Chapter II. Striving for a More Secure, Prosperous and Humane World
Section 2. Toward the Construction of a New International Framework
1. Building a More Peaceful and Secure World
1-1. Ensuring Japan's Security
Japan's security policy consists of three main pillars: (a) firmly maintaining the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements; (b) securing its own appropriate defense capability; and (c) making active diplomatic efforts to secure international peace and security.
(1) The Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements
(a) The Significance of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements
Despite the end of the Cold War, a large number of uncertainties still exist in the international community. Under these circumstances, the U.S. deterrence based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty remains necessary in order for Japan, with its policies of adhering to the three non-nuclear principles and maintaining the minimum defense capability, to benefit from peace and prosperity. The Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements play an important role in securing the U.S. presence and engagement which is a stabilizing factor for the Asia-Pacific region. Moreover, the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements also serve to give credibility to Japan's basic policy of not becoming a military power capable of threatening other countries.
Based on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty,
between 45,000 and 48,000 U.S forces personnel are stationed in
The Government of Japan has been voluntarily making utmost efforts to bear the stationing costs of U.S. forces in order to support the U.S. presence. In FY 1993, the Government of Japan bore 561.2 billion yen of the stationing expenses of the U.S. forces in Japan. The U.S. Government highly values these Japanese efforts. In particular, since there has been a growing trend in the U.S. Congress to cut defense spending, the efforts by Japan to bear the stationing costs of U.S. forces have been increasingly important to ensure the presence of U.S. forces in this region.
The influence of the U.S. military activities near residents around the U.S. military facilities and areas has been a problem. In an attempt to harmonize the objective of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, which is to ensure a smooth stationing of U.S. forces on one hand, and the desire of neighboring residents to alleviate their influence as much as possible on the other, the Government of Japan has made continued efforts to promote the realignment and consolidation of U.S. military facilities and areas in Okinawa. In addition, some progress has been made on night landing practices of carrier-borne aircrafts in Iwojima, and on improvement of the environment in the U.S. facilities and areas.
(b) Cooperation With the United States in Security and Defense Areas
Against the backdrop of the Japanese technological improvement in recent years, the U.S. has shown a growing interest in mutual technology exchange in the defense area, and it has become important for Japan to respond to this situation in order to secure the effective management of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements. From this point of view, a joint research program on the ducted rocket engine is under way and other joint research programs on five items, including advanced steel technology, are under consideration. Moreover, the ongoing cooperative development of the fighter support experimental (FS-X) of the Air Self- Defense Force brings together the outstanding technologies of the United States and Japan, and holds a great significance in promoting technology exchanges between the two countries.
Furthermore, given the risk of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the international community after the Cold War, the Clinton Administration has announced its policy of developing the Theater Missile Defense (TMD) that protects U.S. forward deployed forces, allies and friendly nations from missile attacks. The U.S. Government is calling on its allies to cooperate over TMD Initiative, and the Government of Japan will evaluate the significance of TMD in the Japanese defense plan, and for that purpose, is now consulting with the United States at the working level.
(2) Improvement of Japan's Defense Capability
Japan, under its Peace Constitution, is making efforts to develop a moderate yet effective defense capability based on the basic principles of maintaining an exclusively defense-oriented policy and of not becoming a military power capable of threatening other nations. It is important for Japan to make maximum efforts in this area, in order to enhance the credibility and effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements.
(3) Diplomatic Efforts to Ensure International Peace and Security
As the international community seeks to build a new security framework in the post-Cold War era, Japan is naturally required to make positive contributions in this field. Such efforts are also extremely important for Japan in terms of ensuring its own security. Particularly important are efforts to ensure security of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as to promote international cooperation for arms control and disarmament, non-proliferation and the U.N. Peace-keeping Operations.
1-2. Security of the Asia-Pacific Region
It is essential that the security of the Asia-Pacific region be considered from a different standpoint from that prevailing in Europe, because in the Asia-Pacific region, the historic background and geopolitical conditions, as well as the perception of threats and the geographical distribution of military forces all vary from one country to another. Given these characteristics of the region, it is important to advance the following efforts in parallel and interrelate them in order to ensure the security of the Asia-Pacific region.
(1) Maintaining the Presence and Engagement of the U.S. Forces
The presence and engagement of the U.S. forces based on the Japan-U.S. Security Arrangements is the largest stabilizing factor in this region, and a larger number of countries in this region have come to share this perception. The accommodating attitude being adopted by ASEAN countries toward the activities of U.S. forces in this region reflects such a widely shared view.
(2) Promoting Regional Cooperation
While favorable moves for lowering tensions have been seen in some parts of the Asia-Pacific region after the end of the Cold War, there still remain unsolved problems and unsettled regional confrontations and conflicts, such as the issue of the Northern Territories of Japan, the situation in the Korean Peninsula, particularly North Korea's suspected development of nuclear weapons, and the South China Sea issue. To ensure long-term stability in this region, it is primarily important to make further efforts of cooperation and coordination, whether bilaterally or among the interested countries according to respective situations. Examples of such efforts are the efforts made by the countries concerned to alleviate the tension in the South China Sea and bilateral dialogues like the Sino-Japan security dialogue that began in 1993. In addition, from a long-term perspective, it is also essential to promote cooperation among the countries concerned with a view to ensuring stability in Northeast Asia.
(3) Promoting the Security Dialogue of the Entire Region
Moreover, being motivated by such common security concerns as the continuation of the U.S.presence and engagement, and the future roles of Japan and China, there has emerged in the region, a growing interest in a region-wide political and security dialogue aimed at enhancing the transparency of policies of respective countries and mutually promoting a sense of security. In this context, a full fledged political and security dialogue covering the whole region has been launched, mainly through the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences in line with the Japanese proposal. Furthermore, it has been decided that the "ASEAN Regional Forum," which includes China and Russia as participants will start in 1994.
(4) Encouraging Economic Developments
The Asia-Pacific region is relatively stable compared to other regions, due to the fact that the rapid economic development of Southeast Asia and other countries in the region has reinforced the political stability and social resilience. In that sense, efforts to maintain and further promote the economic development of this region are vital.
1-3. Efforts Toward Peace and Japan's Contribution
Regional conflicts are now not only those between nations, but there is also increasing danger of conflicts within a nation, rooted in ethnic, religious and historical reasons. Under such situations, the international community is deploying various efforts to maintain and build peace, with the United Nations as its main vehicle, through such means as prevention of conflicts, political reconciliation, U.N. Peace-keeping Operations (PKOs), humanitarian assistance, and reconstruction and development assistance. Particularly, building upon, among others, the experiences in Cambodia, there is a growing recognition in recent years of the importance of linking peace-keeping/building with humanitarian assistance and reconstruction and development aid.
Japan is cooperating positively with such international efforts. Financially, Japan is extending assistance such as aid for Cambodian reconstruction, assistance for Palestinians in the Middle East and humanitarian emergency aid in Bosnia-Herzegovina. As intellectual contributions, Japan took initiatives in establishing the U.N. Register of Conventional Armaments to increase transparency in the transfer of conventional weapons, as well as in drafting the code of conduct on the environment in the Middle East during the multilateral negotiation of the Middle East peace process. Japan also proposed a gradual ban of nuclear tests with the ultimate aim of abolishing nuclear weapons, and hosted in April 1993 the Kyoto Disarmament Conference of the United Nations, the fifth hosted by Japan in a row. In terms of personnel contribution, under the Law Concerning Cooperation for United Nations Peace-keeping Operations and Other Operations (the International Peace Cooperation Law) enacted in June 1992, Japan is taking a full part in the U.N. Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II), the U.N. Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), and the U.N. Operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ). Moreover, concerning the relation between peace and development, Japan makes it an established policy under the four principles of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) Charter, to examine, in extending ODA, the overall conditions surrounding the respective recipient countries, taking into account their efforts toward democratization, their security environment, as well as the international situation in general. Thus, while Japan is positively participating in the process of achieving world peace and stability from a global perspective, Japan is required to provide further cooperation commensurate with its international standing in settling regional conflicts.
(2) Coping with Regional Conflicts
Below is a more specific overview of how the international community has tackled such developments as the Middle East peace and the establishment of a new government in Cambodia, and what role Japan played in these processes.
(a) Middle East Peace
In the wake of the agreement reached between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in September, a ministerial conference to support Middle East peace was held in Washington D.C. in October with the initiative of the U.S. Government in order to implement this agreement and mobilize international support to translate it into actual peace. This conference obtained participations of 46 countries and international organizations, including Japan, and discussed the form of assistance from the international community. As a result, an assistance package of $600 million was pledged to the Palestinians for the first year, $1 billion in the first two years and nearly $2 billion in the coming five years. In addition, an ad hoc liaison committee was formed as a coordinating organization to implement this assistance effectively. The World Bank was designated as its secretariat and Japan, the United States, the European Union (EU), Canada, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a representative of the Nordic countries and Russia were to participate in the committee.
To support the improvement of the socio-economic situation of the Palestinians under occupation and the fostering of self-governing ability toward the future interim self-government, Japan has been extending assistance through the U.N. Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) and the U.N. Development Programme (UNDP). And in view of the new development, Japan announced in the above-mentioned ministerial conference its intention to offer up to $200 million in the coming two years to assist the Palestinians.
Moreover, in the Middle East peace process, the organizational meeting for multilateral negotiations on regional issues started in January 1992, which involve major extra-regional parties such as Japan, the United States, Russia and the European Union. The objective of the negotiations was to foster confidence among the parties in conflict, by complementing and supporting their bilateral negotiations, and through a search for means of regional cooperation together with extra-regional countries. While there was no progress in the bilateral tracks, the multilateral negotiation assumed the role of a safety-net. However, after progress was made in the bilateral negotiations in September, specific regional cooperation projects are being discussed. As the negotiations develop, the multilateral negotiations are expected to play a more important role as a forum to discuss intra-regional and external relations for the peace and prosperity of the Middle East. In the multilateral negotiations, Japan is playing a central role by chairing the Environmental Working Group, and serving as the co-organizer in the working groups on economic development, water resources and refugees. In addition, in order to promote inter-regional cooperation with a long-term vision, Japan has proposed to formulate a code of conduct on the environment as a common basis for the region to protect the environment, and an action plan to promote regional development through tourism.
In Cambodia, the presence of a comprehensive peace framework, namely the Paris Peace Agreements, and the support led by the United Nations played a major role in the new start of the resuscitated state of Cambodia. Moreover, the international community's will to support the future reconstruction was confirmed at such occasions as the International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC). At its first meeting in September, it was confirmed that nearly the full amount of assistance pledged at the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia in June 1992 (a total of $880 million) would be disbursed in the near future. At the same time, an assistance of $120 million was newly announced.
As to Japan, it played a major role in helping formulate a peace agreement among the various Cambodian factions in the process leading to the conclusion of the Paris Agreements. In addition, as the Pol Pot faction became less cooperative to the peace process, Japan made diplomatic efforts in cooperation with Thailand to persuade the faction. Moreover, Japan participated in the Peace-keeping Operations in Cambodia as its first full-fledged participation in the PKO [see (3),(a) below]. Furthermore, Japan chaired the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia and the ICORC, and played a central role in the reconstruction of Cambodia by announcing in this Ministerial Conference the largest assistance among the participating countries and international institutions, and by steadily implementing this. Japan will be hosting the second meeting of the ICORC in Tokyo in March 1994. Other than the above, Japan is extending wide-ranging assistance to Cambodia such as cooperation to improve the country's judicial system through the United Nations as well as cultural cooperation, for example, through the hosting of the "International Conference on the Safeguarding and Development of the Historical Site of Angkor" in October 1993.
As seen above, for attaining peace in Cambodia, Japan is playing a central role in diverse areas.
(3) The Role of the United Nations
(a) Peace-keeping Operations (PKOs)
Reflecting the complex nature of international conflicts in the post-Cold War era, the activities of Peace-keeping Operations (PKOs) are diversifying (See Chapter I, Section 2, 1-5). While some activities are encountering difficulties, efforts to settle conflicts all over the world continue, and many activities have resulted in substantial success. Overall, Peace-keeping Operations continue to be one of the most effective U.N. instruments in settling conflicts. Therefore, how to utilize and strengthen them is a crucial matter. "Agenda for Peace" initiated by Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali is one of such attempts.
At the U.N. General Assembly, a comprehensive discussion to generally improve the Peace-keeping Operations was held, and in November, comprehensive resolutions were adopted, which call for improvements in the following areas: (a) preparing human and material resources to ensure an early deployment of a Peace-keeping Operation after it has been set up; (b) strengthening the financial basis (including filling of the peace-keeping reserve fund which was established in 1992 based on a Japanese proposal); (c) improving the efficiency and (d) securing the safety of Peace-keeping Operation personnel. Moreover, a proposal was made to ensure the security of the U.N. personnel, particularly to formulate a legal framework concerning the responsibility on an attack on U.N. personnel as a treaty. A draft is now to be prepared. Japan has a great interest in personnel safety and has positively participated in the debate.
However, it is the contribution and the will on the part of the U.N. member states that are supporting the Peace-keeping Operations. In Japan, the Gulf Crisis triggered a recognition that it is indispensable for Japan to make positive contributions for international peace and security, and the International Peace Cooperation Law was enacted in June 1992. Based on this, a construction unit of the Self-Defense Forces (600 personnel times 2 teams, 1,200 personnel), military observers (8 personnel times 2 teams, 16 personnel), civilian police (75 personnel), and International Polling Station Officers (41 personnel) were dispatched respectively, and their activities were highly praised by the international community as well as the local community. In addition, to provide logistic support to the construction unit in its deployment, station and withdrawal of transport ships, supplier ships of the Maritime Defense Force and transport planes of the Air Defense Force were used. For Japan, this was the first full-scale personnel contribution to the Peace-keeping Operations, and it was most significant that these activities upgraded Japan's contribution to the peace in Cambodia and thereby obtained the understanding and support of the Japanese public on cooperation to the Peace-keeping Operations. Meanwhile, in April 1993, Mr.Atsuhito Nakata, a U.N. volunteer helping to prepare Cambodia for the elections, and in May, Mr. Haruyuki Takada, a PKO trooper, were killed in action. These incidents, which were very regrettable for Japan, also indicated that world peace and security are sometimes only achieved at the sacrifices of precious lives. In May 1993, Japan dispatched a movement control unit consisting of 48 personnel and sent five staff officers for the headquarters at the disposal of the U.N. Operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ). Participation to ONUMOZ is a contribution by Japan to the stability of a geographically distant region of southern Africa and holds a major significance for Japan, in that it has discharged a global responsibility toward world peace and security.
The International Peace Cooperation Law is scheduled to be revised in 1995, three years after its enactment in light of its state of implementation. It is, therefore, necessary to deepen discussions on this issue, based on the experiences obtained through participation in the Peace-keeping Operations as well as on the actual situation of the international community concerning the Peace-keeping Operations.
(b) Reform of the Security Council
There is a growing recognition of the need to reform the Security Council, which is the core organization with primary responsibility for international peace and security, to better blend it with the current international situation. The number of member states of the United Nations has risen dramatically from 51 at the time of its establishment to the present 184. Meanwhile, the tasks faced by the Security Council and the United Nations as a whole have expanded to require comprehensive responses which include not only political and military measures, but also economic ones. Despite such changes, the Security Council has undergone only one minor reform in 1965, by which the number of non-permanent members has been increased from 6 to 10. Therefore, there has been widespread demand to strengthen the capability of this body to reflect the general will of member countries and to respond effectively to the international agenda.
Under these circumstances, with the adoption of the resolution of the U.N. General Assembly concerning the reform of the Security Council in December 1992, the view that the Security Council needs to be reformed has become a major trend of the international community. In July 1993, Japan submitted its views (Note 6), and in September, Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa, in his address to the General Assembly confirmed that -- in order to strengthen the Security Council -- "it is important that those countries having both the will and the adequate capacity to contribute to world prosperity and stability be actively engaged in that effort," and expressed Japan's position as being "prepared to do all it can to discharge its responsibilities in the United Nations reformed...."
At the General Assembly of 1993, the reform of the Security Council continued to be one of the most important issues, and in December the following resolutions were adopted:
(i) Decides to establish an Open-ended Working Group to con- sider all aspects of the question of an increase in the membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Council;
(ii) Requests the Open-ended Working Group to submit a report on the progress of its work to the General Assembly before the end of its 48th session;
(iii) Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its 49th session the item entitled "Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and related matters."
By early 1994, the Working Group will begin its work based on this resolution. It is expected that broad and active discussions both at home and abroad will be made on the subject.
(c) Organizational Reforms
Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has recognized the importance of organizational reforms of the U.N. Secretariat since assuming his post, and since February 1992 he has executed a series of organizational reforms through the integration and abolition of offices. The member countries, including Japan, supported the fundamental direction of the consolidation of organizations and personnel, which had become so complex, to strengthen the function of the United Nations. But some problems have arisen such as de facto reorganization without prior consultations with member states or the instability of treatment of personnel due to multiple changes. Sufficient prior consultations with member states and the clarification of the entire reform process have been requested to the Secretary-General.
1-4. Promoting Arms Control and Disarmament
(1) Nuclear Arms Reduction of the United States and Russia, and the Problem of Nuclear Weapons of the Former Soviet Union
(a) Today, there are approximately 10,000 strategic nuclear warheads in the United States and the New Independent States (NIS) respectively, and they are to be reduced to 6,000 each (Note 7) based on first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I). The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by the United States and Russia in January 1993, accelerates the reduction process of START I, by providing that the number of strategic warheads of each side is to be reduced to about one third of the present level by the year 2003. Another major feature of START II is an agreement on the total abolishment of the multiple-warhead intercontinental ballistic missiles which are regarded as the greatest threat to strategic stability.
(b) Nevertheless, the prospect for START II's entry into force remains uncertain. The prerequisite for START II to enter into force is START I's entry into force. For the latter, it is necessary for Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belorussia, where strategic nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union are deployed, to ratify START I, as well as for the three countries, excluding Russia, to accede to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear-weapon states. In this regard, Ukraine was reluctant, demanding security assurances from the United States and Russia and economic compensation for abandoning nuclear weapons deployed within its territory. However, following a joint statement of the United States, Russia and Ukraine issued in January 1994, concerning the total elimination of nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union deployed in Ukraine, the Ukrainian parliament adopted in February a resolution to approve the ratification of START I. Japan welcomes this move and will continue to call on Ukraine to accede to the NPT as the next step, thus ensuring its path toward denuclearization.
The emergence of a new nuclear-weapon state, as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union must be avoided by all means, as it would pose a critical problem to international security and the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
(c) With the implementation of the above-mentioned START I and II, and other unilateral measures, it is said that more than 20,000 nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union, including tactical ones, are to be eliminated. Nevertheless, because of economic difficulties in the former Soviet Union, there is no clear prospect of the elimination of these nuclear weapons being implemented. Such a situation, if not properly dealt with, could lead to a risk of nuclear proliferation or accidents. It is a matter of serious concern to the security of the international community.
In order to promote the elimination of nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union, the United States has been delivering assistance worth $800 million. In April 1993 Japan decided to extend assistance totaling approximately $100 million. To date, Japan has concluded bilateral agreements with Russia and Belorussia concerning the framework for carrying out this assistance and consultations are being held to identify concrete assistance areas. Moreover, in an attempt to prevent the outflow of technology and know-how related to weapons of mass destruction from the former Soviet Union, Japan decided jointly with the United States and the European Union (EU) the establishment of the International Science and Technology Center.
(2) Strengthening of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Regimes
(a) Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)
In 1995, 25 years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference shall be convened to decide the extension period of the Treaty (anextension for an indefinite or a definite period). This is an extremely significant conference that will decide how the future NPT regime should be. In preparing for this conference, the United States and European countries have announced their support for the indefinite extension of the NPT. On the contrary, many non-aligned countries tend to consider the extension issue in conjunction with nuclear disarmament, in particular the progress toward a comprehensive nuclear test ban, while not making their positions clear on the extension of the Treaty.
Recognizing that stabilizing the NPT regime by preventing the emergence of new nuclear-weapon states is indispensable for international security, Japan has declared its support for the indefinite extension on various occasions such as Prime Minister Hosokawa's first policy speech immediately after his inauguration and in his address at the 48th U.N. General Assembly. On the other hand, the indefinite extension of the NPT should not mean perpetuating the possession of nuclear weapons by nuclear-weapon states. Japan will continue to urge all nuclear-weapon states to make further nuclear disarmament efforts toward the ultimate goal of eliminating nuclear weapons.
As of December 1993, 158 states have acceded to the NPT, but many New Independent States, including Ukraine, and others such as India, Pakistan and Israel still remain outside the NPT regime. It is essential to urge these countries to accede to the NPT in order to strengthen the NPT regime. Japan started nuclear non-proliferation consultations in 1993 with India and Pakistan and is urging them to join the NPT. Moreover, it was meaningful that the President of Argentina declared his readiness to accede to the NPT in response to Japan's expectation when he visited Japan in December.
(b) The Nuclear Test Ban Issue
The year 1993 saw a striking development toward a comprehensive nuclear test ban. In July, President Bill Clinton announced U.S. support, for the first time, to achieving a comprehensive nuclear test ban and, at the same time, announced the extension of a moratorium on nuclear tests together with other nuclear-weapon states. Responding to this move, the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva in August gave its Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban a mandate to negotiate a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), heightening the international momentum toward a comprehensive nuclear test ban.
Japan, as the chairing country of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban in 1993, has been consulting energetically with countries concerned so that full-scale CTBT negotiations could start smoothly in 1994. In these circumstances, China's nuclear test conducted in October contradicted the international momentum toward a comprehensive nuclear test ban. Japan conveyed its regrets to the Government of China and urged China not to repeat the nuclear tests, and also called on other nuclear-weapon states not to resume nuclear tests on the pretext of the Chinese example.
(c) Handling Uranium Concentrates and Plutonium
With progress in nuclear disarmament, it is expected that the dismantling of nuclear weapons will produce a massive amount of nuclear fissile materials (highly enriched uranium and plutonium). How to control and dispose of them will become a critical issue in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation. In this context, it is noteworthy that President Clinton proposed in September to prohibit the production of nuclear fissile materials for explosive devices or outside the international safeguard measures.
(3) Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
CWC, a comprehensive treaty aimed at eliminating chemical weapons, is an epoch-making treaty stipulating the prohibition on development, production and possession of chemical weapons, the destruction of the already possessed chemical weapons and their production facilities, a strict inspection system on chemical industries, and "challenge inspections," where an international inspection team can conduct inspection to any facilities anywhere in a State Party under suspicion of violating the Treaty, at the request of another State Party. Moreover, the State Parties which possess chemical weapons are obligated to destroy all chemical weapons within 10 years after the Convention enters into force. By the end of 1993, 154 countries have become signatories to the CWC.
This Treaty can enter into force as early as the beginning of 1995, and at present, the preparatory committee of the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) (Note 8)is working toward the entry into force of the Treaty. Japan is actively contributing to the work of the preparatory committee, and is also studying how to consolidate a structure for the domestic implementation of the Convention, aiming at the ratification of the Convention.
(4) The Issue of Transfer of Conventional Arms
The United Nations Register of Conventional Arms was established in January 1992, as a result of an initiative of Japan and other countries, with a view to improving the transparency and openness of armaments. The first registration took place in 1993, with 83 countries reporting the total volume of exports and imports in 1992, of the seven types of offensive weapons such as battle tanks and combat air crafts, etc. Japan has been playing a major role in promoting universality of the Register. For example, Japan hosted the Asia-Pacific workshop concerning the U.N. Arms Register in January 1993, with a view to promoting the understanding of and participation in this register and encouraged other countries to participate in this system. Looking to the future, the expansion of the scope of the system and the increase of participating countries are important tasks. In 1994, a governmental expert group meeting will be held to assess and consider possible improvements of the system, the result of which is to be reported to the U.N. General Assembly.
(5) Strengthening of the Export Controls
(a) Strengthening of the Export Controls
In securing the non-proliferation of weapons, international export control systems for weapon-related materials holds an increasing importance. As for atomic-related items, there are the London Guidelines(Note 9) in which 28 countries including Japan participate. At the plenary meeting of the Nuclear Suppliers Group in April 1993, the Guidelines were amended so as to provide that, as a precondition for transfer of nuclear-related items, the recipient country is required to accept the full scope safeguard measures of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Concerning the non-proliferation of missiles, there is the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)(Note 10) in which 25 countries including Japan participate. Initially, the MTCR guidelines controlled missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons and related items. But in January 1993, the guidelines were amended to cover all missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction including biological and chemical weapons, and related items.
(b) Dissolution of COCOM
In response to the end of the Cold War, the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) has recently undergone transformation such as relaxation of controls and initiation of informal dialogue with the COCOM prescribed countries. On the other hand, the outbreak and expansion of regional conflicts increased concerns about the proliferation of arms, and there is a growing need to respond to such concerns by establishing a framework of export controls. Against such a background, it was decided at the meeting of the COCOM member countries held in The Hague in November 1993, to abolish COCOM, which had existed for 43 years, by the end of March 1994 at the latest. In addition, with the abolition of COCOM, a need to establish a new framework to deal with export controls on conventional weapons and related dual-use items was agreed upon, and it was decided that the countries concerned should continue to consider this issue.
(6) Russia's Ocean Dumping of Radioactive Wastes
In April 1993, the government committee concerning the ocean dumping of radioactive wastes set up by the Russian President, published its white paper on the ocean dumping of radioactive wastes, and for the first time confirmed that the former Soviet Union and Russia had been dumping radioactive wastes into the North Sea and the Far Eastern seas between 1959 and 1992. Since immediately after the publication of the white paper, Japan has demanded on many occasions that Russia at once suspend such dumping. In the Foreign Ministers` meeting between Japan and Russia held in April, Japan proposed the establishment of a joint working group on this issue as well as the early implementation of a joint marine survey. At the first joint working group meeting held in May, a basic agreement was reached for an early survey. Moreover, in the October summit meeting between Russia and Japan, Prime Minister Hosokawa reiterated the demand for immediate suspension of the ocean dumping and proposed the implementation of a joint survey by the end of 1993 or in early 1994 at the latest. President Boris Yelstin indicated his total support for the joint survey.
However, in October, Russia's Pacific fleet resumed its dumping of radioactive waste into the Japan Sea which had been suspended since 1992. Japan made a strong protest and demanded the immediate suspension of this dumping to the Russian Government, with a direct appeal from Foreign Minister Hata to Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev. Consequently, the Government of Russia decided to suspend dumping scheduled thereafter. Both the Japanese and Russians thereafter met many times through the second joint working group meeting as well as through expert group meetings, and continued the work on clarifying the details of the ocean dumping and for the implementation of the first joint marine survey mission in early 1994.
While the primary responsibility rests with Russia for the genuine solution of the problems of storage and processing of radioactive wastes, Japan has been considering possible cooperation in improving Russia's related facilities, taking into account the wish on the Russian part to realize the total ban on ocean dumping. In this connection, at the Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 held in November, amendments to ban the ocean dumping of radioactive wastes was adopted, which Japan supported. Moreover, in order to raise international interest concerning the problem, Japan proposed a meeting of countries concerned including the G-7 countries, Korea and Norway, which was held on the occasion of the above Consultative Meeting and enabled useful exchanges of information and opinions among these countries on this problem.
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