address these situations is important. For that reason, from 2015 to 2017, Japan has dispatched experts who support the strengthening of the capacity to control oil spills into the sea (Advisor Services for Maritime Disaster Measures and Marine Environment Protection) to Sri Lanka, a country located on the sea lanes connecting the Middle East and Japan.
Since FY 2009, the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), with grant assistance from The Nippon Foundation, has been conducting a 15-week training project every year at the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, with the aim of fostering nautical chart experts. Since its launch, the project has produced 58 graduates from 36 countries. The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard participates in the management and implementation of this project (as of the end of December 2017).
The IHO and UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) are engaged in a joint project to create the General Bathymetric Chart of Oceans (GEBCO), a topographical map of the seafloor that covers the entire world uniformly. Since the first edition published in 1903, the map has undergone numerous revisions through the cooperation of experts around the world, including the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard. Through grant assistance offered by The Nippon Foundation, a one-year training program has been conducted at the University of New Hampshire in the United States every year since 2004, with the purpose of fostering young researchers who can contribute to the GEBCO project. To date, this program has produced 78 graduates from 35 countries (as of November 2017).
The number of piracy attacks off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden in Eastern Africa is currently at a low level, but the threat of piracy continues to exist. Given this situation, Japan has been conducting anti-piracy operations since 2009. Japan has contributed a total of $14.6 million to the IMO Djibouti Code of Conduct Trust Fund, which was founded by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to implement the Djibouti Code of Conduct (a regional framework for improving capabilities for maritime law enforcement in Somalia and its neighboring countries). This Trust Fund has been used to establish and operate information-sharing centers for anti-piracy measures and Djibouti Regional Training Centre, as well as to conduct training programs for improving maritime security capabilities in countries surrounding Somalia.
In addition, Japan has contributed a total of $4.5 million to the Trust Fund to Support Initiatives of States Countering Piracy off the Coast of Somalia.(Note 28) Its purpose is to assist Somalia and its neighboring countries to improve their capabilities, in order to arrest and prosecute alleged pirates. Through the contribution, Japan has been supporting the international community striving to arrest and prosecute pirates, and prevent the reoccurrence of piracy. In addition, in cooperation with the Japan Coast Guard, Japan has carried out training programs for the control of maritime crime, inviting maritime security officers from the countries around Somalia.
Furthermore, with the perception that the reconstruction and stability of Somalia are essential for a fundamental solution of Somalia's piracy issue, since 2007, Japan has disbursed approximately $447 million for improvement of basic services, restoration of security, economic revitalization, and emergency humanitarian assistance in Somalia.
Japan contributes to addressing global issues including climate change, disaster risk reduction, marine/fisheries resource management, forest conservation, and resources/energy challenges through implementation of ODA projects which utilize space technology. For example, Japan signed a Letter of Intent with Indonesia on space and maritime cooperation utilizing satellite data in March 2017, and commenced studies towards the development of concrete projects in November 2017. Japan has also signed an Exchange of Note with Thailand on cooperation to develop GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) that utilizes satellite navigation technology, and conducted a demonstration experiment in Thailand on satellite navigation services for the automatic operation of construction and agricultural machinery, etc.
Japan has also proactively provided assistance in the field of human resources development to emerging countries and developing countries that are trying the development and use of space. In particular, initiatives by Japan such as the provision of an experiment environment that makes use of the International Space Station Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo” and the release of small satellites have been highly appraised. In FY2017, a nanosatellite developed by students from Mongolia, Bangladesh, Ghana, and Nigeria under a program by the Kyushu Institute of Technology was released from “Kibo” into orbit. In addition, Japan commenced exposure experiments for material samples towards the development of domestically-produced satellites by Turkey.
In December 2016, in order to strategically and effectively offer all-Japan support for capacity building in developing countries in the field of space, Japan formulated basic policies and reported them to the Strategic Headquarters for National Space Policy, and will continue to actively support in line with these policies.
Free, fair and secure cyberspace is a global shared space that enables communication on a global scale, and is the foundation for peace and security of the international community, but in recent years activities that harm the benefits brought by cyberspace have been increasing. It is necessary for diverse actors in each country to work together to respond to transnational threats in cyberspace. The situation in which some countries or regions lack the capacity to respond to the threat is a risk to the entire world including Japan. Furthermore, the numbers of Japanese people traveling overseas and Japanese companies expanding their business to foreign markets continue to increase. As a consequence of the progress of computerization, their activities depend on the social infrastructure and cyberspace managed and operated by the host countries. Therefore, strengthening cooperation for ensuring the security of cyberspace in countries around the world and providing capacity-building support to developing countries not only contribute to the recipient countries, but also benefit Japan and the entire world.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) promotes collaboration with ASEAN countries in the field of cybersecurity. These efforts include the PRACTICE project which shares information based on the collection and analysis of information on cyber- attacks, and establishes technologies to immediately detect and respond to indications of a cyber-attack as well as the DAEDALUS system developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), which detects malware infections in real time.
In addition, JICA has conducted technical cooperation projects to Indonesia from 2014 to 2017, which aims to improve its information security capabilities through dispatch of experts, implementation of training and introduction of new software. In October 2017, the National Police Agency (NPA) invited senior officials of the Ministry of Public Security of Viet Nam, who are in charge of cybersecurity, and conducted a training program aimed at improving their cybersecurity capabilities.
- Note 28: From December 2012 the United Nations Development Programme Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office (UNDP-MPTF Office) took over the administration of the funds from UNODC.