Climate Change

The 5th Part of the 1st Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Paris Agreement (APA1-5) and the 48th Session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA48) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI48)

May 23, 2018
Japanese

The 5th Part of the 1st Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Paris Agreement (APA1-5) and the 48th Session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI48) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA48) took place from April 30 to May 10 in Bonn, Germany. Officials from relevant Ministries participated in these meetings. They include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

On the basis of the progress of this session, APA1-6 and resumed session of SB48 will be held from September 3rd to 8th in Bangkok, Thailand as an additional negotiation session to continue work on the Paris Agreement Work Program (PAWP) agenda items.

1. The 5th Part of the 1st Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Paris Agreement

At this session, Parties worked toward developing draft texts that can be a basis for negotiations, with a view to adopting the PAWP in 2018. Informal consultations were conducted on each agenda item including Mitigation, Adaptation, Transparency Framework, Global Stocktake (take stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals), Implementation and Promotion of Compliance, and Adaptation Fund. During the series of consultations, Parities worked on streamlining the informal notes developed at COP23 which identified outlines and elements of the PAWP. As a result of discussion, the informal notes which rearrange/integrate the headings then capture different views on the elements of the PAWP were developed depending on the progress on each agenda item. On May 9, the Co-Chairs proposed the draft conclusion including proposals for works towards the next session, taking into consideration the progress on each agenda item. After consultation at the Contact Group, the conclusion, which includes those informal notes as its annex, was adopted on May 10. In the conclusion, the APA requests APA Co-Chairs to prepare tools including proposals for streamlining the outcome of APA at this session and examples of how Parties could further progress towards the development of an agreed basis for negotiations. The APA also agrees that a round table will be conducted with a focus on substantive linkages among items.

2. SBI 48 and SBSTA 48

With regard to the PAWP agenda items, the 48th Session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) considered a variety of agenda items including on the matters relating to Common time frames for nationally determined contributions, the market mechanism under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, identification of the information to be provided by Parties in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 5, the accounting modalities of financial resources referred to in Article 9, paragraph 7, and the technology framework. As a result, the informal notes which rearrange/integrate the headings then capture different views on the elements of the PAWP were prepared, taking into consideration the progress on each agenda item. Accordingly, respective conclusions were adopted based on such outcomes.
In addition to the PAWP agenda items, various items including issues on LULUCF, agriculture, the periodic review, national communications, biennial reports/biennial update reports, national adaptation plans, response measures, capacity building, and the budget of the secretariat were also discussed. Conclusions were adopted for those agenda items where Parties reached agreement.

3. Talanoa Dialogue

The preparatory phase of Talanoa Dialogue was convened (Talanoa is a traditional word used in Fiji to reflect a process of inclusive, participatory and transparent dialogue) for taking stock of the collective efforts of Parties in relation to progress towards the long-term goal referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Agreement and enhancing ambition. At this session, 7 Talanoa groups comprising equal number of Parties and non-Party stakeholders shared their best practices and visions. Japan contributed to the Talanoa group discussion through sharing Japanese knowledge and experiences including implementation of domestic mitigation measures and international corporations, promotion of technology and innovation, best practice of Co-innovation(Co-innovation is not an introduction of technology or systems from one side to another. It establishes a mutually beneficial relationship and can lead to innovation.) including the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) projects. Further inputs including the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C by IPCC will be shared for the political phase of Talanoa Dialogue which will take place at COP 24.

4. Assessment

  • (1) Technical discussions about concrete elements of the PAWP were conducted and the work toward its adoption in 2018 progressed steadily at this session. It is worth noting that Parties agreed on works toward the next session, including the one which request APA Co-Chairs to prepare tools to advance informal notes of this session as we see it contributing to producing draft texts to serve as basis for negotiations.
  • (2) Further acceleration of the pace of negotiation is required, given the significant backlog of work in order to complete the PAWP by COP24. Differences of opinions among Parties were observed. Some Parties argued that implementation of the Paris Agreement should be differentiated between developed and developing countries (bifurcation) and that the scope of the guidelines should be broadened. Some Parties attempted to reopen the issue previously agreed in Paris including by insisting on developing the modality of information to be provided by Parties in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 5. There also were points made that all items should be treated equally. In order to complete the PAWP by COP24, it is important that Parties engage in negotiations constructively and efficiently mindful of the limited time.
  • (3) Japan actively participated in the discussions across wide range of items working closely with countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand which share similar/common positions. In parallel, Japan also actively engaged with countries and NGOs with different views explaining Japan's views on each agenda item and how to develop the PAWP. Furthermore, during this session, Japan appealed its efforts including by holding a side-event "Mitigation Action through Article 6 of the Paris Agreement" addressing the issue of market mechanism which was organized by Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).