Regional Affairs
Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017

June 3, 2013
Japanese

  Table of Contents

Introduction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The guiding orientations of the “Yokohama Declaration 2013” agreed upon by the TICAD participants are translated into this Action Plan, spelling out goals to be achieved and specific measures to be implemented by TICAD V participants which include both African countries and international partners through the TICAD process during the next five years (2013-2017).
 
Throughout this Action Plan, greater attention is given to Africa’s own efforts, mainstreaming of women and youth and promotion of human security across all aspects of development agenda.
 
The TICAD process will continue to strengthen South-South and triangular cooperation.
 
 
 
The TICAD process will enhance drivers for growth by promoting trade and investment in the priority areas of infrastructure and agriculture, and the active engagement of the private sector to stimulate the creation of regional value chains, employment, and the exchange of technology and know-how, as well as to strengthen sectors with strong potential, such as tourism, to support Africa’s sustained economic growth.
 
1. Sector specific agendas 
 
 
Today, Africa is the least integrated continent in the world, with low levels of intra-regional economic exchanges and the smallest share of global trade. Africa’s share in global trade stands at only 3% and intra-regional trade is also low with only 12% of total trade. Recognizing the importance of global trade for boosting economic growth, successful conclusion of the Doha Round negotiations and promotion of “Aid for Trade” could facilitate the integration of Africa into the multilateral trading system as embodied in the WTO, so that growth in Africa contributes to the prosperity of the global economy. There is also a need to increase intra-regional trade by developing growth corridors and supply chains. The benefits are enormous in terms of creating larger markets and helping countries diversify their economies away from dependence on commodities, enhance economic competitiveness, reduce costs, improve productivity and reduce poverty.  
Private capital flows to the continent now exceed official development assistance, but are still concentrated in extractive industries and resource rich countries. Foreign investment adds value to the extent that it creates more employment and opportunities for local companies as well as transfer of technology. The challenge is to both increase the volume of private capital flows and attract investment into additional sectors, such as infrastructure, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism. As tourism has tremendous potential for growth, both government and the tourism industry need to employ appropriate policies and strategies to increase their competiveness. 
 
 
The private sector has been playing an increased role in the African economy with its growth facilitating the emergence of a middle class. This has created a market of consumers throughout the continent, as can be seen in the success of ICT, especially mobile phone penetration. Increasing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) productivity and diversifying the industry away from primary commodities, as well as improving their access to long-term finance and capacity development, are key to increasing their competitiveness and thus creating a robust economic structure.  It is also noteworthy that the informal sector is expanding and becoming a growing source of employment for women and youth.  Increasing the productivity of informal sector jobs would also enhance income-earning potential, while the transformation of the informal into the formal private sector would create more employment opportunities.
 
Africa is mainly comprised of countries which view themselves as developmental states, thus requiring effective state intervention, regulation and planning. In this regard, state owned entities (SOE) / state owned companies (SOC) continue to play a vital role in supporting public sector development, which is critical to Africa’s development, as well as in national infrastructure development, and also reducing unequal access to public services, creating secure employment and economic access, and supporting the building of the developmental state.
 
2. Outcome Targets
 
(1) Increase the ratio of intra-regional trade
(2) Improve the business environment in African countries
(3) Increase the volume of African exports
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
(1) Action Plan for Boosting Intra-Africa Trade
 a) Technical Support for Regional Economic Communities for Promotion of intra/Inter-REC trade
 b) Liberalisation of Services Sectors to Boost Intra African Trade
   (i) Studies
   (ii) Trade in Services statistics
  (iii) Assistance in the Development of Regional Services Markets
  (iv) Mainstreaming Services in National Strategies
  (v) Technical Assistance targeted at regional Regulatory Authorities
  (vi) Policy framework for Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)/IT Enabled Services (ITES)
c) Mainstreaming intra-African trade in national development strategies, including enhancement of the role of the organized private sector, informal private sector, and women in trade policy formulation
d) Creation of inter-connected centres of trade information exchange
e) Integrated Border Management and Customs Transit
f) Promotion of Integrity and fight against Corruption in African Customs Administrations
g) Capacity Development for African Customs Administration in Regional Integration and Trade Facilitation
 
(2) Accelerating Industrial Development in Africa (AIDA)
Industrial Development:
a) Capacity-development and technical assistance for industrial policy management, industrial data collection and monitoring
b) Establishment of industrial skills development, technological transfer and diffusion centers and institutions
c) Establishment of technology incubators
d) Establishment of university chairs on innovation in African Universities and implementation of the Africa Technology and innovation initiative
 
4. Focus area of TICAD V
 
(1) Promote regional integration for region-wide development, especially inter- and intra-regional trade, through development of trade related infrastructure, trade facilitation, elimination of trade barriers, and capacity development for governments and Regional Economic Communities (RECs).
(2) Promote investment by stimulating competition and reduce costs of doing business such as through improvement of trade, investment and business climate such as policy reforms in legal and financial system and protection of property rights. These reforms will increase the competitiveness of, and an environment conducive to, industrial development, including the tourism sector. 
(3) Support promotion of sustainable natural resource development and encourage responsible activities of the private sector both in terms of transparency and accountability in financial flows and in relation to local communities.
(4) Support private sector development especially through improved access to finance, especially for SMEs and female entrepreneurs, and use of public finance to attract private investment, and improvement of productivity and management of local enterprises.
(5) Reinforce African women’s capacity in leadership, management and entrepreneurship. 
(6) Promote global market access for African products. 
(7) Support capacity development to strengthen institutions and enhance training in areas that accelerate growth, sustain development, and reduce poverty.
 
 
 
 
In order to enable Africa’s self-sustaining growth in the medium- and long-term, the TICAD process will emphasize strengthening the bases for economic growth, which can be categorized as infrastructure development, human resource development and innovation, science and technology development. These are all critical enablers of growth and major catalysts for developing all economic activities.
 
1. Sector specific agendas 
 
 
Insufficient infrastructure is a major constraint to business activities as it reduces the competitiveness of enterprises through high production and transaction costs.  While rural infrastructure is essential for improving the economic activities of the poor, region-wide infrastructure is also needed given the importance of economic integration in Africa. Transport corridors linking major production and consumption center and providing connectivity among major cities would also facilitate trade, especially for land-locked countries.  As the continent faces unreliable supply of electricity and high price of power, affordable, low-carbon and reliable energy supply is also needed to support Africa’s sustainable growth especially through supporting the “UN Secretary General’s Sustainable Energy for All Initiative” to secure energy access for all. 
The AU’s Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) estimates that addressing Africa’s continental infrastructure challenges as defined in its Priority Action Plan (PAP) from 2012 through 2020 will cost nearly $68 billion or about $7.5 billion annually for the next nine years, while the capital cost of PIDA's long-term implementation through 2040 is currently estimated at more than $360 billion. Much higher levels of private investment will be needed to close the continent’s infrastructure gap, especially in energy and transport which represent around 95% of the total cost. Thus, transformative investments in these sectors are required to support African trade, promote growth and create jobs, including to catalyze resource mobilization of private sector through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).  
 
 
Strengthening assistance for post-basic education, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), and higher education and aligning the education curriculum to labor market reality for employment creation is essential to build a reservoir of human resources that support high quality labor force to transform the African economy. It is also important to develop human resources which contribute to sustainable growth, such as through the concept of Education for Sustainable Development. Capacity development after entering the workforce is also important to improve the quality and productivity of both public and private sector, such as through KAIZEN (quality and productivity improvement). Improving the capacity of administrative officials, at national and regional level, is crucial to put appropriate policies in place and implement accordingly and efficiently in all sectors, especially to enhance rule of law and to strengthen good governance. 
 
 
  African countries need further professional and technical skills and facilities to improve competitiveness and productivity in various sectors. Thus, increased scientific and technological capacity, embodied in knowledge, well-trained human resources and infrastructure, is critical to transforming African economies into knowledge based economies.  Efforts to boost science and technology must be linked to the real needs of the economy, thus close dialogue with various stakeholders will be critical to ensure that education systems provide practical skills, as well as academic excellence at all levels. Although African countries have recognized the importance of science and technology especially through adoption of “Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action (CPA)” and the launch of the Pan African University by the AU, there is still a need to further increase attention on science and technology to both develop local capacity and better utilize existing capacity.
 
2. Outcome Targets
 
(1) Increase amount of investment to infrastructure development
(2) Promote scientific research and technology transfer
(3) Increase the number of university graduates and trainees in TVET
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
(1) Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA)
(2) Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action (CPA)
(3) Capacity Development Strategic Framework (CDSF)
(4) Pan African University (PAU) and Centers of Excellence
(5) Youth Volunteer Program of the AUC
 
4. Focus area of TICAD V
 
(1) Develop backbone infrastructure in both urban and rural areas, especially affordable, reliable and sustainable energy infrastructure, water infrastructure, region-wide transportation corridor development and ICT necessary for economic development and promote involvement of the private sector including through Private Public Partnerships (PPPs) in large infrastructure projects.
(2) Provide support for sustainable urban development. 
(3) Enhance higher education especially in science and engineering.
(4) Promote TVET that provides high quality skills leading to employment.
(5) Promote human resource development in public sectors through necessary capacity development efforts. 
(6) Establish and strengthen institutions, systems and partnerships with all stakeholders in the field of science and technology.
(7) Strengthen Teaching and learning of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). 
(8) Strengthen innovative programs on youth employment and entrepreneurship. 
 
 
The TICAD process has placed particular importance on the role of agriculture in Africa, both for the economy and society, as agriculture represents the largest economic sector in Africa, and it is by far the largest generator of employment and source of livelihoods. 
 
1. Sector specific agendas
 
 
Progress has been made to increase agricultural production and productivity in Africa under the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program (CAADP); however, further concerted effort among African countries and various international partners is required—for example to increase access to fertilizers and other inputs—especially with growing demand for food in the continent and to transform agriculture. In this regard, attention should be also given to expansion of sustainable fisheries and fish farming.
While the role of the public sector will continue to remain essential for fostering a conducive economic environment for investment and providing public goods, private sector will remain the basis of the production and transformation process. Market opportunities and access to assets have to be improved for farmers to move from subsistence to commercial agriculture through a better balanced insertion into the value chains, and development of market-based agriculture. Agricultural investment should be promoted in a responsible manner consistent with the Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment (PRAI) in order to harmonize the benefit of recipient countries, local people including small scale farmers and investors. 
Special attention is also needed to ensure small holder and small scale, especially women, farmers are afforded equal access and opportunity, given that such farmers produce the majority of food in African countries.  In this regard, attention to the specific needs of women farmers and assistance to farmers’ groups to expand their activities is important to increase agricultural production and rural incomes. 
As agriculture in African countries is prone to natural disasters and economic risks which have been prevalent in recent years due to impacts of climate change and global economic context, ensuring food and nutrition security will require agriculture and communities that are more climate-resilient especially against desertification, droughts and floods. Given these situations, agriculture should be promoted taking into account the diversity of environmental conditions such as land, water and biodiversity, along with positive externalities and policies that mitigate price and market risks.
Furthermore, research and development is a source of agricultural growth in Africa.  Thus, it is important to promote agricultural research and training of African researchers. Improved agricultural statistics systems are also important in implementing appropriate agricultural policy. 
 
 
Increasing agricultural production and productivity on a sustainable basis are effective in reducing hunger and malnutrition through food and nutrition security and essential for poverty reduction and sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
 
2. Outcome targets
 
(1) Attain 6% growth rate in agriculture sector as set out by the CAADP
(2) Double rice production by 2018 compared to the one in 2008 under the efforts on Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD)
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)
 
4. Focus area of TICAD V
 
(1) Increase agricultural production and productivity in line with the CAADP process and through CARD.
(2) Promote market-based agriculture for small holders especially women by moving from subsistence to commercial agriculture and “farming as business” approach including purchasing from within Africa.
(3) Promote private sector involvement in a manner that benefits the recipient country and develop value chains including necessary infrastructure and advanced and practical agricultural technology such as through improving agricultural processing, post-harvest storage and access to markets, with particular attention to small holders, especially women.
(4) Ensure national food and nutrition security by strengthening the resilience of agriculture and communities including developing disaster-resilient infrastructure through appropriate land conservation and water management and capacity development at the institutional and community level against increasing natural disasters caused by climate change.
(5) Support risk mitigating actions that address price volatility and market failures (insurance, storage, information systems, trade policies etc.). 
(6) Strengthen the financial and technical capacity of the Fund for African Women to enable it support projects and initiatives of African women under the theme Agriculture, Food Security and Environment, in addition to supporting other efforts to empower women in agriculture.
(7) Support fish farming and fisheries to create jobs for women and youth and also to ensure food security, poverty reduction.
 
 
Over the past years, many African countries have made progress in institutional and technical capacity for advancing sustainable development. However, Africa is still one of the most vulnerable regions to natural disasters and climate change impacts, thus, the TICAD process will aim to build a resilient society to climate change to facilitate sustainable development. 
 
1. Sector specific agendas
 
 
Climate change is compounding existing development challenges as Africa’s major economic sectors such as agriculture and fisheries are vulnerable to climate sensitivity and are projected to be increasingly severely impacted by climate variability and change. Special attention must be paid to the building of climate change resilient societies, capable of anticipating and facing environmental disasters as well as conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, prevention of desertification and land degradation. Measures to address environment and climate change are articulated across various sectors in this Action Plan, such as in infrastructure, agriculture and water.
 
 
Out of all natural disasters, droughts occur most frequently and cause the highest number of victims in Africa while storms and floods brought by cyclones cause serious damages to the island and coastal countries.   As Africa’s natural disasters are mostly climate-related such as drought and floods, adaptation to climate change must be directly linked to efforts toward disaster risk reduction. It is critical to mainstream disaster risk reduction into development agendas with special consideration for vulnerable groups such as the elderly, women and disadvantaged persons.
 
2. Outcome targets
 
(1) Reduce deforestation through improved forest and land management 
(2) Increase investment in climate change adaptation programs
(3) Improve access to renewable energy
(4) Increase the number of trainees on disaster risk reduction
(5) Increase the number of countries with disaster risk reduction strategy mainstreamed in the national development plan
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
(1) Forest Management
(2) Biodiversity Conservation
(3) Land Management 
(4) Great Green Wall
(5) African Strategy on Climate Change
(6) Integrated African Strategy on Meteorology-Weather and Climate Services
(7) African Drought Risk Preparedness and Resilience
 
 
4. Focus areas of TICAD V
 
(1) Develop human resources and promote measures in the field of environmental policy making and environmental technology. 
(2) Promote sustainable use of biodiversity and management of land and forest resources.
(3) Provide effective support to the African programs aimed at sustainable land management as well as combating drought and desertification.
(4) Mainstream disaster risk reduction into development and promote the comprehensive disaster reduction measures under “Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century” adopted at the World Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction in Tohoku.
(5) Implement measures against natural disasters especially building resilience to drought in arid and semi-arid areas and protecting against storm, flood, and coastal erosion damage.
(6) Develop human resources, institutional systems and information systems for disaster risk reduction in all levels.
(7) Promote a policy environment favorable to investment in the area of adaptation to climate change based on the outcome and experiences of adaptation efforts such as AAP.
(8) Promote investment in renewable energy including hydro, solar, geothermal, biomass and wind power.
(9) Support the implementation of the Integrated African Strategy on Meteorology-Weather and Climate Services. 
(10) Promote projects in REDD Plus (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation).
(11) Train media professionals, planners and officials on natural risks and disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation programme.
(12) Establishment of Urban Risk Management Platforms. 
(13) Contribute to the discussion on the post Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) in the UN process. 
(14) Implement Africa regional flagship programs on Rio+20 adopted by the 20th AU Summit.
(15) Support for early warning systems to cope with harsh and unpredictable climatic conditions in Africa.
 
 
With the MDGs target year of 2015 approaching, there is a need to further accelerate efforts to achieve the MDGs particularly in the health, education, and water and sanitation sectors. The TICAD process will support these efforts as critical ingredients to ensure sustained human development necessary for reducing poverty and fulfilling basic human needs. Attention also needs to be paid to the role of national safety nets targeting the vulnerable groups.
 
1. Sector specific agendas
 
 
Gender parity and net enrolment in primary education has improved considerably in many African countries under the “Education for All” initiative.  However, there is still need to increase enrolment and completion rate, and improve the quality of primary and secondary education to create a solid foundation for higher education. Strengthening the domestication and monitoring of the AU’s Plan of Action for the Second Decade of Education will also help improve implementation of educational policy, giving greater attention to the eradication of illiteracy.
 
 
Improving health contributes to a healthy workforce which underpins socio-economic growth. Although Maternal Mortality Rates (MMR) and Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) have improved across the continent compared with those in 1990, most African countries have difficulties in achieving some of their health-related MDGs. In order to accelerate the achievements of these goals, it is necessary to address disparities that hinder the access to basic health services. To this end, strengthening health systems towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is needed to ensure access to, and availability of, affordable health and medical services. Expanding health coverage as well as providing effective basic health services for maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health should be promoted. Particular attention should also be given to efforts to reduce the rate of stunting in early childhood as well as to prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, infectious diseases, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in improving health on the continent, including by promoting cost effective interventions such as vaccination and immunization programs. 
 
 
  Effective management of water resources and improved supply of, and access to, safe water, as well as integrated waste management, are essential for sustainable economic growth and improved living conditions. Improving sanitation is also fundamental to the population in terms of preventing diseases and safeguarding dignity, thus contributing to the enhancement of human security. Since women are often the main users of water supply facilities and play a pivotal role in hygiene of each household, ensuring equal participation of women in water management and sanitation improvement is indispensable.
 
2. Outcome targets
 
(1) Increase universal primary and secondary education, especially for girls, and in rural and remote areas as well as vocational training
(2) Increase health coverage through expanding public health services for vulnerable groups 
(3) Increase the average percentage of deliveries with skilled birth attendants
(4) Increase the number of AU member states that align their policies to the Maputo Plan of Action on Reproductive Health
(5) Increase the use of media outlets in AU member states educating the public on maternal newborn and child heath by 2015
(6) Reduce the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age
(7) Save more lives of children under the age of 5 including newborns and expectant and nursing mothers
(8) Ensure progress towards provision of family planning, taking into account national plans
(9) Reduce the number of deaths related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria
(10) Increase access to safe drinking water by improving coverage and sustainability of water supply services
(11) Further promote anti-natal and post natal care
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
(1) Second Decade of Education in Africa “2006-2016”
(2) Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA)
(3) Abuja Plan of Action on the Combating of HIV/AIDS, TB, Malaria, and other infectious diseases
(4) Plan of Action on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (Maputo Plan of Action)
(5) AIDS Watch Africa (AWA) Initiative
(6) Africa Vision 2025 on Water and Sanitation
 
4. Focus Areas of TICAD V
 
(1) Improve access to and quality of primary and secondary education, as well as vocational training, with consideration to equity through provision of adequate educational facilities, capacity development of teachers and improvement of management and administrative capacity of stakeholders.
(2) Strengthen education management information systems to ensure knowledge based education development and robust mechanism for following up and measuring performance.
(3) Strengthen health systems and make progress towards universal health coverage with special attention to maternal, newborn and child health, reproductive health, as well as infectious diseases and NCDs. 
(4) Support the African countries to align their policies with the Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA), and the Plan of Action on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (Maputo Plan of Action).
(5) Strengthening of the AUC medical services health delivery systems.
(6) Promote sustainable water resources management, including implementation of water conservation measures to ensure a sustainable water supply.
(7) Improve sustainable supply of and access to safe water and sanitary conditions in both urban and rural areas.
(8) Strengthen the follow up and monitoring systems for water and sanitation at national and sub-regional levels by 2016.
(9) Implement the Africa Vision 2025 on Water and Sanitation in compliance with the Compact approach as used in CAADP.
(10) Promote integrated waste management.
 
 
Peace and stability are fundamental prerequisites for socio-economic development in Africa. While the continent has made considerable progress in addressing peace and stability during the last two decades, conflict still persists, mainly in the Sahel region, the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region, resulting in forced displacement of populations and cross-border insecurity.
The importance of democracy and good governance should be also noted as the basis of stable and safe societies and for socio-economic development. Regional home-grown initiatives and efforts to consolidate peace and stability should be supported and strengthened.
 
1. Sector-specific agendas
 
 
Africa has demonstrated great leadership to realize a peaceful and stable continent. In particular, the African Union (AU) has played a pivotal role to bring more peace and stability in Africa, especially through the implementation of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), in close cooperation with Regional Economic Communities (RECs). It is important that the international community continuously supports Africa’s efforts to fully operationalize APSA.
 
 
The international community should continue to support Africa’s efforts on conflict prevention and resolution, peace-building, peace support operations and post-conflict reconstruction. In this regard, the UN should also continue to engage with Africa in these efforts.  Recognizing the UN’s important role, the reform of the UN bodies, in particular the Security Council, is critical.
In many cases, socio-economic discontent resulting from youth unemployment, gender inequality, extreme poverty and economic disparity can lead to violence and conflict. Inclusive development is therefore important to reduce such causes of conflict.
 
 
Cross-border issues, including transnational organized crime, terrorism and piracy, are growing concerns for the world. These issues destabilize societies as well as cause new conflicts. In this regard, African countries and international partners should take concerted action to combat terrorism and eliminate sources of financing, including the payment of ransoms, as well as human and drug trafficking, fake medicines, small arms and light weapons, illegal fishing, dumping waste, money laundering, and also support countries threatened by these problems. Piracy poses a serious threat to the safety and security of maritime navigation, shipping and related activities, particularly off the coast of Somalia and the Gulf of Guinea, and requires a comprehensive solution both on the high seas and on land. 
 
 
Africa’s efforts to promote democracy and good governance are important to provide stability and growth and should be supported. This includes support for administrative efficiency of governmental institutions and anti-corruption initiatives. 
 
2. Outcome targets
 
(1) Operationalize the African Peace and Security Architecture
(2) Implement the AU/NEPAD Capacity Development Support Programme for RECs, to enhance human capacity as well as the institutional capacity of African organizations
(3) Increase the number of trainees on counter-terrorism and combating organized crime
(4) Increase support for the National Programmes of Action following the review of countries within the APRM framework
(5) Increase support to programs to expand economic access for women in order to address gender inequality
(6) Increase support to SMEs to create employment opportunities for youth
 
 
3. Africa’s efforts to be supported by TICAD V
 
(1) African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA)
(2) AU/NEPAD Capacity Development Support Programme for RECs
(3) African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM)
(4) AU Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance
(5) AU Plan of Action on Drug Control (2013-2017)
(6) Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy 2050
(7) AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa 
(8) AU Plan of Action on Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation
 
4. Focus Areas of TICAD V
 
(1) Support African ownership and capacity to effectively implement peace and stability activities.
(2) Develop institutional capacities of the RECs through support to Africa’s own capacity development initiatives.
(3) Increase support to Africa’s efforts to prevent conflict, find solutions to displacements, and achieve post conflict reconstruction, as well as to combat terrorism, international organized crime, and piracy. 
(4) Support capacity development of government officials in policy making and implementation, as well as African efforts to promote electoral processes, improved service delivery, and security sector reform.
(5) Increase the role of the African Union and RECs in the maintenance of peace and security in the continent, and enhance cooperation with the United Nations on these issues.
(6) Develop database of available personnel to form part of future peacekeeping and peace building operations and support capacity development of such personnel with the support and guidance of the United Nations and African Union. 
(7) Strengthen good governance in Africa, especially by supporting the implementation of the National Programs of Action of the reviewed countries within the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM).
 
 
In order to ensure a more effective monitoring and follow-up of the TICAD process and to reflect the inclusion of the AUC as a co-organizer as well as to increase African participation in accordance with AU practice, the Three-Tiers structure of the Follow-up Mechanism established at TICAD IV in 2008, is revised as follows:
 
1. Joint Secretariat: MOFA Japan, African Union Commission, UNOSAA, UNDP and World Bank;
 
2. Joint Monitoring Committee composed of Japanese Government and related governmental Organizations, TICAD Co-organizers, Permanent Representatives Committee of the African Union (PRC), African Diplomatic Corps in Tokyo (ADC) and NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, International Organizations and donor countries
 
3. Follow-up Meetings
  • Annual Senior Officials Meeting
  • Annual Ministerial Meeting
  • Summit (Every five years)