TOKYO DECLARATION ON AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT
"TOWARDS THE 21ST CENTURY"
We, the participants of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), consisting of African countries and Africa's development partners, declare with one voice our continued dedication to the development of Africa towards a new era of prosperity. We, therefore, solemnly adopt the present Declaration, in the firm belief that it will serve to strengthen an emerging new partnership for sustainable development of Africa based on self-reliance of African countries and the support of Africa's development partners.
- Africa's economic and social crises of the 1980s highlighted the development challenges faced by this continent. To address these challenges, many African countries have embarked on far-reaching political and economic reforms. We, the participants of TICAD, are encouraged by signs in recent years of both positive macro economic performance and political development resulting from those reforms. In so doing, we nevertheless recognize the continued fragility and vulnerability of Africa's political and economic structures and situations that inhibit the achievement of sustainable development. TICAD intends to give further impetus to these reforms, taking into account the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s (UN-NADAF).
- With the end of the cold war, African countries and the international community now have an opportunity to share a broader common understanding of the need for dynamic development cooperation. The development of the continent has emerged as an imperative in our search for a better future.
- While special consideration should be given to obstacles confronting Africa, we are determined to strengthen our collective forward-looking efforts for the development of the continent. This has been the spirit in which we have conducted our deliberations on the issues central to sustainable development in Africa.
- These issues include the ongoing process of simultaneous political and economic reforms, the necessity of increased private-sector participation in domestic economic activity, the promotion of regional cooperation and integration, and the detrimental effects of humanitarian emergencies on Africa's socio-economic development. We recognize that the Asian experience of economic development and the catalytic role of international cooperation offer hope and provide a challenge for African economic transformation.
Political and Economic Reforms
- Convinced of the advent of a new international era, we, the African participants, reaffirm our commitment to pursue and further strengthen political and economic reforms, in particular democratization, respect for human rights, good governance, human and social development, and economic diversification and liberalization. To achieve sustainable, broad-based economic growth, we, the participants of TICAD, believe that more open, accountable and participatory political systems are vital, including a stronger role for civil society. We recognize that political, economic and social reforms must be initiated and carried out by African countries themselves, based on their visions, values and individual socio-economic background. Africa's development partners should therefore support African initiatives in these areas.
- We, the participants of TICAD, recognize that simultaneous implementation of political and economic reforms, while conducive to development, may often entail painful transition processes. The interaction between political and economic reforms, which over time should be mutually reinforcing, is a complicated process which requires support to bring about progress. We, Africa's development partners, reaffirm our commitment to providing priority support to countries undertaking effective and efficient political and economic reforms. We, the participants of TICAD, also reaffirm our commitment to enhancing constructive dialogue to facilitate the reform processes.
- We, the African participants, reaffirm our commitment to improving the quality of governance, in particular, transparency and accountability in public administration. We recognize that criteria for public expenditure should aim at enhancing overall socio-economic development and reducing non-productive expenditures. The building of human and institutional capacities for sustainable development is essential for all of these objectives. We commit ourselves to creating the enabling environment for training, retaining, and effective utilization of human resources and improving institutional capacities. We, Africa's development partners, will enhance our support for African capacity-building, including improved technical assistance.
- We, the participants of TICAD, reaffirm that structural adjustment programmes should take more actively into consideration the specific conditions and requirements of individual countries. We reiterate that political and economic reforms should ultimately lead to the alleviation of poverty and enhanced welfare of the entire population. To that effect, structural adjustment programmes should contain, more than in the past, measures to improve the access of the poor in particular to income-earning opportunities and to effective social services, while seeking to shield them as far as possible from adverse social consequences. Increased priority should be given to investment in human capital through nutrition, health and education programmes, especially to improve the situation of women and children, Additionally, noting that the overall economic development in African has not kept pace with Africa's rapid population growth, we recognize the importance of should population policies and call upon African Governments and the international community to address this issue within the socio-economic development process.
Economic Development through Activities of the Private Sector
- The private sector is vital as an engine for sustainable development. We, the participants of TICAD, agree that though foreign aid has an impact on development, its role is only supplementary in magnitude and catalytic in nature. We recognize that a workable and practical cooperation between government and the private sector is a key factor for development. A climate of trust between these two actors should be encouraged and interaction promoted. We realize that political and economic stability is a prerequisite to commitments for long-term investments.
- We, the African participants, are determined to continue policies which foster a greater role for the private sector and which encourage entrepreneurship. While stepping up deregulation measures, we will provide and maintain, in cooperation with our development partners, physical infrastructure and viable administrative, legal, and financial institutions. We consider in general the informal sector as a source of vitality for African economies which deserves support in order to further mobilize entrepreneurial capacity, generate employment, and facilitate the transition into the formal economy.
- We, the participants of TICAD, are convinced that further improvements in financial systems and practices are needed to stimulate domestic savings investment, and to prevent and reverse capital flight.
- In support of these efforts, we, Africa's development partners, shall continue to provide assistance in order to improve the enabling environment which requires economic reforms and privatization, the building of human and institutional capacities, and the development of financial intermediation. We recognize the importance of appropriate insurance and guarantee schemes to protect private enterprises investing in Africa from political and economic risks.
- We, the African participants, affirm the central importance of international trade to our future development prospects. We, Africa's development partners, will work to facilitate market access for African products globally and to assist in upgrading and diversifying African exports. We, the participants of TICAD, support the vital role of private associations such as the African Business Round-Table and confirm the usefulness of investment-and trade-promotion initiatives within Africa and between Africa and the rest of the world.
Regional Cooperation and Integration
- We, the African participants, reaffirm our vision and aspiration for ultimate regional integration and cooperation goals as embodies in the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. We, the participants of TICAD, realize that although these goals have been, since the early years of independence, a logical development strategy for African countries, most of which have small national markets, greater efforts must now be made in promoting interregional trade and investment.
- We, the African participants, will ensure that our commitments to regional schemes are fully incorporated in our national development plans, policies, and programmes.
- We, Africa's development partners, welcome and support the renewed commitment to regional cooperation and integration, as has been recently demonstrated by African countries. These regional arrangements should continue to be consistent with the multilateral open trading system, and contribute to trade expansion. We will continue to extend our support to African countries efforts aimed at reducing obstacles to integration through measures such as reduction of trade and investment barriers and policy harmonization, and to viable regional endeavours, particularly in the area of infrastructure development and capacity-building. We, the participants of TICAD, believe that regional integration should also be pursued by encouraging private-sector initiatives, adopting consistent and gradual approaches for broadening exchanges and rationalizing existing schemes.
Emergency Relief and Development
- We, the participants of TICAD, note with great concern that over the last two decades, and particularly in recent years, a large number of African countries have suffered and are still suffering from natural and man-made disasters. The international community has responded generously to these situations since the early crises in the 1970s.
- These disasters have constrained development in many African countries, destroyed the very basis for development, increased the number of refugees, and diverted human and financial resources that otherwise could have served development purposes.
- We, the participants of TICAD, realize that man-made disasters are the result of a complex interplay of political, economic, and social factors. In this context, lack of democratization and respect for human rights and the rights of minorities are among the root causes of these disasters.
- We, the participants of TICAD, accept that responsibility for disaster prevention and management rests primarily with Africans themselves. We, the African participants, are therefore determined to devote our efforts to addressing the root causes of these disasters. We also confirm the critical role of regional cooperation as demonstrated in the past. We, the participants of TICAD, underscore the need to establish effective mechanisms for prevention, preparedness, and management of man-made and natural disasters in general, and to strengthen food security schemes in particular. We therefore welcome the decision of the Organization of African Unity to establish the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution and pledge our support to strengthen the effective functioning of this mechanism. We also reaffirm our willingness to assist victims of disasters, and urge the removal of all hindrances to effective distribution of relief supplies.
- We, Africa's development partners, having recognized that there is a continuum between emergency relief and development, will ensure that the humanitarian assistance for the affected communities continues to be provided for resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Asian Experience and African Development
- Over the past 30 years, in contrast to Africa, the countries of East and South-East Asia have achieved high rates of growth in per capita income. We, the participants of TICAD, are mindful that in view of the differing international and internal conditions no one model of development can be simply transferred from one region to another. Nevertheless, we acknowledge some relevance of the Asian experience for African development. The very diversity of successful Asian countries gives hope that lessons can be drawn for African development.
- We, the participants of TICAD, have noted that as demonstrated by the successful examples of the Asian development experience, the backdrop of development success lies in the combination of a strong commitment by the leadership and the people to economic prosperity, appropriate long-term development strategies and functional government administration to pursue these strategies coherently.
- We have also noted that the policy factors which contributed to the remarkable performance of East and South-East Asia have included:
(1) the rational application of macro economic policies and maintenance of political stability,
(2) the promotion of agricultural production through technological research and innovations as solid basis for socio-economic development,
(3) long-term investment in education and human resource development as a priority of development strategy
(4) market-friendly and export-led policies to advance and adapt modes of production in order to increase opportunities for trade and economic growth,
(5) measures to stimulate domestic savings and capital formation by developing financial intermediation and by expansion of banking services at the community level,
(6) policy emphasis on the private sector as an engine of growth and development, and
(7) early implementation of land reform.
- We, the participants of TICAD, recognize that development achievement in East and South-East Asia have enhanced opportunities for South-South cooperation with Africa. We welcome the interest shown by some Asian and African countries in promoting this cooperation.
- We, the participants of TICAD, recognize that development achievement in East and South-East Asia have enhanced opportunities for South-South cooperation with Africa. We welcome the interest shown by some Asian and African countries in promoting this cooperation.
- We, the participants of TICAD, have concluded that the current situation in Africa calls for increased solidarity among us to act in full partnership to address this situation. This new partnership should be based on Africa's objective to achieve self-reliance on the one hand and responsive support by Africa's development partners on the other.
- We, the participants of TICAD, agree that stability and security are prerequisites to sustainable development, and that it is essential to make efficient use of scarce resources and to minimize military and other unproductive expenditures.
- We, the participants of TICAD, realize that development calls for full participation by the people at all levels, who should be galvanized toward action as agents for progress. In this regard, we acknowledge the dynamic and diversified role of African women in various sectors of the economy and recommend that special measures be taken to promote their rights and roles in order to enhance gender equity and to remove all legal, social and cultural barriers for advancement of women. Furthermore, we recognize the need to enhance cooperative efforts with local NGOs and other institutions of civil society which play constructive roles for African development.
- We, Africa's development partners, will make all efforts to enhance development assistance to Africa, despite current global economic difficulties. This assistance will be increasingly oriented toward the priorities set by African countries. In making commitments to continued and enhanced cooperation, we will take into account the expectation of our constituencies that resources be spent where they are most efficiently utilized for the greatest development impact.
- As African countries are at various stages of development, and have different cultural and historical backgrounds, we, Africa's development partners may take differentiated approaches as we plan and implement our development cooperation, with due regard to aid coordination.
- We, Africa's development partners, will apply a comprehensive approach covering aid, trade, debt strategy, and investments. We, the participants of TICAD, reaffirm that debt and debt service still pose serious difficulties to many African countries. We emphasize the necessity urgently to address the debt issue within the overall context of debt relief and flows of new financial resources for development. We confirm the validity of the international debt strategy and invite the Paris Club to continue reviewing the question of debt relief for the poorest highly indebted countries, especially with regard to earlier reductions in the stock of debt on a case-by-case basis. We urge creditor countries to take into account the difficulties that heavily indebted African countries are now facing.
- We, the participants of TICAD, reiterate the importance of a successful conclusion to the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations and will make all efforts to remove trade barriers and other trade practices that prevent the expansion of African exports, including exports to other African countries. We underscore the importance of primary commodities for many African countries' export earnings and the need for diversification to reduce the volatility of these earnings.
- We, the participants of TICAD, confirm the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) agreements should be steadfastly implemented, with a special emphasis on balanced relationships among agriculture, population, and environment policies, particularly drought and desertification.
- We also recognize that many of the gains made in Africa are threatened by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and related diseases which are already of a disastrous proportion in some countries. There is a need for a much stronger response by Africa and its development partners for preventing and controlling these diseases, including caring facilities as well as measures addressing its socio-economic impacts.
- We, the participants of TICAD, pledge to take, in our respective spheres of responsibility, measures aimed at advancing the spirit of this Declaration through effective policies and actions. We have entrusted the three co-organizers of TICAD with evaluating and reviewing progress made towards the implementation of this Declaration. Ultimately, we intend to hold a conference of a similar magnitude and membership at the latest before the turn of the century.
By virtue of the deliberations, guidance and consensus of the Conference, we believe that prospects for significant development of Africa have been greatly enhanced.
SECOND TOKYO INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT
**T. TICAD II
Japan believes in sub-Saharan African countries' potential and capability and continues to commit herself to supporting them fully. This commitment is clearly demonstrated by Japan's ODA to sub-Saharan Africa which amounts to $1.0-1.3 billion each year (depending on Yen-Dollar exchange rate ).
Japan's commitment is not only shown in the field of her bilateral assistance. In October 1993, Japan, together with the United Nations and Global Coalition for Africa (GCA), organized the First Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD I). The Conference emphasized the ownership of sub-Saharan African countries as well as the partnership with the international community as two important key words for African development. We are pleased to take some credit for these concepts being developed into The Development Partnership Strategy adopted by the DAC (Development Assistance Committee) of OECD and became a common language of the development community. G7 and G8 countries made a firm commitment to the concepts at the Lyon Summit in 1996 and to translating them into concrete action at the Denver and Birmingham Summits in 1997 and 1998.
Japan is free from certain aspects of sub-Saharan Africa's history, especially up to the previous century, and therefore, is in a position to commit sincerely to sub-Saharan African development and its prosperity. Japan genuinely believes that as a leading nation she must extend friendly hands to African people.
(2) TICAD II
TICAD II, scheduled for October 19-21, 1998, will build on the outcome of TICAD I and its follow-up activities and will formulate an agenda for action for African development. Recognizing that ordinary people's initiative and dynamism push forward the society and history, TICAD II aims to formulate an agenda for action to improve the lives of the people in such areas as education and training, health through all life stages, safe water supply, population control and the empowerment of women, who are not only important social actors but also have economic potential. These improvements are important for laying the foundation for democracy, too.
A new wind is blowing on the African continent and new leaders are now taking bold steps for the nation-building of their countries. TICAD II will invite these leaders to help them strengthen sub-Saharan African development and democracy.
(3) Agenda for Action
The tentative outline of the Agenda for Action is as follows;
**T. Main Message and Key Concepts
- Sub-Saharan Africa, in spite of some positive trends, still suffers from poverty and low
living standard : poverty alleviation and strengthening Africa's participation in the global
economy are vital.
- The development of sub-Saharan Africa countries should be based on ownership and international partnership.
**U. Approaches and Emphases
(1) Strengthening Coordination (among donors and international organizations)
(2) Regional Cooperation (among Sub-Saharan African nations)
(3) South-South Cooperation (between Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and North African and sub-Saharan Africa)
(1) Capacity Building (i.e. human resources are the basis of development)
(2) Gender in Development (i.e. women's empowerment will further materialize their great potential)
(3) Environment Preservation
**V. Areas of Cooperation (consisting of objectives and action-oriented guidelines)
- Social Development: Promotion of Human Development
(1) Education (an example of objectives: increase primary school enrollment ratio with emphasis on girls' education)
(2) Health and Population (increase the access to primary health care)
(3) Poverty Alleviation (provide safety nets to those suffering from extreme poverty)
- Economic Development: Promotion of Private Sector
(1) Private Sector Development (ensure environment for private sector development)
(2) Industrial Development (foster the competitiveness of domestic private business)
(3) Agricultural Development (promote environmentally sustainable agriculture)
(4) Debt (achieve a durable solution for external debt problems)
- Foundation for Development
(1) Governance (ensure democracy, the rule of law, human rights)
(2) Conflict Prevention and Post Conflict Development (strengthen the capacity for conflict prevention, management, and resolution)
**U. Japan and sub-Saharan Africa
Japan's ODA amounted to 17 percent of the total ODA provided in the world in 1996 ($ 9.4 billion out of $ 55.5 billion) and was the largest donor. This makes Japanese aid policy crucial in development assistance in general and more so for sub-Saharan African countries which received $ 1.1 billion from Japan in 1996. With respect to debt-relief, for instance, which is a very important element for sub-Saharan African development, Japan provided $ 12 million of grant aid for debt relief to sub-Saharan African countries.
(2) Some examples of Japanese support for human resources development
Japan's assistance to sub-Saharan Africa is not only peculiar, of course. She has worked actively with her African counterparts on human resources development, which is an essential prerequisite for development.
Here are some of the examples of Japanese initiatives for education and vocational training to mobilize ordinary people's potential as crucial resources for the socio-economic development:
(a) Agriculture and Engineering University in Kenya
Japan provided 4.8 billion yen to construct faculties of the Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture and Technology, which was opened in 1981. Quickly recognized by the local people as a first-quality and result-oriented educational institute, it was upgraded to an independent university in 1988 and renamed as the Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agriculture and Technology. Since then, Japan has continued its supports by providing additional financial grant aid, totaling to 4.3 billion yen by May 1995, sending nearly 500 professors and experts from Japanese universities, and receiving 190 teaching staff for training and further education in Japan. More than 1,800 graduates are now working in various fields in Kenya, contributing to its economic and social development. Furthermore, the University receives about 180 trainees from other African countries and also organizes open class for 200 local female farmers.
(b) The Vocational Training Center in Senegal
In 1984, Le Centre de Formation Professionnelle et Technique Senegal-Japon was established as the first technical vocational school to educate middle-ranking technicians in electronic and electoro-technic, general mechanics and automobile mechanics. The Centre was constructed by Japanese financial grant aid amounting to two billion yen, including supplies of basic teaching materials. Teachers at the Centre are Senegalese who were trained in Japan, totalling to 53 persons by May 1995. During the first seven years, 53 Japanese experts were stationed in the Centre for the intensive transfer of technology. The Centre is now becoming the leading school of secondary technical education in Senegal. Furthermore, the Centre educates more and more students from the neighboring countries as well.
(c) Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in Ghana
Noguchi Memorial Institute was established in 1979 with two billion yen grant aid from Japan and has such units as epidemiology, virology, nutrition, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical pathology, and electron microscopy. This institute was named after Dr.H.Noguchi, a Japanese medical researcher, who literally devoted his life to research of Yellow Fever which threatens many lives in Africa. He was engaged in research activities in Ghana in 1927, but lost his life become of this very diseases next year. The institutes has placed emphasis on activities on major endemic diseases and evolved into a base for regional cooperation, carrying out seminars and training courses for other African medical experts. To support the region-oriented activities, Japan has been extending financial grant aid and technical cooperation, including the dispatch of 44 Japanese medical scientists in total.
(d) Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV)
JOCV are Japanese volunteers aged between 20 to 39 sent to developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is the highest priority region for JOCV activities, where 32.6 percent of the volunteers (5,872 persons) have been sent by April, 1998. JOCV volunteers work in a wide range of sectors including agriculture, fishery, forestry, manufacturing, maintenance of machineries, civil engineering, health, education, culture and sport. The volunteers live and work with local people. Paying due respect to local traditions, for example, they carefully show how fatal some customs may be to children's life, so that their understanding of hygiene becomes part of their daily life habit.
(e) Construction of classrooms for primary schools
Rapid population growth in sub-Saharan African countries necessitates an increase of classrooms especially for primary schools. To ensure nation-wide primary school enrollment, Japan has built thousands of classrooms in those countries. Since 1991, 15 billion yen were offered to construct badly needed classrooms (example: totaling 788 classrooms in Senegal).
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