YOKOHAMA DECLARATION 2013
Hand in Hand with a More Dynamic Africa
June 3, 2013
1.1 We, the Heads of State and Government, and delegations of Japan and 51 African countries, together with the representatives of 35 other partner countries, 74 international and regional organizations from both Africa and Asia, the private sector and civil society met in Yokohama, Japan, 1-3 June, 2013, for the Fifth Tokyo International Conference on African Development, TICAD V. We warmly welcome the African Union Commission (AUC) as a new TICAD co-organizer, and acknowledge the contribution to the TICAD process made by all co-organizers—the Government of Japan, the United Nations, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the World Bank, and the African Union Commission (AUC).
1.2 TICAD V commemorates the 20th anniversary of the TICAD process, which coincides with the 50th anniversary of the Organisation of African Unity/African Union. We recognize the achievements of the TICAD process and renew our strong commitment to TICAD’s continued partnership in support of Africa’s development.
1.3 We note the progress made across Africa over the last two decades, to which the TICAD process has made contributions. Whilst welcoming and commending the advances made, we also acknowledge that persistent challenges remain. We therefore commit to address those challenges and pursue quality growth. Quality growth is achieved through concerted actions in the promotion of “Robust and Sustainable Economy”, “Inclusive and Resilient Society”, and “Peace and Stability”, the core themes of TICAD V.
1.4 Moving forward, we agree on the need for TICAD to further enhance its efforts to promote transformative, resilient and inclusive growth across Africa—so that the benefits can be more widely, more equitably and more sustainably shared amongst all its citizens.
2.0 The Achievements of the TICAD Process over the last 20 years
2.1 We reaffirm that TICAD has served as an open and inclusive international forum since its inception in 1993. It has raised and maintained global awareness of Africa’s development challenges and opportunities, and contributed to African development, emphasizing issues such as human security and private sector-led growth that are now embedded in African and international development agendas.
2.2 We renew our commitment to the twin principles of African ownership and international partnership in which the TICAD process is rooted. The inclusion of the African Union Commission as a TICAD co-organizer has strengthened African ownership, while international partnership has broadened to include traditional and emerging development partners, multilateral organizations, the private sector and civil society organizations. In this regard, we note the major continent-wide sectoral development initiatives being implemented by/in Africa, under the umbrella of the African Union, and commit to support these initiatives and to bring the TICAD process into greater alignment with them.
2.3 The TICAD process has enhanced the level of cooperation between many Asian and African countries and has enabled the Asian development experience to be shared with and, where practicable, adopted to African realities. We also note with satisfaction that TICAD has effectively promoted and supported South-South and Triangular cooperation, including intra-Africa cooperation, as distinctive forms of partnership.
2.4 In response to the evolving global context and Africa’s own needs, the TICAD process has become more action- and results-oriented. The TICAD Follow-Up Mechanism, established at TICAD IV has increased transparency and accountability, as well as effective implementation of agreed actions by all parties.
3.0 TICAD V Strategic Approaches
We determine to work together under the concept of “Hand in Hand with a More Dynamic Africa” to accelerate growth, sustainable development and poverty reduction.
To this end, we will strengthen the economic bases of development through infrastructure and human resources development, economic diversification, and promoting broad-based and private sector-led growth while pursuing equity and inclusiveness. This will contribute significantly to the alleviation of poverty across the continent and will foster the emergence of a broad range of middle class, which in turn transform the continent into the engine of global growth.
This Declaration identifies key strategic approaches that we will pursue within the TICAD process. These approaches are underpinned by the overarching principles, which should be given greater attention in all aspects of development agendas of TICAD V towards quality growth. These principles include;
・Supporting Africa’s own efforts, especially those adopted by the African Union, including Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA); the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP); the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and Accelerating Industrial Development in Africa (AIDA).
・Mainstreaming women by focusing on initiatives such as the AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa and the African Women’s Decade 2010-2020 that will ensure the legitimate rights of women and their role and participation in all spheres of life on the continent, and to increase access to services and expand opportunities for training and employment.
・Increasing opportunities for youth by supporting the AU Plan of Action on Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation.
・Promoting human security which focuses on individuals and underscores freedom from fear and freedom from want through their protection and empowerment to fully develop their human potential, in a comprehensive manner, including by deepening cooperation, coordination and strengthening capacity in the areas of humanitarian concern, conflict prevention, peacekeeping, post conflict reconstruction and development, illicit trafficking and combating terrorism.
3.1 Promoting Private Sector-led Growth
Affirming that the private sector is a vital engine of growth, we will support and strengthen the private sector, promote greater private investment, and improve the investment climate and legal and regulatory frameworks. We will encourage expanded trade, tourism and technology transfer, and assist the development of the SMEs. We will also support regional integration to expand intra-regional trade and create new opportunities for private sector development and employment.
3.2 Accelerating Infrastructure Development
To bolster the bases for growth, we will focus on hard infrastructure, human infrastructure, and knowledge infrastructure. Recognizing the need for closer synergy between the TICAD process and PIDA, we will accelerate the development of key hard infrastructure, especially energy, transport and water, in both urban and rural areas, including through greater use of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). We acknowledge that these infrastructures at national and regional levels contribute to creating new markets by linking consumers and producers. We will support human infrastructure through vocational and technical training to develop skills required for employment by the private sector. We will also support capacity development in the public sector for better policy implementation conducive to a more business friendly environment. Understanding that knowledge infrastructure enables innovation and boosts productivity, we will increase support to centers of excellence, and prioritize science and technology.
3.3 Empowering Farmers as Mainstream Economic Actors
Sustainable increases in food production and productivity contribute to ensuring food security and nutrition. Expansion of agriculture and agribusiness is also fundamental to sustaining economic growth in Africa, given their potential to generate employment, increase rural incomes, and improve the livelihood of farmers—the majority of whom are women and small holders. We will ensure closer synergy between the TICAD process and CAADP, and work along the agricultural value chain, especially through improving agricultural processing, post-harvest storage, and access to market. The use of advanced, yet practical agricultural technology should be encouraged to that end. We will also promote climate-resilient agriculture, especially in Africa’s dry lands, including through appropriate land conservation and water management.
3.4 Promoting Sustainable and Resilient Growth
Acknowledging the grave impact of climate change across the continent, we will pursue sustainable and resilient growth by mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change. We will also promote sustainable management of all Africa’s natural resources and conservation of biodiversity. We take note of the initiative to develop the “TICAD Strategy for Low-Carbon Growth and Climate Resilient Development” and agree on the need for further study in line with the implementation of commitments on adaptation and mitigation as outlined in the current international instruments such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol and in line with the ongoing negotiations under the Conference of Parties on Climate Change.
3.5 Creating an Inclusive Society for Growth
Health and education constitute the foundations of human development for growth, and progress is essential to meet the MDGs. In this light, we will strengthen health systems and promote universal health coverage on the continent. We will also promote maternal and child health and support the African Union’s Campaign for Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA), as well as the treatment of infectious and noncommunicable diseases. We will work towards improving the access to reproductive health services, safe water and sanitation. We will also focus on increasing access to education, and improving the quality of education at all levels.
3.6 Consolidating Peace, Stability and Good Governance
Peace and stability are prerequisites for growth and essential for individuals to fully achieve their potential. Resolving cross border issues, such as terrorism, piracy and transnational organized crime is also essential to realize a stable continent. We strongly endorse the Declaration of Solidarity with Algeria following the Terrorist Attack on the Gazier Site in In-Amenas as adopted by the 20th Session of the Assembly of the AU in January 2013. We commit to strengthen Africa’s capacity to create, nurture, and protect peace by supporting its own initiatives. In this light, we commend the progress achieved thus far under initiatives such as the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). We further commit to break the cycles of repeated conflicts by tackling the root causes of conflict and strengthening efforts to consolidate peace and reinforce good governance. To this end, we recognize the importance and contribution of the African Union, African Regional Communities and the international community in peacekeeping operations. We reaffirm our determination to urgently reform UN bodies, including the Security Council, and will maintain political momentum through enhanced dialogue to find the best approach.
4.0 Building a New International Development Framework: Making the African Voice Heard in the Post-2015 Development Agenda
4.1 We underscore the importance of achieving the MDGs and commit to accelerating efforts to achieve the MDGs in Africa by 2015. We will jointly exercise leadership in establishing the post-2015 development framework. In this regard, we will ensure that Africa’s concerns and priorities are reflected to the maximum extent possible in the new international development framework, and will align the TICAD process to these efforts.
4.2 We welcome the UN Secretary General’s engagement in the process on the post-2015 development agenda, and express our commitment to advance our work, building upon ongoing assistance and support of the international community. We will strive to establish an effective and coherent development framework centered on sustainable development and guided by human security, human rights and dignity, equality and equity.
4.3 We resolve to act together to eradicate poverty in all its forms, protecting and empowering individuals, particularly the vulnerable, and creating conditions for economic transformation, peace, prosperity as well as sustainable and inclusive development. We will move forward the new development framework, taking into account the NEPAD program, with development partners as well as the private sector, civil society and academics.
4.4 We affirm that the African Common Position on the post-2015 development agenda that is currently being developed, as well as the outcome of TICAD V, will be of relevance as inputs to our future work on the agenda. The new development framework should be sustained by credible national ownership and leadership along with global and regional partnership and should be accountable and assessed by agreed indicators that reflect not only quantity but also quality.
5.0 The Way Forward
5.1 We affirm Africa’s growing strategic relevance within the ever-evolving global context, and stress the importance of striving to align this Declaration and the accompanying Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017 and the Implementation Matrix with existing continental initiatives of the African Union, and also with the development-related agendas of other major international forums including the United Nations. We especially expect to strengthen the cooperation between the TICAD process, G8 and G20.
5.2 We will build on the achievements of the TICAD process and commit to further evolve this process to more effectively reflect Africa’s developmental needs and the overall ownership of its development agenda.
5.3 Taking into account the inclusion of the AUC as a co-organizer in the TICAD process, we agree that the AU will participate in the follow up mechanism of TICAD in accordance with AU practices in the partnership processes of the AU. These details are set out in the Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017.
5.4 We agree that the principle of rotation is applicable to all of the follow up meetings as specified in the Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017