Tokyo Strategy 2012 for Mekong-Japan Cooperation
April 21, 2012
We, the Heads of the Governments of Japan, the Kingdom of Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the Kingdom of Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, met in Tokyo on 21 April 2012 for the Fourth Mekong-Japan Summit.
We noted with deep satisfaction that the relationships between the Mekong region countries and Japan have developed substantially and actions and measures adopted in "Mekong Japan Action Plan 63" have been achieved remarkably. The leaders of the Mekong region countries expressed their deep gratitude to Japan for its commitment to steady implementation of the Action Plan since the First Mekong-Japan Summit in 2009, and reaffirmed that Japan is a long-lasting, reliable, and indispensable partner for the Mekong region.
We hereby adopt a new strategy in place of the "Tokyo Declaration", which was adopted at the First Mekong-Japan Summit. This new strategy puts forward a future vision for the region and establishes new pillars of Mekong-Japan cooperation. The new pillars will develop a "New Partnership for the Common Flourishing Future" between the Mekong region countries and Japan and will contribute to the establishment of ASEAN Community.
Through this strategy, we will instruct relevant Ministers to establish new Action Plan in place of the "Mekong Japan Action Plan 63" at a ministerial level meeting, which will adopt concrete actions and measures of Mekong-Japan cooperation.
We also exchanged views on regional and global issues of common concern. We reinforced our commitment to cooperation for peace, development, and prosperity of the Mekong region as well as those of East Asia.
We emphasized the importance of collaboration with other cooperation frameworks to avoid duplication of assistance efforts. Mekong region countries expressed their expectation that Japan will play a leading role in the coordination of cooperation for development and prosperity in the region. Understanding the need to further strengthen the Mekong-Japan relationship and cooperation, Japan determined to enhance its commitment to extend its partnership with Mekong region countries.
The Japanese Prime Minister highly appreciated the self-help efforts made by the Mekong region countries, particularly Thailand, one of the contributors to development of the Mekong region through bilateral and regional frameworks. The leaders of Mekong region countries welcomed Japan's continuing strong interests in the region, as well as Thailand's strong commitment as a donor to the development in the region.
I Mekong-Japan Cooperation for Comprehensive, Balanced and Sustainable Development of the Mekong Region
A Establishment of the new pillars of Mekong-Japan cooperation
1. Shared Future Vision for Mekong Region Architecture
We conclude that since the First Mekong-Japan Summit, the Mekong region has made significant progress through steady implementation of the "Mekong-Japan Action Plan 63". While more works remain, we outline the progress towards achieving goals set by "Tokyo Declaration" in the Annex to this document.
Furthermore, the year 2015 is the target year to realize the building of ASEAN Community, for which Mekong region countries have made remarkable efforts and Japan made an unwavering support. Also, the year 2015 is target year for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Bearing in mind the importance of 2015 as mentioned above, we established the "New Pillars of Mekong-Japan cooperation", in accordance with the decision at the Third Mekong Japan Summit in November 2011 in Bali. We will engage in Mekong-Japan cooperation based on these new pillars.
Pillar 1 Enhancing Mekong Connectivity
As the Mekong region continues to remain peaceful and further develops into a more economically dynamic area, importance to enhance connectivity increases. Bearing in mind that ASEAN Member States make best efforts in building the ASEAN Community in 2015, and in narrowing the development gap in the region, we will continue to strongly support Mekong connectivity. By intensifying intra-connectivity, as well as connectivity with other regions, we aim to elevate the Mekong region's position in the international community and widen possibility for development and participation in the regional and global market.
The Mekong region holds remarkable potentials for continued development in the future, supported by its wealth of natural resources and superior labor force. By enhancing intra-connectivity in the Mekong region, we will combine these assets to create opportunities and realize the full potentials of the region
Recognizing that an enhanced ASEAN connectivity is essential to achieve the building of the ASEAN Community, the leaders of Mekong region countries continue to emphasize efforts to implement Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity. In this regard, we determine to strengthen Mekong-Japan cooperation, to maximize the synergy between efforts in the Mekong region and ASEAN to enhance the Mekong connectivity.
In order to achieve the vision described above, we propose to set "Enhancing Mekong connectivity" as one of the pillars for Mekong-Japan cooperation through 2015.
Pillar 2 Developing Together
A well-connected Mekong region requires actions and measures to facilitate economic development. In order to realize the full potential of the Mekong region and to transform the region into a resilient economic zone, which can drive economic growth throughout Asia, we will seek strong, sustainable, and balanced regional growth through Mekong-Japan cooperation.
In order to develop the whole region, we need to boost the development of the connected area. Though a development gap remains in the Mekong region, GDP per capita of Mekong region countries continue to show steady growth.
The Mekong region will expect population growth at least through 2015. In addition, the Mekong region has untapped assets, such as abundant natural resources, a dynamic labor force, and significant potential as a tourist destination, all of which will lead to considerable growth. We will realize the full potential of these assets to provide an impetus for the development of the region through the involvement of actors in the public and private sectors.
Recognizing that a development gap remains in the Mekong region, bridging gaps in the Mekong region by bottoming up the less developed areas such as "Development Triangle Area" in the border region among Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam should be continued.
In order to achieve the vision described above, we proposed to set "Developing Together" as one of the pillars for Mekong-Japan cooperation through 2015.
Pillar 3 Ensuring Human Security and Environmental Sustainability
We will endeavor to ensure human security for all people in the Mekong region through their protection and empowerment. In order to achieve human security and thereby sustainable development, it is necessary to promote low-carbon growth, to build a climate-resilient society, to achieve transition to green economy and to preserve the natural conditions for the Mekong region. Recognizing the importance of these efforts, we will enhance Mekong-Japan cooperation on environment, climate changes, disaster risk reduction, public health and food security and safety, and social protection. We strongly believe that our cooperation in minimizing risks and harmonizing the economic, social and environmental pillars lays a strong foundation for sustainable growth in the region.
Last year, the Mekong region countries and Japan were severely affected by unprecedented natural disasters, such as the Flooding in the Mekong region and the Great East Japan Earthquake, which claimed so many lives and disrupted regional supply chains. Building on these experiences, we determined to promote cooperation to increase resilience of the Mekong region against natural disasters, which will lead to a more stable economic activity.
In order to overcome vulnerability, to increase resilience and to ensure the food security, the Mekong region will promote sustainable utilization, conservation, and management of water and related resources of the Mekong River.
In addition, we recognized that, as a whole, the Mekong region has made steady progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remain issues such as high maternal mortality and high burden of major infectious disease, which are the common priority issues to be tackled. Stressing the great importance of constructing a society that values human dignity, we recognized the importance to achieve MDGs in order to enhance human security. We also recognized that, for ensuring human security, it is indispensable to enhance social protection in line with comprehensive development and social stability.
Furthermore, considering that the Mekong region, with its abundant fertile, arable land, including the Mekong delta, which is one of the largest food storage zones in Asia, we shared the view that Mekong region can contribute to the global food security through the agricultural development in the region.
In order to achieve the vision described above, we proposed to set "Enhancing Human Security and Environmental Sustainability" as one of the pillars for Mekong-Japan cooperation through 2015.
2. Paths towards our vision for 2015 Mekong Region Architecture
Pillar 1 Enhancing Mekong Connectivity
To enhance Mekong Connectivity,
We will work closely to maximize the synergy between Mekong-Japan cooperation and other efforts to enhance ASEAN Connectivity, reaffirming the commitment to realize the building of the ASEAN Community in 2015. Japan reiterated its unwavering support for the ASEAN Community building process. Japan will strengthen its support for hard and soft infrastructure projects, especially projects which develop the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) and Southern Economic Corridor (SEC). Therefore, we stressed the importance of completion of the projects under construction, and strengthening further development of infrastructure in the region, bearing in mind the business needs and business strategies. We also reaffirmed the importance of having a vital link between hard and soft infrastructure to maximize the benefit of the economic corridors.
The paths to realize this pillar could include such elements as follows:
- Actions and measures to implement projects on the way of enhancement of physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity regarding economic corridors.
- Actions and measures for further implementation of Mekong-Japan Economic and Industrial Cooperation Initiative (MJ-CI)
- Actions and measures for trade facilitation and customs modernization in the Mekong region, particularly through the implementation of "Asia Cargo Highway" Initiative to realize the seamless flow of goods in Asia by 2020 shared by Japan and ASEAN member countries.
- Actions and measures for development of next generation information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure in Mekong region, through the implementation of the "ASEAN Smart Network" Initiative.
Pillar 2 Developing Together
To develop together,
We will work together to take concrete actions and measures to promote foreign investment, and to enhance the industrial development in Mekong region countries;
We will work together to guarantee opportunities to increase public and private cooperation;
We will take measures to promote the tourism in the Mekong region countries to boost economy for further development;
Furthermore, we will take actions and measures to engage Mekong region countries in the global market economy system.
The paths to realize this pillar could include such elements as follows:
- Action and measures for sound macro economy
- Creating an Industrialization Strategy both in each country and sub-region as a whole
- Support for the establishment of market economy structures
- Actions and measures to enhance the industrial development in Mekong region countries
- Enhancement of SMEs and supporting industries in the region
- Promotion of human resource development for potential sectors in the respective countries, such as food processing industry, garment industry and machinery industry
- Enhancement of the new and service sector industries
- Enhancement of electricity supply
- Enhancement of eco-friendly mining industry
- Action and measures to improve economic environment for the intra-Mekong and foreign investment
- Cooperation for facilitation of negotiations on investments and trade in Services of Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Partnership Among Japan and Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (AJCEP).
- Facilitation of the implementation of the ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ACIA) and ASEAN Framework for Agreement on Services (AFAS).
- Negotiation for a bilateral investment agreement between Myanmar and Japan
- Actions and measures to promote public-private cooperation
- Promotion of Public-Private partnership projects
- Enhancement of the framework for public private cooperation
- Actions and measures to engage Mekong region countries in the global market economy
- Acceleration of the discussion of a regional comprehensive economic partnership, mindful of the studies on the East Asia Free Trade Area (EAFTA) and Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA), towards commencing the negotiation
- Support for early accession of Lao P.D.R. to WTO
- Actions and measures to promote cultural exchange and tourism
- Actions and measures to strengthen support for the CLMV development and CLV Development Triangle Area
Pillar 3 Ensuring Human Security and Environmental Sustainability
To ensure human security and environmental sustainability,
We make an effort to facilitate cooperation on disaster risk reduction to build more resilient Mekong region. Considering the tendency of frequent occurrence of disasters, we will cooperate on the implementation of integrated disaster management measures tailored to local conditions.
Regarding environmental and climate change issues, we will work closely to steadily implement the "Action Plan for ‘A Decade toward the Green Mekong' Initiative", including water resource management. Therefore, we will make efforts to realize tangible results on these issues , which will contribute to achieve MDG 7 in the region. We will strengthen cooperation on environmental protection and conservation and climate change by facilitating green technology transfer and encouraging investment on environmental infrastructure, making use of the East Asia Low Carbon Growth Partnership. We will build on the outcome of East Asia Low Carbon Growth Partnership Dialogue which was held 15 April 2012.
We support efforts that will benefit all people in the Mekong region and ensure human security. In this context, we established specific goals for the Mekong region to achieve by 2015, which contribute to achieve MDGs 4, 5 and 6 in the region. We will make an effort to achieve these goals, recognizing that attaining universal health coverage is a key to equitable society and sustainable development.
In order to ensure human security in line with inclusive development and social stability, we will take concrete actions for enhancing social protection.
We will secure a stable supply of food through effective actions and measures on food security and food safety, reflecting the needs of the region.
The paths to realize this pillar could include, such elements as follows:
- Actions and measures for disaster management cooperation
- Realization of the concept of "ASEAN Disaster Management Network, which was proposed in ASEAN- JAPAN Foreign Ministers Meeting in July 2011, including strengthening of the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre).
- Actions and measures for Environmental and climate change issues
- Implementation of "Action Plan for ‘A decades toward Green Mekong ‘Initiative", and revision of the Action Plan if necessary
- Implementation of water management with related regional and international institutions/organizations, particularly Mekong River Commission (MRC)
- Actions and measures for the study on sustainable management and development of the Mekong river, including impacts by mainstream hydropower projects.
- Cooperation and dialogue to construct models for a low carbon growth under the "Japan's Vision and Actions towards Low Carbon Growth and Climate-resilient World". In this regard, Japan will hold an international conference this year in the disaster stricken Tohoku region to share experiences and lessons learnt from the Great East Japan Earthquake and disasters. The Mekong region countries welcome Japan's initiative and expressed our commitment to the cooperation for the success of the conference.
- Acceleration of consultations on the Bilateral Offset Credit Mechanism (BOCM)
- Cooperation of utilizing ICT for environmental issues and disaster prevention
- Enhancement of cooperation on haze preventive measures by sharing capacity building and ICT utilization
- Actions and measures to contribute to the achievement of the human security goals across the Mekong regional countries by 2015, in cooperation with various development partners;
- Save approximately 142,000 children's lives, including 80,000 newborns
- Save approximately 12,000 maternal lives
- Avert approximately 20,000 deaths by AIDS, 16,000 deaths by tuberculosis and 55,000 deaths by malaria
- Actions and measures to contribute to the achievement of universal health coverage in the Mekong countries.
- Actions and measures for food security and safety
- Support ASEAN +3 Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) system
- Implement sustainably ASEAN Food Security information System (AFSIS) with self-reliant mechanism and correspondence to new data needs
- Actions and measures for social protection
- Actions and measures to support investment
- Respect for internal compliance, decent work, respect of environmental evaluation criteria
B. General measures for steady realization of new pillars
We resolved to ensure the steady implementation of the actions and measures derived from the new pillars of Mekong-Japan cooperation mentioned above, and reaffirmed that various public and private sector policy tools are to be mobilized in realizing the actions and measures in an effective way.
In this context, Japan stressed the important role that Japanese ODA plays, particularly in establishing the foundations of society, such as basic infrastructure that in turn facilitates economic activity, and actions and measures to ensure basic human needs.
Therefore, Japan is committing approximately 600 billion JPY in ODA over the next three years to the Mekong Region, with the expectation that this will be accompanied with the transmission of Japanese expertise. In this regard, the leaders of the Mekong region countries reaffirmed their commitment to utilize ODA from Japan efficiently and effectively.
For the infrastructure in the region, the leaders of Mekong region countries welcomed the Japan's proposition of the list of flagship projects in Mekong region. We shared the importance to implement them, by utilizing ODA and Other Official Flows (OOF), and by mobilizing other financial resources from private sector and international organizations such as ADB.
Leaders also welcomed Vietnam's initiative of enhancing connectivity of the economic corridors in the Mekong subregion by multimodal transport. We shared the view that follow-up steps, including completion of mising links on economic corridors and studies on the use of the Mekong River and combination of land and waterway and sea transport and the types of ships for each mode, the possibility of building ship locks or moving from land to waterway transport and the development of RoRo vessels system will be undertaken.
Leaders also welcomed Thailand's proposal to continuously work with Japan for the Mekong region on the disaster management and infrastructure related activities. Leaders also acknowledged that this year Thailand has earmarked around 883 million JPY for infrastructure development projects and technical assistance in the Mekong region countries.
We determined to hold Mekong Japan meetings regularly at every level (i.e. Summit, Foreign Minister, Economic Minister, SOM) in order to promote the Mekong-Japan cooperation. The Mekong-Japan Economic Ministers' Meeting is to promote cooperation based on the Mekong-Japan Economic and Industrial Cooperation Initiative (MJ-CI). Meanwhile, the Senior Officials' Meeting is to follow up and prepare for the Summit Meeting and the Foreign Ministers' Meeting.
Recognizing that the people-to-people exchange between Japan and the Mekong region countries provides a basis for stronger ties in various fields, Mekong region countries and Japan will continue exchanges and dialogues at all levels.
We decided to discuss regional and global issues in the Mekong-Japan cooperation framework.
Aiming for an open region, Mekong region countries and Japan will strengthen collaboration with various regional frameworks and with third countries, through initiatives such as the Lower Mekong Initiative, the Japan-China Policy Dialogue on the Mekong Region, as well as intra-Mekong initiatives such as GMS, CLV, CLMV, and ACMECS. We will seek to avoid duplication of assistance efforts and promote multi-layered cooperation.
II Regional and Global issues
We reaffirmed our strong determination to promote and deepen close cooperation on regional and global issues of common concern, including the existing Mekong-Japan cooperation, in order to ensure peace, stability and prosperity in the region.
We reaffirmed our determination to continue close consultation toward the common goal of peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. We support the Presidential Statement of the UN Security Countil on 16 April 2012, which strongly condemns the satellite launch of North Korea as a serious violation of the Security Council Resolutions 1718 and 1874 causing grave security concerns in the region, and which demanded North Korea not to proceed with any further launch using ballistic missile technology, nuclear tests or any further provocation and comply with the relevant UNSC Resolutions.We reiterated our support to the efforts made to achieve denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner and the importance of the Six Party Talks process. We urged North Korea to take concrete actions to demonstrate its will to seriously implement its denuclearization and other commitments under the 2005 Six-Party Talks Joint Statement and others. We reiterated our commitment to fully implementing the relevant UNSC Resolutions. We emphasized the importance of addressing humanitarian concerns of the international community, such as the abduction issue.
We reaffirmed the importance of enhancing cooperation in the areas of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, combating the illicit transfer and trafficking of WMD-related materials and small arms and light weapons. As part of our continuing effort to enhance cooperation, we emphasized the need for taking action-oriented measures including those within the framework of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), ARF, UNSC Resolution 1540 (2004) and through relevant organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We also shared the view that establishing effective export control contributes to preventing illicit transfer of weapons. In this context, we highlighted the need for technical cooperation on export control including assistance in developing and implementing relevant domestic laws and regulations. We reaffirmed the importance of facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including its application to radiotherapy, through relevant international and regional framework including the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, and the IAEA.
We reaffirmed our support for the United Nations reform. In this connection, we reiterated our support for early reform of the Security Council, including the expansion of both permanent and non-permanent categories of membership and the improvement of working methods in order to make the Security Council more representative, legitimate, effective and better reflect the geopolitical realities of the 21st Century, including increasing role of developing countries. The Japanese Prime Minister highly appreciated the Mekong region countries' continuous support for Japan to become a Permanent Member of the UN Security Council in a reformed Council.
We recognized the importance of ocean as international common goods. We reaffirmed the importance of promoting and deepening our cooperation on maritime security and maritime safety in the region in accordance with universally-agreed principles of international law such as freedom of navigation, safety of navigation, unimpeded commerce and peaceful settlement of disputes, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other relevant international maritime law. We shared the view to develop an expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (AMF) meeting as a track 1.5 format, back-to-back with the AMF meeting, in order to promote further regional cooperation on maritime issues.
We reaffirmed our support for the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct (DOC) of Parties in the South China Sea and the Guidelines for the implementation of the DOC, in expectation of the eventual conclusion of a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea. We reiterated our commitment to universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
III Mekong Japan cooperation in 2013
We reconfirmed the 5th Mekong-Japan Summit will be held on the occasion of the multilateral meeting in 2013 on a convenient date.
Major Achievement of
"Mekong Japan Action Plan 63" 2010-2012
Achievement of ODA commitment of Japan
Japan contributed remarkably for Mekong-Japan cooperation and determined to continue to achieve its commitment 500 billion JPY of ODA 2010-2012.
I Comprehensive Development in the Mekong Region
1. Major Achievement
We recognized that the stable economic growth is observed, as showen by consecutive increase of GDP per capita of each country; that Mekong-Japan cooperation contributed to economic growth through a various achievement as follows; and that we recognized the general tendency of increase of trade and investment.
(1) Enhanced intra-connectivity in Mekong region
- Connectivity of the Land
Project for Construction of Neak Loeung Bridge(Cambodia, signed E/N, June 2010)
The Project for Improvement of National Road No.9 as East-West Economic Corridor for the Mekong Region(Laos, signed E/N, August 2011)
National Road 1 (Cambodia, august 2012), and Commencement of the Project for the construction of Neak Loeung Bridge (Cambodia, February 2011)
- Connectivity of the sky
The Project for Expansion of Vientiane International Airport in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, signed E/N, august 2011)
Terminal 2 Construction Project in Noi Bai International Airport Ⅰ(Vietnam, signed E/N, March 2010)
- Connectivity of the sea
Advance of construction of Cai Mep Thi Vai Seaport commenced to big cargo ships
- The Mekong-Japan International Conference on the East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) and the Southern Economic Corridor (SEC)"Completing Connectivity, Creating Economic Prosperity" was co-hosted by Thailand and Japan (September 2010)
- Roadmap of the priority area in framework of the Mekong-Japan Economic and Industrial Cooperation Initiative (MJ-CI) will be submitted to the 4th the Mekong Japan Economic Ministers' Meeting (August 2012)
(2) Modernized Customs system
- Establishment of custom risk management procedures for national level and introduction of new IT risk management database(Cambodia)
- Approval and implementation of Action Plans to enhance customs procedures and systems, including the overall risk management (Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam)
- Completion of various support for conducting more efficient and effective operations at custom, providing Japan ASEAN Integration Fund(JAIF)
(3) Functioned and Established Mekong Japan frameworks for promotion of Public-Private Cooperation
- Mekong-Japan Industry Government Dialogue
- The Forum for the Promotion of Public and Private Cooperation in the Mekong Region was hosted twice in Japan (December 2011, November 2012)
- The OECD - Greater Mekong Subregion Investment Policy Forum funded by Japan (March 2012)
- Signed Exchange of Note on Lach Huyen Port (Viet Nam, October 2012)
2.The needs remained to be realized
- (1) Support strongly ASEAN Connectivity, bearing in mind that 2015 is the target year of building of ASEAN Community and development of each country in order to narrow development gap within ASEAN
- (2) Implement steadily the projects commenced in 2010-2012
II Construction of a Society that values Human Dignity
1 Major Achievement
(1) Steady progress to achieving MDGs
Proportion of the population using improved drinking water continues to increase.
Under-five mortality rate has reduced.
Maternal mortality rate tends to reduce.
- The Project for Improving Maternal and Newborn Care through Midwifery Capacity Development (Cambodia)
- Project for Sustainable Development of Human Resource for Health to Improve Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (Lao P.D.R.)
- Project for Strengthening Integrated Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Services (Lao P.D.R.)
- Project for Implementing Maternal and Child Health Handbook for Scaling Up Nationwide (Viet Nam)
- Major Infectious Diseases Control Project(Myanmar)
- Capacity building for CLMV personnel in the areas of food security, public health and climate change under Thailand International Cooperation Programme
- Enhance human resource development in SME development, Strategic Planning and Management and Trade in Goods and Services to support the Mekong-Japan Action Plan 63
(2) Established the Mekong-Japan cooperation framework environment and climate change issues for decade until 2020
- "Action Plan for Decade toward Green Mekong Initiative"(November 2010) was adopted. The Green Mekong Forum was co-hosted by Thailand and Japan (June 2011)
2. The remaining challenges to be tackled
- (1) Continuous support for the improvement of maternal, newborn and child health and infectious diseases control, food security and safety and social protection, bearing in mind that the year of 2015 is target year for achieving MDGs, and that those domains are prioritized issues for overcoming vulnerability for Mekong region.
- (2) Construction of resilient society against natural disaster, building on the experience of Great East Japan Earthquake and Flood disasters in Mekong region in 2011, including by improving water resource management.
- (3) Concrete advancement on climate change and environmental issue though variety of actions and measures adopted in "Action Plan for ‘Decade toward Green Mekong Initiative'" and "Japan's Vision and Actions towards Low-Carbon Growth and Climate Resilient World Low carbon world vision".
III Expansion of Cooperation and Exchanges
1 Major Achievement
- (1) Deepened relationships between Mekong region countries and Japan, through increasing exchanges not only in the bilateral context, but also in the multilateral framework and made the relationships more familiar.
- Realizing initiative to invite around 30,000 people to people-to-people exchanges during 2010-2012,including 2,219 youths from Mekong region countries by East Asia Network of Exchange for Students and Youths (JENESYS Program)
- Increasing the students from Mekong region countries studying in Japan
- (2) Observed tendency to increase tourists between Japan and Mekong region countries
- Variety of actions and measures taken by Japan Association of Travel Agents (JATA)
- (3) Realized preserve world heritage
- Mekong-Japan Symposium on Ancient Capitals was hosted by Japan (June 2010)
2. The needs remained to be tackled
- (1) Enhancement of cultural exchange and people to people exchange, which promote mutual understanding and provide the basis for Mekong-Japan cooperation.
- (2) Enhancement of tourism to boost economy in the region which faced reduction of tourists, affected by national disasters.
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