Japan's Official Development Assistance White Paper 2006
Main Text > Part II ODA DISBURSEMENTS IN FISCAL YEAR 2005 > Chapter 2 Details about Japan's ODA > Section 2. Measures for Each of the Priority Issues > 4. Peacebuilding > (4) Africa (Sub-Sahara)
(4) Africa45 (Sub-Sahara)
Since the end of Cold War, in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the background of artificial determination of national borders, and fragile foundations of the nations, various complicated factors such as poverty, ethnic and religious confrontations, economic vested interests and independence movements have increased conflicts caused by struggles over power and resources between government and anti-government forces, confrontations among tribes and those among nations. Some cases evolved into international conflicts, such as the internal unrest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998 when the strife between government and anti-government forces drew intervention from seven neighboring countries. Such conflicts have not only resulted in a great number of victims, refugees and internally displaced persons, but they have also created a vicious cycle of economic stagnation, destruction of infrastructure and further poverty, among other problems. As a result, these factors have piled up, and it has become impossible to take adequate measures against various social problems and has not only led to the spread of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria, but in some countries and regions, this has also created problems like the oppression of human rights, inflows and outflows of contraband of weapons and drugs, and an escalation of organized crimes.
Japan put the TICAD (Tokyo International Conference on African Development) process since 1993. At TICAD III in 2003, to promote the stability and development of Africa Japan emphasized the "consolidation of peace" as one of the three pillars of its assistance to Africa. This reflects its policy of promoting peace in conflict-torn regions and providing seamless assistance for post-conflict reconstruction and Japan has been active in providing humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to date.
In recent years, we witness Africa taking initiative to actively work for preventing and resolving conflicts. Such efforts are carried out by African countries, the AU, and Regional Economic Communities such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). As a result of this tendency of self-effort, the civil war in Sierra Leone which lasted for 10 years, came to an end in 2002, as did the one in Angora for which a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2002, ending internal conflicts that had taken place intermittently for more than 27 years since Angora gained independence in 1975. Furthermore, a peace agreement was established in 2002 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where conflicts had lasted since 1998 with the interference of neighboring countries. Conflicts in various regions are gradually drawing to a conclusion, showing signs that peace is spreading throughout Africa. At the same time, efforts of post-conflict reconstruction are being advanced in order to prevent the reversion to conflicts and to consolidate the peace. Examples of such efforts include the return and resettlement of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), and DDR after the end of conflicts.
Column II-6 Basic Training Project for Social Reintegration of Demobilized Soldiers in Eritrea
To further promote the consolidation of peace based on the African ownership of recent years, Japan held the TICAD Conference on the Consolidation of Peace in February 2006 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. At the conference, ways and means of assisting post-conflict countries were discussed. Japan announced its new initiative for consolidating peace in Africa. Following the Aid Package for the Consolidation of Peace in Africa in March 2005, the new initiative includes immediate assistance totaling approximately US$60 million for DDR, reduction and control of small arms and light weapons (SALW), anti-landmine measures, and the reintegration of child soldiers into society. Particular focus of the initiative is on Sudan, the Great Lakes region and West Africa. Moreover, on the occasion of his visit to Ethiopia and Ghana from the end of April to early May 2006, the then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi announced Japan's new action for the peace and development of Africa, which includes humanitarian assistance to the people in Darfur, assistance to countermeasures of SALW and counter-terrorism measures, as well as support for the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and Japan's Action Plan in Combating Infectious Diseases in Africa. Also included in the immediate assistance was emergency grant aid of approximately US$8.7 million to be extended to support the activities of the AU with respect to the Darfur conflict.
A vocational training school for women war victims (Sierra Leone)
Japan puts a high value on the role that the AU has been playing in the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts. To help support the activities of the AU, Japan has extended a total of approximately US$4.58 million46 to the AU Peace Fund as of FY2005. In addition, Japan offered the following assistance in FY2005 to support the refugees and internally displaced persons who were forced to flee their homes due to conflicts or other reasons: approximately US$48.25 million via the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), approximately US$47.07 via the WFP, US$4.63 million via the IOM, and approximately US$4.64 million via the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).