Japan's Efforts in the Universalization of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol

May 2004

1. Initiative for the Universalization of the IAEA Additional Protocol

(1) Japan attaches great importance to the promotion of the conclusion of the Additional Protocol, which was formulated to reinforce the IAEA safeguards in the light of the suspected nuclear-weapons development programs in Iraq and North Korea in 1990s, as a means to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In this regard, Japan concluded the Additional Protocol in December 1999 as the first country with nuclear power generation. Since then, Japan has actively been taking initiatives, in cooperation with the IAEA and like-minded countries, for the universalization of the Additional Protocol.

(2) Japan proposed a "Plan of Action" for the strengthening of the IAEA safeguards at the Forty-Fourth General Conference of the IAEA in 2000, and since then, Japan has positioned the universalization of the Additional Protocol as one of the pillars of its nuclear energy diplomacy. In June 2001, Japan hosted a symposium for countries of the Asia-Pacific region in Tokyo and made personnel and financial contributions to regional seminars held since then (Latin America, Central Asia, the three Baltic states, and Africa).

(3) Japan, in cooperation with the IAEA, hosted "the International Conference on Wider Adherence to Strengthened IAEA Safeguards" on December 9 and 10, 2002 to consolidate the results of these regional seminars and symposium. The achievements of the conference include the following:

  • a chairman's summary was issued with the general consensus of the participants;
  • all participants were able to share the results of the regional seminars on the promotion of the conclusion of the Additional Protocol;
  • the conference was able to send a concrete message to encourage nuclear weapons states, except China, which had already ratified an Additional Protocol, and European Union countries to ratify the Additional Protocol as soon as possible
  • the establishment of the Friends of the Additional Protocol was proposed

(4) In addition to these efforts, Japan has emphasized in the policy dialogues with other countries the importance of the IAEA Additional Protocol for strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and urged them to conclude the Additional Protocol.

(5) As a result, signatories and parties to the IAEA Additional Protocol have been steadily increasing. As of the end of April 2004, 83 countries have signed the Additional Protocol and it has come into force in 55 countries. It should be noted that, after the above-mentioned symposium hosted by Japan in June 2001, 29 countries have signed the Additional Protocol, and 36 countries have put it into force.

2. Activities after the International Conference

(1) At present, Japan, mainly through its permanent mission in Vienna, has informally launched the Friends of the Additional Protocol and is making efforts to address the various issues mentioned in the chairman's summary: in particular, how to promote the conclusion of the Additional Protocol at bilateral and regional levels; how to draw political attention to the importance of the Additional Protocol; and how to eliminate legal, technical and other obstacles to the promotion of its conclusion.

(2) In addition, Japan provided financial support for "the IAEA Safeguards and Nuclear Security Seminar" hosted by the IAEA in Vienna in February, 2003 and for the series of seminars on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons which were held in Tashkent in June, 2003, in Ouagadougou in February, 2004, and in Windhoek in March, 2004. These seminars featured wide-ranging discussions on the promotion of the conclusion of the Additional Protocol.

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