2. Other Major Speeches


(1) Statement by Foreign Minister Taro Nakayama at the 46th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations


(New York, September, 24 1991)


Mr. President, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen:

I would like first to extend my heartfelt congratulations to H.E. Mr. Samir Shihabi upon his election as President of this historic 46th session of the General Assembly. I am pleased also to have this opportunity to express my respects and appreciation to H.E. Mr. Guido de Marco for the very able manner in which he presided over the 45th session.

On behalf of the Government and people of Japan, I wish to extend a hearty welcome to the countries that have been newly admitted to United Nations membership: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Latvia, and the Republic of Lithuania. With these seven new Member States and with the Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC) occupying its country's seat, I am glad to see the Organization's enhanced universality at the very time when the United Nations may be expected finally to attain the high ideals held for it since its founding. Lastly, I wish to pay high tribute to the Secretary-General for the important contributions he has made for world peace.


(The Changing World)

In a span of just two years the world has undergone a historic sea change with the end of the Cold War and with the Gulf Crisis.

The international community is thus in a historic time of transition as efforts are being made to fashion a new world order. Now, as the world moves from confrontation to cooperation, tremendous possibilities are opening up for human progress.

This shift has provided new impetus for the resolution of regional issues through dialogue. It is clear that the process of bringing an end to the Gulf Crisis has had a favorable impact on progress toward the peaceful resolution of conflicts in the Middle East, Cambodia, Western Sahara, Angola, Central America, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. Prospects for the future are bright in Europe as well, with the 1992 integration of the EC and its link-up with EFTA, and the return of the East European states to the European fold.

At the same time, however, it must be recognized that the world is beset by the uncertainty and instability common to any time of transition. There is also the danger that religious, ethnic, territorial, and other disputes may resurface as the Cold War structure is dismantled. The Gulf Crisis was resolved through the resolute action of the international community, and it is essential hereafter that we fully understand the characteristic features of this time of transition and respond unerringly. In this respect, Japan is profoundly concerned about developments in Yugoslavia and supports the efforts of the European Community and others to mediate a peaceful resolution to that conflict.

The situation that is emerging in the Soviet Union is one of historic transition toward the universal values of freedom and democracy as we approach the 21st century.

Home to three-fourths of the earth's population, many of the world's developing countries continue to suffer from the problems of grinding poverty, sluggish growth, burgeoning debt, and population growth; it is the responsibility of the international community to work for sustained development in these countries.

In addition, with increasing interdependence, humankind is faced with a spate of problems, such as those concerning the global environment, refugees, drugs and terrorism, that no one country or region can solve on its own but that require us to join together in solving based upon the realization that the world is one.

At this historic time of transition, each country throughout the world is called upon to forge a new approach appropriate to the new era, and then all must work together in a shared effort to create a new world order.


(Japan's Basic Position and Objectives for a New World Order)

With a sense of sincere contrition over the past war, the Japanese people are resolutely determined never again to become a military power. In the more than 40 years since World War II, while striving to attain the level of development that it enjoys today, Japan has worked tirelessly through a wide range of economic and other exchanges, to translate the philosophy and the resolve of living as a nation of peace into actual policies. In considering the circumstances that enabled Japan to achieve its present prosperity in an international climate of peace, I believe that the new international order that we seek must be one that strives,

first, to ensure peace and security;

second, to respect freedom and democracy;

third, to guarantee world prosperity through open market economies;

fourth, to preserve an environment in which all people can lead rewarding lives; and

fifth, to create stable international relations founded upon dialogue and cooperation.

These goals are basic tenets of Japanese policy and are consistent with the purposes of the United Nations as set forth in its Charter.

In this new era of collaboration and cooperation, the United Nations will be expected to play a central role in surmounting the many challenges facing the international community. This view was also expressed in the Political Declaration of the London Summit.

Dedicated to peace in full recognition of its past experiences and cognizant of the global responsibilities that accrue as a result of its economic strength, Japan has a historic mission to make the maximum possible contribution to our common efforts to achieve the goals of the new world order.


(For World Peace and Stability)

The international community coalesced magnificently around the United Nations in response to the crisis in the Gulf. Japan, too, extended maximum cooperation to the efforts of the countries concerned to restore peace to the Gulf and to the front-line countries hard-hit. by the economic dislocations resulting from the war.

As a result of Japan's participation in this international response to the blatant challenge to the rule of law and the violation of peace, there developed among the Japanese people a heightened awareness that, as a peace-loving country, Japan has an obligation to contribute actively to efforts led by the United Nations to secure and maintain world peace.

Accordingly, after the cease-fire Japan dispatched to the Gulf region Japan Disaster Relief Teams to address environmental problems and to provide refugee relief, and also dispatched minesweepers to ensure navigational safety in the Gulf.

Although a cease-fire is in effect, numerous problems remain, including the questions of establishing international borders, of monitoring the cease-fire, of settling the reparations issue, and of eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. The resolution of these issues has been entrusted to the United Nations. It is essential that Iraq faithfully comply with all Security Council resolutions so as to facilitate their smooth and prompt implementation and that it cooperate with the work of the Special Commission on the Destruction of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Likewise, recognizing that all Member States have an obligation to support actively these tasks of the United Nations, Japan will continue to be unstinting in its support.

The Gulf Crisis is past, but for the sake of long-term regional stability, it is essential that remaining issues, such as the Middle East peace problem and the security of the Gulf, be resolved. This will require the active involvement of the international community as a whole, respecting the initiatives and wishes of the countries in the region.

Through the efforts of the United States and the Soviet Union, progress is now being made for holding an international conference on peace in the Middle East, and we very much hope that all of the parties concerned will strive to conduct these negotiations flexibly and realistically and that they will succeed in their shared endeavor. Japan intends to intensify its dialogue with the parties concerned and to extend all possible and appropriate cooperation to efforts to achieve a just, lasting and comprehensive peace in line with Security Council resolutions 242 and 338.

There are a number of lessons to be learned from the Gulf Crisis. The first of these is that, once armed conflict erupts, it inevitably causes tremendous human suffering and takes vast amounts of human and material resources to resolve.

From this it is clear that conflict prevention is a matter of special urgency and deserves highest priority. If the United Nations is to be able to engage effectively in preventive diplomacy, it is essential that the Secretary-General, the Security Council, and the General Assembly each function effectively within its realm of responsibility.

In an effort to add substance to the Draft Declaration on Fact-Finding by the United Nations that has been submitted to this session of the General Assembly, and to enable the Secretary-General, with the support of the Security Council and others, to move vigorously at a very early stage to prevent conflict, Japan would like to propose the establishment of a conflict-prevention system based on the following measures:

first, substantially strengthening the Secretariat's ability to monitor constantly and analyze information relating to possible conflicts;

second, dispatching on-site fact-finding missions;

third, issuing "early warnings" as the situation requires; and

fourth, conducting good offices and mediation efforts under the authority of the Secretary-General.

Japan hopes to work together with other Member States during this General Assembly session for the early establishment of an effective system for conflict prevention.

The second lesson to be learned from the Gulf Crisis is that the amassing of massive arsenals by one country through the international transfer and proliferation of weapons contributes to aggressive behavior when such actions are tied to that country's political aims. Thus the most important issue in the wake of the Gulf Crisis is that of strengthening efforts in the fields of international transfer of conventional weapons and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles. This is an area in which Japan has long taken active initiatives.

There is an urgent need to establish a United Nations reporting system that would enhance the transparency of such international transfers of conventional weapons. Japan has advocated the establishment of just such a system since March of this year. Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu announced at the Kyoto Conference on Disarmament Issues in May that Japan would be submitting are solution to this effect to this session of the General Assembly. At present, we are consulting with the EC countries and other countries concerned and are hard at work drafting this resolution. Given the importance of establishing such a system as soon as possible, I very much hope it will find wide support throughout the General Assembly. Recognizing that there may be some technical issues involved in ensuring that such a system operates smoothly, we are prepared to cooperate with the United Nations in hosting a meeting next year in Japan to elaborate these issues. Likewise, should the need arise, we are also prepared to offer appropriate cooperation to enhance the database capabilities of the Department for Disarmament Affairs for the implementation of this system.

As the only country to have suffered the devastation of atomic weapons, Japan is working for the ultimate abolition of all nuclear arms and has proposed a step-by-step approach to the cessation of nuclear testing. I pay high tribute to the United States and the Soviet Union for having concluded the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty this year. I hope that still further efforts will be made toward nuclear disarmament. At the same time, I would point out in regard to the current situation in the Soviet Union that the international community very much hopes that that country will ratify and fulfill its treaty obligations in the field of arms control and will maintain the strictest control over its nuclear arsenals.

Further, it is very important that the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) gain greater universality, and I have long called upon all countries that have not yet done so to accede to this Treaty. I am sincerely gratified by France's decision to sign the NPT, by China's announcement during Prime Minister Kaifu's recent visit of its intention to become a party to it, and South Africa's accession to it. I very much hope that France, China, and all other countries that have not yet done so will become parties to the NPT promptly and that the Treaty will be extended well beyond 1995.

In order to strengthen the NPT, it is also important to reinforce and improve the safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and for this purpose Japan has proposed a system which includes the use of special inspections. It is deplorable that there is still a country that is a party to the NPT but has not yet concluded a safeguards agreement as called for by the Treaty, and I hope that this situation will be rectified as soon as possible.

On the question of chemical weapons, as I stressed in the statement I delivered at the Conference on Disarmament in June of this year, it is important that the negotiations on the Chemical Weapons Convention be concluded at the earliest possible date, before we lose the momentum provided by the Gulf Crisis. There is very little time until the mid-1992 deadline and I hope the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva will continue its work even while the General Assembly is in session. The position of Japan on the question of missiles was set forth in its appeal at the Tokyo Conference on the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) this March, and it is hoped that all countries will adopt the MTCR guidelines.


(Strengthening the United Nations Peace-keeping Function)

The Gulf Crisis demonstrated anew how very important it is that conflicts be resolved peacefully through international cooperative efforts led by the United Nations. At the same time, it made the world aware once again of the importance of U.N. Peace-keeping Operations (PKO) to ensure that a cease-fire once established is not breached. In today's changing world, the Peace-keeping Operations are an increasingly important and indispensable activity for promoting the resolution of regional conflicts, and it is expected that they will be further activated in the months and years ahead. Enhancing their function and authority will require broader participation in terms of personnel from the United Nations membership and a more stable financial base.

So far, Japan has sought to buttress the PKO by voluntary contributions to start-up costs and by subscriptions to the PKO Trust Fund. Further, the Government of Japan has just presented to the National Diet a bill that would put in place new domestic arrangements enabling Japan to strengthen its contribution to efforts for world peace in terms of personnel while continuing to extend financial cooperation.


(Changes in the Soviet Union and Japan-USSR Relations)

The wave of reform underway in the Soviet Union gives us hope that it may be possible to develop a new cooperative relationship with that country in the context of the new international political and economic order. Japan sincerely welcomes the historic changes taking place in the Soviet Union, and intends to work to develop anew relationship based upon the following principles.

First is the principle of strong support for and solidarity with the total thrust of the reforms in Soviet domestic and foreign policy and of enhancing and expanding appropriate and effective assistance.

The second is that of dramatically strengthening and enhancing multifaceted cooperation with the republics, especially our neighbor, the Russian Republic. In this connection, Japan very much appreciates the view expressed by the leadership of the Russian Republic that the distinction between victor and vanquished has no place in the creation of the new world order, and hopes to strengthen new cooperative relations along these lines.

The third is that of expanding appropriate cooperation so that an open Soviet Union can be accepted as a truly constructive partner in the Asia-Pacific region.

The fourth is that of actively supporting expanded cooperative relations of the Soviet Union with international economic organizations, including a special association with the IMF and the World Bank, so as to integrate the Soviet Union into the world economy.

The fifth and most important is that of concluding, in line with the principle of law and justice as emphasized by the Russian Republic, a peace treaty between our two countries by way of resolving the territorial issue at the earliest possible time and hence effecting a fundamental development in our bilateral relationship. Japan is confident that such a dramatic improvement in Japanese-Russian and Japanese-Soviet relations can make a creative contribution to the structuring of the new world order that we all desire.

There are still a number of unresolved conflicts and disputes in the Asia-Pacific region. As an Asia-Pacific country itself, Japan is pursuing an active foreign policy so as to create an international order forever free of confrontation and division.

In this sense, the fact that South and North Korea have joined the United Nations simultaneously at this session is an event of historic significance, and one we welcome as heralding peace and the relaxation of tensions on the Korean Peninsula. I very much hope that South and North Korea will continue to work for peaceful unification through direct dialogue in keeping with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Thus I appreciate the constructive proposal for peaceful unification which President Roh Tae Woo made in his statement this morning. For its part, Japan has been engaged in negotiations since the beginning of this year for the normalization of its relations with North Korea, and intends to continue to negotiate in good faith so as to contribute to peace and stability on the Peninsula.

There is at long last good cause for optimism that a comprehensive settlement may be achieved in Cambodia. In the recognition that the promotion of dialogue among the Cambodian parties themselves is the most important factor for peace in that country, Japan has undertaken a number of diplomatic initiatives, including the hosting of the Tokyo Meeting on Cambodia last year. We thus sincerely welcome the recent progress made by the Supreme National Council under the leadership of H.R.H. Prince Samdech Norodom Sihanouk. Japan very much hopes that the Paris International Conference on Cambodia will be reconvened in the near future, that lasting peace will be attained with appropriate United Nations involvement, and that vigorous nation-building efforts in accordance with the will of the Cambodian people will begin as soon as possible.

Japan also welcomes the rapid progress that is being made to bring about domestic reforms in South Africa, including the abolition of the legal foundation of apartheid. We hope that discussions for the drafting of a new constitution will commence soon. Japan is ready to support the efforts of all parties concerned for the establishment of a free and democratic society without racial discrimination in South Africa.

Turning to the situation in Afghanistan, Japan welcomes efforts to achieve a political settlement, including the Secretary-General's five-point proposal and the agreement by the United States and the Soviet Union to end their arms shipments to combat-ants there. Japan continues to support the tireless efforts for peace of all the parties concerned.


(For Sustained Prosperity Worldwide)

Many of the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America are beset by increasingly grave economic and social difficulties. It is vitally important for all the world that development be promoted and prosperity achieved in those countries. With the threat of nuclear war having receded and ideological conflict a thing of the past, this is now the international community's most important responsibility.

It is essential that we support those developing countries that are making self-help efforts for economic reconstruction and development in close consultation with international organizations, and it is especially imperative that the necessary financial resources, including resources from the private sector, be made available by the industrialized countries. Japan is working to enhance its Official Development Assistance (ODA) under its Fourth Medium-Term Target, and it is also steadily implementing its capital recycling program.

In view of the special needs of the least-developed countries (LLDCs), Japan cooperated with the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) to host the LLDC Tokyo Forum this May to study ways to deal with their problems. In an effort to widen further the loop of cooperation, Japan is planning to convene in Tokyo in 1993 a summit-level African Development Conference to address the problems of African countries.

The maintenance and strengthening of the free and multilateral trading system is indispensable to world economic development, and the successful conclusion of the GATT Uruguay Round is both the most important issue facing the world economy and a priority foreign policy issue for Japan. Japan intends to cooperate with the other countries concerned in making every possible effort to conclude this Uruguay Round by the end of the year.


(Toward a World More Congenial to Human Life and Values)

Prerequisite to sustained prosperity, it is most urgent that we work to resolve the many global environmental issues threatening the very survival of the human race and to create a world more congenial to human life. However, threats to the world environment - global warming, depletion of tropical forests, destruction of the ozone layer, and encroaching desertification - have grown more serious in recent years.

During this International Decade of Disaster Prevention, which commenced last year, it is essential that we redouble our efforts to prevent and mitigate natural disasters.

Resolving these global environmental issues will require that people everywhere transcend the barriers that separate them and work together.

The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held next year is an important opportunity for all countries to join together and agree on ways of ensuring a congenial environment for the future. As an industrialized Asian nation, and one that has managed to reconcile the dual demands of development and the environment, Japan hopes to contribute to building a cooperative framework for industrialized and developing countries, and is determined to take active initiatives for the success of this Conference. It is also from this position that we intend to continue to play an important role in the negotiations for the Framework Convention for Climate Change.

Hoping to support the upgrading of developing countries' ability to deal with the need for environmental conservation, Japan intends to continue to implement its development assistance vigorously, including the establishment of the UNEP International Environmental Technology Center in Japan and its support for the sustainable management of tropical forestry resources through, for example, the International Tropical Timber Organization.

Creating a world in which human values are respected and people everywhere can lead lives of dignity is beyond the capabilities of any single nation and is truly a task for all humankind. As the first step in creating such a world, it is essential that the fundamental human rights of everyone be guaranteed, and that all people be enabled to exercise their God-given abilities. Believing that respect for human rights is a universal value and the foundation of world peace and stability, Japan is making an active effort to have human rights respected and promoted worldwide. We are thus concerned that there are still some countries where these fundamental human rights are not yet respected.

The wave of democratization in Eastern Europe has swelled to a major current of democratization worldwide and has sparked global reforms. This April, the Government of Japan stated that its ODA will be extended with special attention to the following considerations: the trends in military expenditures by the recipient country, its efforts to promote democratization and to introduce a market-oriented economy, and the situation with regard to securing basic human rights and freedom. In line with this approach, Japan intends through its aid to support and contribute to efforts for democratization and economic reforms worldwide.

The tragedy of ever-more refugees and displaced persons generated by regional problems and armed conflicts in many parts of the world is a direct affront to the concept of respect for humanity. It is imperative that the entire world join together in extending relief to these unfortunate people, said to number some 17 million, and Japan intends to continue its vigorous assistance through the UNHCR and other international bodies. In this regard, Japan feels it would be appropriate for a working group, to be organized with the participation of international organizations and other interested parties, to study the possibility of a system to forecast new flows of refugees and to issue early warnings.

There is an urgent need to strengthen the ability of the United Nations to provide relief assistance in the event of major emergencies. Measures must be taken to strengthen the coordination and cooperation structures among the humanitarian relief agencies under the Secretary-General, and also to ensure that the relief activities of these agencies have maximum effect. Believing that it would be useful for all countries and U.N. agencies to form a stand-by network for the provision of whatever personnel and relief goods they can offer, Japan intends to take an active part in such an international endeavor.


(Strengthening the United Nations)

It is hoped that the United Nations will play a central role in international cooperation for the creation of a new world order. Never before in the nearly half-century that the United Nations has been in existence has support for it been so widespread and expectations so high. This is perhaps the first time ever that conditions have been so favorable for achieving the high ideals envisioned by the Organization's founders.

We are at a historic watershed, and whether the United Nations will be able to achieve the great things that people everywhere expect of it and to create a better world for the 21st century depends upon what uses we make of it and how well we as Member States support and defend it. Indeed, the United Nations is what its Member States make it.

At present, I would be hard-pressed to say that the U.N. Organization is capable of fully and effectively meeting our expectations. We need to create a strong and efficient U.N. Organization able to respond fully to the needs of this new era. It is imperative that all States that value the United Nations work together and with the Secretary-General in strengthening the functions of the Organization. Japan, for its part, will be unstinting in its cooperation. I would like, in this connection, to remind Member States once again that the "former enemies clauses" in the United Nations Charter are utterly inappropriate historic relics which should be promptly deleted.

This session of the General Assembly is a historic one that will consider the new world that is emerging in the wake of the end of the Cold War and the Gulf War and the great reforms in the Soviet Union. Recognizing that it has a historic mission to do everything it can for the world order consistent with its position as a nation of peace, Japan is determined to make the maximum effort for the realization of a peaceful, prosperous and humane world for all.

We need to give further impetus to efforts of this kind in order to achieve tangible progress. Let us join together to ensure that this 46th session will prove to be truly significant by providing that impetus.

Thank you.



(2) Policy Speech by Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa during His Visit to the Republic of Korea


(Seoul, January 17, 1992)


"Japan-ROK Relations in the Asian and Global Context"


The Honorable Park Jyun Kyu,

Respected Speaker of National Assembly

and Distinguished Members of Parliament of the Republic of Korea,


It gives me great pleasure to have this opportunity today to speak to you who represent the Republic of Korea, and through you, to the people of the Republic of Korea. My sincere gratitude goes to the Honorable Speaker of National Assembly and the leaders and Members of National Assembly of all the parties for giving me this opportunity in spite of the current recess.

In the turbulent world of today, tides of major change are washing the shores of the Korean Peninsula as well. Your country realized the aspiration of 40-odd years last autumn - the accession to the United Nations. Furthermore, the meeting between the prime ministers of the South and the North produced a major progress in the relations between the South and the North with the signing of an epoch-making agreement. These are, indeed, felicitous events for which we could not be happier as your neighbor.

Long impressed by the vigorous growth of your country I had eagerly hoped to come here to have candid exchange of views with His Excellency President Roh Tae Woo and other important figures. I feel truly excited at being able to make my first overseas trip as Prime Minister to your country, a country that finds itself in the middle of a historic moment and bring to you my words of felicitation.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

The end of the Cold War was heartening news indeed for people around the world who aspire for peace. We humankind have, in fact, made a big stride into a new world. Yet, the post-Cold War world has been in an extreme state of flux from the Gulf Crisis to the turmoil in the former Soviet Union and the civil war in Yugoslavia, only to prove that the building of a new order of peace is no easy task.

It behooves all countries on earth actively to join their forces together to build a new world order if we are to tide over these times. Today they must all rally around the United Nations, each contributing in accordance with its capability and circumstances to ensuring world peace and stability. Now is the time for the United Nations to strive bard for the attainment of the ideals it held when it was founded.

In this respect, I feel most encouraged that your country has formally joined the fold at the United Nations. With this new development, it will be important for Japan and the Republic of Korea, both expected to play the role of the engine for Asian and global dynamism, to consult and collaborate with each other at the United Nations as well. The cooperative relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea will most likely hold a new significance for the international community.

In making its contribution to world peace and stability, Japan will firmly uphold its basic policy never again to become a military power that may threaten others by taking to heart the lessons of the past and by strictly adhering to a purely defensive posture under the peace Constitution. Under this guiding principle, we shall step up our economic as well as political and personnel contribution for the maintenance of world peace and security. Especially in relation to the U.N. Peace-keeping Operations which are contributing very significantly to this end, we are now in the process of preparing the domestic arrangements which will enable Japan to provide further personnel cooperation including Japanese participation in U.N. Peace-keeping Forces. We are determined to respond, thus to the expectations of the world community.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Paris Conference held last October produced an agreement on a comprehensive political settlement of the Cambodian problem. As a member of the Asian community and as a country that had worked hard to organize the Tokyo Conference on Cambodia, we are truly gratified by the arrival of peace in that country. Having put a period to the long and tortuous warfare with the agreement, Cambodia will now tackle the task of national reconstruction. This means that the entire Indochina, the most unstable area thus far in Southeast Asia, will participate in the dynamic economic development of the Asia-Pacific. This development casts bright hopes for something we are all deeply concerned for - the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region.

The region's remarkable growth in recent years has greatly attracted the world's attention to the Asia-Pacific. Some claim that this region will lead the world into the 21st century. I believe that the dynamism of this region derives from its rich diversity - ethnic, religious, cultural - as well as from multifarious traditions, values and modes of economic development that exist therein. In the past, it was argued that the diversity and the concomitant complexity of the region shackled its development. However, amid today's sea change, the diverse elements of the region are complementing and at the same time stimulating each other, thus generating robust energy.

As we try to promote the development of this region we, therefore, must intensify regional cooperation and dialogue in a manner that is open and suitable to this region while respecting its diversity. In this connection, we feel most encouraged by your country's participation since last year in the ASEAN Post Ministerial Conference - a forum for regional cooperation and dialogue. It was most significant that the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, or APEC process was launched at its first ministerial meeting in 1989. I regard especially highly the participation of the People's Republic of China, Chinese Taipei and Hong Kong and the adoption of a declaration  that spelled out the APEC philosophy and guiding principles at the third APEC ministerial meeting held here in Seoul last autumn. There is no doubt that cooperation between my country and yours in APEC will grow ever more important.

I should also like to take note of the significant growth potential of Northeast Asia which encompasses the Korean Peninsula, China, Russia and Japan. This region as a whole is endowed with ample labor and natural resources, complemented by the economic and technological capabilities of our two countries. In a region where interchange and cooperation were hindered to a large measure by political barriers, the end of the Cold War has opened the way toward an improved climate, where synergy can be achieved out of the strengths and weaknesses of the economies. It is within the realm of possibilities for Japan and the Republic of Korea to play a central role, in cooperation with the United States and other countries concerned, in transforming this region from that of tension to that of cooperation and create a prosperous and open Northeast Asia. In fact, it is a dream well within our reach if we work for it. It is no exaggeration to say that whether this dream will come true or not hinges on the future cooperation between our two countries.

The Japanese people are earnestly praying for the day when a peaceful reunification of the Korean Peninsula will be achieved. This is because a peaceful and stable Korean Peninsula is the cornerstone for a peaceful and stable East Asia. And as a neighbor with many friends in this country we empathize with your national aspiration in a tireless pursuit of your peaceful reunification. We also understand your pain. My heart aches every time I hear stories of families torn asunder and doomed to live scattered on the peninsula. There are some Japanese who moved to North Korea with their spouses, and although their parents and relatives are looking forward to a reunion, it has remained elusive. The letters sent to us from these people, many of them advancing in age, are filled with their earnest plea that they be allowed to have a glimpse of their daughters or sisters who have moved to North Korea.

The tragedy of the divided Korea must be laid to rest as soon as possible. It goes without saying that the peaceful reunification of the Korean Peninsula must be realized through the dialogue between the South and the North.

What especially caught my attention in the agreement signed at the meeting of the prime ministers of the South and the North last year was the reference made to South-North interchange and cooperation at the insistence of your country. As in Aesop's Fables, it is not the cold wind but the warm sun that makes the man take off the cape. I was struck by the warmth of your heart in extending the love for compatriots to people who have lived almost half a century under a different political, economic and social regime. I also found myself very much in agreement with your thinking that it is better to accept North Korea into the outside world rather than to force it into isolation if we are to encourage its reform and change, especially to help it open itself which would be conducive to the peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula. I believe that your support for North Korea's membership in the United Nations stemmed from the same thinking. I strongly hope that North Korea will appreciate the true intent of yours and act as a responsible member of the international community.

Japan has so far had five rounds of normalization talks with North Korea. One important consideration of ours in pursuing this negotiation is to rectify the abnormal relations between Japan and North Korea. But it is not simply that. Another important consideration is that the normalization of relations between Japan and North Korea should contribute to the peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula. This is in line with your thinking that it is better to accept North Korea into the world community as a responsible member. I wish to stress on this occasion that, in the spirit I have just described, my government has, in the talks to date, called constantly for the promotion of the dialogue between the South and the North which is of particular importance for realizing a peaceful and stable Korean Peninsula.

I should add, though, that while there now is better understanding on each other's position as a result of fairly intensive discussions, the gulf of difference in the basic positions of Japan and North Korea has not narrowed much. Of particular gravity to the security of this region, I believe, is the issue of North Korean nuclear development, and it is imperative that this issue be resolved by the time relations between Japan and North Korea are normalized. The people of Japan, the only country that was exposed to nuclear attacks, earnestly pray that nuclear weapons will never be developed in the Korean Peninsula. It is for this reason that Japan has been calling on North Korea not to own a nuclear spent fuel reprocessing facility in addition to urging their acceptance of inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Japan highly appreciates the series of measures that your country has adopted in an effort to resolve this problem: the non-nuclear declaration, the proposal for simultaneous inspection of the South and the North and the declaration of non-existence of nuclear weapons among others. Japan also warmly welcomes the provisional signing late last year of the draft Joint Declaration on Denuclearization between the South and the North as a major step toward the resolution of this issue. We hope that this declaration will be implemented at an early date, and will continue to urge strongly that North Korea, in keeping with its own announcement, sign and faithfully implement the IAEA safeguards agreement as soon as possible, to dispel the international concern over North Korean nuclear development.

Hoping that in the near future a peaceful reunification that assures happiness for everyone in the Korean Peninsula will become a reality, Japan will continue to pursue negotiations with North Korea tenaciously, at the same time continuing to keep in close touch with you.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Japanese people are aware that your country has been striving for peace, freedom and prosperity of the world. The 1988 Olympic games in Seoul, the cooperation you extended to the multinational forces during the Gulf Crisis and your recent hosting of the APEC ministerial meeting were but only a few examples of such effort. The Japanese people highly appreciate such effort of yours and heartily congratulate you on your successes.

The Republic of Korea is, today, a major country in the world, and global expectations for your international role will only grow. As we set sail for a difficult voyage to a new world, I am truly heartened that my country is fortunate to find a neighbor in you with much history and culture to share. This unshakable relationship between your country and mine will benefit not only ourselves, but Asia and the world as a whole. I should like to define this partnership as "Japan-ROK relationship in the Asian and global context.

It now behooves us to cement our mutual trust more than anything as the foundation for this important partnership. Never should we allow ourselves to forget the fact that, at certain moments in the history of our relations with your country for the past couple of millennia, Japan was the assailant and Korea was the victim. Allow me to take this opportunity to express our sincere remorse and apology for Japanese past actions which inflicted unbearable suffering and sorrow on the people of the Korean Peninsula. Recently, the issue of "comfort women" in the service of the Imperial Japanese Army has come into light. I cannot help feeling acutely distressed over this, and I express my sincerest apology.

As one who lived through the last world war, I believe that history must be taught correctly to the future generations who will be responsible for the 21st century by teaching them our faults as faults so that they will never again be repeated. That is the responsibility of our generation, myself included. While Japan has been working to disseminate correct understanding about the relationship between our two countries, we intend to continue to work bard to that end. I am determined to nurture in the Japanese people, especially our youth, the courage to face squarely the past facts, understanding for the feelings of the victims and a sense of admonition that these misdeeds should never be repeated.

Today, the relationship of mutual exchange and interdependence between Japan and the Republic of Korea is growing by leaps and bounds, and with it, undeniably, new frictions and issues are arising. Yet, it should be possible through candid dialogue to seek out solutions to these problems based on understanding and collaboration. Trade imbalance, I am convinced, will be resolved by way of expanding the two-way trade toward a better balance as a result of mutual cooperation. To that end, I have proposed to President Roh Tae Woo the establishment of a forum comprising mainly business-men of both countries. Placing this forum under my direct concern, I should like it to discuss most candidly the causes of and measures to redress trade imbalance. The Government of Japan shall take up the recommendations of the forum in a positive manner.

It is incumbent upon us to do our best to achieve harmony and cooperation between our two countries with our sight constantly set on the world of tomorrow. It is vitally important that we build a new world through the deepening of Japan-ROK relations oriented to the future.

The foundation of any bilateral cooperation is mutual understanding. To promote that, each side must become well versed with the history, culture and society and other attributes of the other side. Following President Roh Tae Woo's visit to Japan the year-before-last, interest has been rising afresh in Japan about the exchanges between our two countries since ancient times and about the history and culture of your country.

I intend to adopt the following measures to make the best of this rise in interest. One is to promote further education research at Japanese universities on the culture, language, etc. of the Korean Peninsula, as well as joint research by Japanese and Korean universities. Through such endeavors, academic and intellectual interchange between our countries can be expected to grow. Another measure is to translate into Japanese outstanding books on your history, culture, thoughts, biographies, etc., and publish them in Japan to spread understanding about your country among broad strata of Japanese people. As to youth exchange, an area of activity in which various measures have been taken to date, I should like to invite 500 additional Korean youth to Japan over a five year period starting next fiscal year. Further, I feel that not only these bilateral exchanges but also broader-based exchanges including our neighboring countries may be useful. To this end, I am now considering a multilateral exchange program which will involve the young people of Japan, the Republic of Korea, China, the former Soviet Union, etc.

At the same time, I very much hope that understanding of Japanese history, culture, society and so on will be furthered in your country as well. Should the efforts on both sides make progress, human and cultural interchange should reach new heights, and will, no doubt, put our bilateral relations of friendship and cooperation on an ever more solid ground.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

Your economic growth called the "Miracle of the Han River" is already well-known to the world. The days when Japan was the only industrialized country in Asia are fast fading into the past. There now is a widening expanse of areas in Asia and the world community where our two countries must work together hand in hand.

First, I wish to act in concert with your country which has now become a donor country to promote economic contribution. Would it not be wonderful to promote together economic cooperation for the developing world by taking advantage of the rich experience both of us have?

I also wish to cooperate with the Republic of Korea for the successful outcome of the Uruguay Round, since Japan and the Republic of Korea, as beneficiaries of the free trading system, need to strive to preserve and strengthen that system.

Let me also cite bilateral cooperation on environment as a new area for cooperation. Let us together address this area as a trans-border challenge in order to leave for our posterity a shining 21st century with beautiful natural heritage.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

In my hometown of Fukuyama City in Hiroshima Prefecture, there is a port town by the name of Tomonoura that has thrived from old times as a hub for maritime transport. A port of call for the envoys from your country during the Edo period, I often went thereto play as a small child. There still remains the lodging for the envoy's delegation at the Fukuzenji temple there, wherein hangs "Taichourou," the name of the lodging, in a wooden frame. This wooden frame is said to have been made by using the three Chinese characters that the envoy Hong Kay Hui, who named the lodging, had his son Hong Kyun Hae write and gave to the chief priest of the temple. The sea at Tomonoura studded with islands, is one of the scenic masterpieces of the Seto Inland Sea. I very much hope that you will visit these relics of Japan-Korea contacts in the days of yore when you find yourself in Japan.

I most earnestly hope that we shall be able to build on this history of contacts bestowed on us by our ancestors and forge "Japan-ROK relations in the Asian and global context" which will ensure friendship and cooperation for hundreds and thousands of years. I wish to conclude my speech by hoping that this visit of mine to your country will contribute, even if in a small way, to realizing such a progress in our bilateral relations.

Thank you.



(3) Statement by Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa at the United Nations Security Council Meeting at the Level of Heads of State and Government


(New York, January 31, 1992)


Prime Minister Major, Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali, Your Majesty and Excellencies,

The year 1992 marks a point of departure toward a promising future for the United Nations. It is thus most appropriate that, for the first time in its history, the Security Council has convened a meeting of Heads of State and Government at the beginning of the year. I should like to convey my sincere respect to Prime Minister John Major for his exceptional leadership in making this Summit Meeting a reality.

I should also like to extend a heartfelt welcome to President Boris Yeltsin, who is present at the United Nations for the first time as the leader of the Russian Federation. The political and economic stability of the Federation is of great importance to the peace and stability of the entire world. I am confident that Russia will successfully discharge its awesome responsibilities, not only as a member of the United Nations, but also as a permanent member of the Security Council.

I also extend my warmest congratulations to Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali, who has assumed his new post amid growing expectations of the role to be played by the United Nations. I take this opportunity to express the firm determination of the Government of Japan to support him in all his endeavors.


(The Changing World and the United Nations)

Mr. President,

The Cold War that divided East and West throughout the postwar period has finally ended, and the world configuration is about to undergo epochal change. While the international situation in this post-Cold War era is highly fluid, it also presents abundant opportunities to build a new and peaceful world order. The precise shape of this new order is not yet clear, but all countries must join together to construct a new peace order appropriate to the new era, for the sake of the freedom and prosperity of humankind and the future of our planet.

At this time of transition, the United Nations has begun to play, both in theory and in practice, a central role in efforts to achieve and maintain world peace; expectations of the United Nations among the peoples of the world have reached new heights. Its role, and particularly that of the Security Council, during the Gulf Crisis remains vivid in our memory; U.N. involvement has been central to the attainment of peace in Central America, to the resolution of the conflict in Yugoslavia, and to the final phase of the Cambodian peace process.

U.N. Peace-keeping Operations have played a major role in ensuring world peace and security over the more than 40 years since the operation was first established. Their importance continues to grow, as reflected in the fact that five new Peace-keeping Operations were established in the last year alone. And in the Asia-Pacific region, the U .N. Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), soon to be established, will have a range of activities unprecedented in U.N. history. Clearly, more active cooperation by members of the United Nations will be needed in this area. Keenly aware of this need, Japan is now striving to make the necessary domestic arrangements to contribute personnel to Peace-keeping Operations. I will do my utmost to have the relevant legislation approved by the Japanese Diet during its current session, which commenced this month.

What are the issues confronting the United Nations today as it responds to expectations of the role it is to play in the attainment and maintenance of peace?


(Issues Confronting the U.N.)

Mr. President,

The major issues are, in my view, first, how will the United Nations adjust itself to the epochal changes; second, how will it improve its effectiveness in peace-keeping and peace-making efforts; and third, how can it secure a sound financial base that will enable it to carry out those efforts.

First of all, I believe that in securing a peaceful world order, the ideals and purposes of the U.N. Charter, which represent fundamental and universal values, will be of even greater relevance than ever before. It is incumbent upon Member States to strive constantly to ensure that each of these values is respected in practice. At the same time, it is also necessary for the United Nations to evolve while adapting to a changing world. For example, certain sections of the U.N. Charter are based on the realities prevailing in 1945, when the United Nations was founded, which predate even the Cold War. In addition, since the Security Council is at the center of U.N. efforts to maintain international peace and security, it is important to consider thoroughly ways to adjust its functions, composition, and other aspects so as to make it more reflective of the realities of the new era. This is a process in which Japan is prepared to take an active part.

Secondly, it is important to consider concrete measures to strengthen the functions of the U.N. so that it can work more effectively to secure a peaceful world order. The importance of peace-keeping activities does not need to be repeated here, but I should like to comment on the need to strengthen the functions of the U.N. in the area of conflict prevention. It is essential that the Secretary-General, who plays a crucial role in U.N.'s mediation efforts and good offices, be given sufficient information concerning tensions which could escalate into international conflicts. An important step in this direction was made last December with the adoption by the General Assembly of the declaration, proposed and cosponsored by Japan and other countries, on U.N. fact-finding in the maintenance of international peace and security. It would also be useful if countries with sophisticated information-gathering capabilities could provide, as appropriate, the Secretary-General with relevant information. I hope that this issue will receive due consideration.

Thirdly, a sound financial base is essential to enhancing the effectiveness of the United Nations and to ensuring that its various activities are conducted smoothly. As reported last autumn by then Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar, the United Nations continues to be faced with critical financial difficulties. At the end of 1991, a total of approximately US$800 million in assessed contributions was still outstanding. If the United Nations is to play a central role in establishing a new and peaceful world order, serious efforts by all Member States are urgently required to resolve this issue. Peace-keeping Operations are not immune to these difficulties. In particular, the availability of funds necessary for the start-up phase of a Peace-keeping Operation is essential to its smooth deployment .It is also important that States concerned, including those which would extend considerable financial support to the Peace-keeping Operations, become involved in consultations on its establishment from the earliest stage.


(Strengthening the Activities and Functions of the International Court of Justice)

I should add that the International Court of Justice (ICJ) also plays an important role in promoting the peaceful settlement of international conflicts. At this time, when strengthening the rule of law in international affairs should be an important element in the creation of a new and peaceful world order, it is necessary to make better use of the Court and to enhance its functions.


(Meeting the Challenges to all Humankind)

Mr. President,

The threat of military force has long been considered the primary threat to peace and security. While this threat seems to have subsided comparatively, humankind's economic and technological achievements have, ironically, given rise to a host of global environmental problems and other threats of non-military nature to human survival. The United Nations will consider global environmental problems at the Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June. I would hope that this is just a beginning, and that the U.N. will hereafter address these new threats with the determination and effectiveness they demand.

The trend toward world peace that we are witnessing today will not endure unless the "dividends of peace" are shared by all, but especially by the peoples of the South who are beset with famine, poverty, disease, and other hardships. The serious efforts of the United Nations in addressing the North-South problem should contribute to world peace and stability. It is also necessary to extend appropriate assistance to the self-help efforts of developing countries. Those efforts, in turn, will foster respect for human rights and the spread of democracy, values shared by people in all parts of the world.


(Arms Control and Disarmament)

Mr. President,

In securing peace, the United Nations also has a tremendously important role to play in the field of arms control and disarmament. Japan has been actively contributing to strengthening the role of the U.N. in that field and has strongly supported the efforts of the countries concerned toward disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament, with a view to attaining strategic stability at a lower level of armament. I welcome the disarmament proposals made very recently by President Bush and President Yeltsin. I sincerely hope that, through consultations between the United States and the Russian Federation, will lead to concrete results.

The dramatic changes in the international milieu have once again highlighted the importance of disarmament efforts, including those to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. I need not point out to those assembled here today that, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the birth of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the question of how to prevent the dissemination of these weapons, of their production facilities, and of related technologies is one of vital importance. I commend the leaders of the CIS for their determination to liberate their institutions from military domination, and I hope that they will continue to work to prevent the proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction as well as related technologies.

The proliferation and transfer of weapons is a matter of concern to every member of the international community. Spurred by initiatives from Japan and the EC countries, last year the General Assembly formally adopted a resolution to establish the U.N. Register on Arms Transfers. I call upon the members of the Security Council to work together for the smooth implementation of this register. Steps to strengthen the regime of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and to conclude successfully negotiations this year on the convention of chemical weapons are also of major importance. It is incumbent upon the Security Council to be seized with the developments made in these areas.



Mr. President,

In the light of the circumstances I have just described, I should like to propose the following measures to render the United Nations more suited to the international situation of the 21st  century.

First, looking ahead to 1995, when the United Nations will celebrate its 50th anniversary, I would like to propose that discussions be held within the Organization to ensure that it plays a central role in maintaining and strengthening the peaceful world order. These discussions should include a consideration of the functions and organizational structure of the United Nations.

Second, in order to secure the smooth functioning of Peace-keeping Operations, I would propose the creation, as necessary, of a consultative mechanism on their establishment, particularly the establishment of large-scale operations. This mechanism would be in the form of a consultative group of an appropriate size whose members would include countries which are major contributors of funds, among other things, as well as the countries concerned in the region. I would also emphasize the importance of securing sufficient funds for PKOs at their initial stage, and invite Member States to make voluntary contributions to the PKO Trust Fund in the U.N.

Third, I propose that concrete ways be sought to strengthen the role of the United Nations in facing non-military threats to the future security and prosperity of humankind, including those relating to the environment, refugees, and poverty. I would hope that the Secretary-General will bring these non-military threats to the attention of the relevant U.N. organs.

Fourth, in the area of arms control and disarmament, I propose that concrete measures be urgently considered for bolstering the efforts of the United Nations and the countries concerned to strengthen the control of and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and to restrain the international transfer of conventional weapons.


Mr. President,

It is the responsibility of all the members of the international community to work for the maintenance of world peace. As we enter the 21st century, the Security Council and, indeed, every country in the world are required to face in earnest the problems which lie before us as we shape a new and peaceful world order. Having recently commenced its term as a non-permanent member of the Security Council, Japan realizes that present circumstances confer upon it particularly weighty responsibilities. Japan earnestly embraces these responsibilities without reservation and, as envisaged in its Constitution, is determined to continue to extend maximum support to the United Nations in the name of international cooperation.

Thank you.



(4) Speech by Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)


(Rio de Janeiro, June 13, 1992)


Mr. Chairman, Mr. Secretary-General, Distinguished Delegates,

Let me first express my gratitude to the host country Brazil for the opportunity to speak before this distinguished audience.

Mr. Chairman,

The world is now at a major turning point. We are now searching for a new international order which values the well- being of each and every person; an order in which human dignity is fully respected by upholding the principles of freedom, democracy and sustainable development. We should aim at constructing a new era in which we all live as global citizens.

It is the most fundamental prerequisite of this "era of global citizenry" that environmental protection and sustainable development be achieved in tandem. The survival of our posterity is at stake; the question is whether we can act globally and now.


Mr. Chairman,

The Rio Declaration and other epoch-making agreements that have been reached on the frameworks of international cooperation in the field of the environment are a significant first step in our efforts toward sustainable development.

On the Framework Convention on Climate Change, all countries, especially developed countries, are called upon to fulfill their commitment faithfully. Japan will, following its Action Program to Arrest Global Warming, aim at stabilizing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by the year 2000 at about the 1990 level. The conservation of biological diversity is another important area of international cooperation. On the protection of the ozone layer, Japan will strive to front-load the commitment under the Treaty and the Protocol and accelerate its phase out of substances that deplete the ozone layer toward elimination in the year 1996. We will endeavor to translate into action the statement of principles on the conservation of forests; since we have undertaken the greening of our land through nationwide campaigns, we would like to make use of this experience for the promotion of global greening.

Traditional environmental problems linked with poverty in developing countries also require international cooperation as called for under the action program of Agenda 21.

But the process has just begun. What is important is actions which follow.


Mr. Chairman,

I am convinced that environment and development are not only compatible, but also mutually reinforcing in the long run. In the course of its rapid economic growth after the Second World War, Japan suffered a period of serious pollution, which generated tragic diseases such as Minamata disease caused by mercury poisoning and Yokkaichi asthma resulting from air pollution. It deeply grieved the Japanese people, who for millennia had lived in harmony with the order and rhythm of nature. This prompted the Japanese Government to enforce environmental regulations which are among the strictest in the world. The business community also worked hard on technological and other adjustments. As a result, Japan finally managed to transform itself into an energy and resources saving society and dramatically improved its environment. Today, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of Japan, which produces about 14 percent of world GNP, is less than 5 percent and its SOx emission is only 1 percent of the world total.


Mr. Chairman,

The prosperity Japan has achieved through the utilization of the resources of the earth makes its incumbent upon Japan to play a leading role in the international efforts for both environment and development.

Japanese socioeconomic size alone greatly affects the global environment, and I consider it one of our international responsibilities to see to it to create a Japan which is gentle to the earth. This is an important pillar of my policy to realize a decent society in which people enjoy true satisfaction. Specifically, we will further promote energy and resources' and continue to work for technological  breakthroughs, the benefits of which we hope to share with the rest of the world.


Mr. Chairman,

Japan will support the efforts of other countries, especially developing countries, through existing bilateral and multilateral mechanisms. Self-help efforts on the part of developing countries are of primary importance to make such support truly effective.

In implementing Agenda 21, a useful role would be played by the International Development Association (IDA). Due consideration should be paid to this function by the IDA in the negotiations on the 10th replenishment of its resources.

With regard to the Global Environment Facility (GEF), an agreement has been reached on the continued major role it is to play, after necessary improvements, concerning financial contributions in the field of the global environment. Appropriate funds need to be secured, once a mechanism which ensures the effective and efficient use of the fund is established. Japan should consider a positive contribution to the Facility.


Mr. Chairman,

Japan is steadily expanding its Official Development Assistance (ODA), striving to make its net disbursement during the five years 1988-1992 exceed US$50 billion. In particular, in the area of environment, Japan announced, at the Arche Summit in 1989, its target of committing around \300 billion (US$2.3 billion) of environment-related aid during the three fiscal years 1989-1991. Actually, we have exceeded that goal by providing more that \400 billion (US$3.1 billion) within that time frame.

Sharing the ever-growing global awareness of the importance of preserving the world environment, which this Conference is doing so much to promote, Japan wishes to contribute to preserving the earth's forests, waters and atmosphere and to enhancing the capacity of developing countries to tackle environmental problems through the appropriate and well-planned implementation of its aid. To this end, Japan will expand its bilateral and multilateral ODA in the field of environment to around \900 billion to \1 trillion (US$7 to 1.1 billion) during the 5-year period starting from fiscal year 1992, which began this past April.

Partnership with developing countries is indispensable for the successful implementation of environment-related ODA. Japan will, therefore, do its utmost in the finding, formulation and implementation of effective projects through consultations with developing countries.

In addition to ODA, the private sector has a vital role to play by extending its cooperation in financial support, technology transfer and human resources development. Volunteer efforts through non-governmental organizations are also essential. The Japanese Government highly appreciates these activities and will continue to lend them active support.


Mr. Chairman,

Our joint endeavor to protect the global environment has just been launched. The real challenge is how we can translate our political will here in Rio into future actions to save the earth. However uphill the climb may be, we must move forward. Let us tackle this challenge with courage, guided by our shared sense of purpose as "global citizens.

Thank you very much.



(5) Statement by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Koji Kakizawa at the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia


(Tokyo, June 22, 1992)


1. It is a great pleasure for Japan, as the host country of this Conference, and also as a country in Asia, which has deeply been involved in the Cambodia peace process, that a large number of countries and international organizations are gathered here to renew and further strengthen their commitment to the Cambodia peace process. We all have the will and desire to contribute to realizing peace and prosperity in Cambodia.

I should like to take this occasion to pay my deepest respect to His Royal Highness Prince Norodom Sihanouk, who, as the driving force of the peace process, is making unceasing efforts for national reconciliation, and to Mr. Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who is tasked with an unprecedented undertaking in U.N. history.


2. The main theme of this Ministerial Conference is rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia. Since the Paris Conference of 1989 countries and international organizations willing to make contribution for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia have held sincere discussion on the subject and endeavored to come up with concrete plans. At the Paris Conference held last October, the "Declaration on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia" was adopted as a document providing basis for developing plans and programs for rehabilitation and reconstruction in the country. For this conference, a report was prepared jointly by the UNDP, the World Bank, the IMF and the ADB with a view to providing a useful basis for identifying the priority areas for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Holding of this conference would not have been possible without the sincere aspirations on the part of all those concerned, and is a reflection of their unfaltering commitment to providing assistance to Cambodia.


3. Japan, for its part, has actively been studying concrete ways of making contribution. We dispatched several survey teams since immediately after the Peace Accord was reached and tried to understand and assess the economic and social conditions of Cambodia as well as the rehabilitation and reconstruction needs. Based on the results of these surveys, and taking note of the appeal of the Secretary-General of the United Nations issued in April, Japan intends to extend necessary cooperation to the projects for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia which need to be commenced with in the coming several years. In doing so, Japan will continue its efforts on the humanitarian assistance it has made thus far and also endeavor to make a target contribution of $150 to $200 million, out of the $600 million deemed necessary in the U.N. Secretary-General's appeal, which is to be used in the areas such as the improvement of basic infrastructure, health and medical care, agriculture and human resources development. In proceeding with assistance on the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia, Japan wishes to pursue the possibility of cooperating with Cambodia's neighbors, especially the ASEAN countries, with a view to utilizing their expertise and experience.


4. In order to make an effective progress in the implementation of full-scale reconstruction programs in Cambodia, it is essential to have a close coordination among the countries and international organizations concerned, and extensive policy dialogues with the Cambodian side. This perception is reflected in the Declaration adopted at the Paris Conference. The Paris Declaration talks of the establishment of the International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC) as a coordinating mechanism of medium-to long-term reconstruction assistance. Should the ICORC be established, Japan is prepared to chair the Committee in close collaboration with the countries and international organizations concerned.


5. When we address the issue of rehabilitation and reconstruction in Cambodia, we cannot forget the role of NGOs. Volunteers from a large number of countries have been active in all regions of Cambodia for many years since prior to the achievement of peace, particularly in providing humanitarian assistance in areas such as medicine, education and vocational training. These NGOs shall, without doubt, continue to play an important role in the forthcoming process of rehabilitation and reconstruction. Just as we have the participation of the representatives of NGOs at this conference, it is hoped that collaboration with and assistance toward NGOs are enhanced in the future.


6. As stated in the "Declaration on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia, rehabilitation and reconstruction should benefit all Cambodians equally. At the same time, they are awesome undertakings which require the participation of, as well as the concentration of the wisdom and toil of every Cambodian individual. We cannot but express our serious concern regarding recent situation where progress in the implementation of the peace process is impeded due to the lack of cooperation by one Cambodian party. Japan strongly urges all the Cambodian parties to offer full cooperation swiftly to UNTAC with a view to holding free and fair elections in accordance with the Paris Peace Accord. Economic assistance to Cambodia contributes to the stability of the Cambodian society by improving the welfare and living standards of its people, and the politicization of this task must strictly be avoided.


7. In order for UNTAC to accomplish its tasks, it is imperative that necessary assistance by the international community be secured. Japan will make appropriate contributions to UNTAC. We are now undergoing the procedure to make the necessary expenditure and we hope to pay by the end of this month our assessed contribution amounting to $75 million out of $600 million which was approved last month as the necessary cost for financing UNTAC. At the same time, Japan intends to work toward making contribution to UNTAC in terms of personnel.


8. Cambodia has been left out of the main current of growth and development in Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region. This not only cast a dreary shadow over the political stability of the region as a whole, but also compelled terrible sacrifice on that part of Cambodians within and without their country. Now, however, the common desire of the international community to establish a truly durable peace in Cambodia is directly reaching out to the people of the country. I should like to close my statement by expressing clearly our strong hope that all Cambodians expend their own efforts toward this end, and our strong determination that we, on our part, shall never be remiss in our efforts at providing the necessary assistance.



(6) Statement by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Koji Kakizawa to the General Session of the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences


(Manila, July 24, 1992)


Your Excellency Mr. Raul S. Manglapus, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Philippines,

Distinguished delegates of the ASEAN countries and dialogue countries,

Ladies and gentlemen:

I should first of all like to congratulate our host, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the inauguration of the new administration under President Fidel Ramos, and its successful discharge immediately thereafter of the heavy responsibility of hosting these Post-Ministerial Conferences (PMCs) of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Japan attaches great importance to these conferences, and since 1978 has enjoyed the opportunity to send its Foreign Minister to attend the meetings with ASEAN each year. This year, however, much as Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe wishes to be here, unfortunately he could not, owing to reasons of health. I should like to convey Deputy Prime Minister Watanabe's message that he wishes the success of these conferences and eagerly looks forward to meeting you at the earliest possible occasion.


Ladies and gentlemen,

The ASEAN is celebrating the 25th anniversary of its formation this year. I extend my congratulations on behalf of the Japanese Government. ASEAN has responded adroitly and realistically to the changing international environment for the past quarter of a century. It has steadily promoted internal cooperation, and has achieved remarkable results in economic areas while also strengthening political ties. During this period, the ASEAN countries also continued external dialogue and promoted a broad cooperative relationship trough such forum as the Post-Ministerial Conferences. Japan pays its deep respect to the sense of mission and ceaseless efforts by ASEAN, which has shown to the world a model of regional cooperation.

In coincidence with its 25th anniversary, the international environment surrounding the ASEAN is changing dramatically. Amid these circumstances, the leaders of the ASEAN countries met in Singapore last January to discuss earnestly the future course ASEAN should take, and clearly determined its orientation in a number of areas. Japan deeply respects such political leadership exercised by each of the leaders. While wishing ASEAN further development, Japan will continue to offer its active cooperation to this end.


Ladies and gentlemen,

An important task for the ASEAN amid the changing international situation is to strengthen its relations with the countries of Indochina, and to integrate them into the dynamic development of the Asia-Pacific region. As an important element of its Southeast Asia policy, Japan has, from the past, worked to develop a relationship based on mutual understanding with the countries of Indochina, and thereby to contribute to building peace and prosperity in Southeast Asia as a whole. From this stance, Japan welcomes the accession by Vietnam and Laos to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia following the confirmation at the Fourth ASEAN Summit that ASEAN welcomes the accession by all countries in the region to the treaty. Japan hopes that the relationship of friendship and co-operation among the countries of ASEAN, all countries of Indochina including Cambodia, and Myanmar, would be strengthened, and this in turn would contribute to the stability and prosperity of Southeast Asia as a whole.

The most important and urgent task in Indochina is efforts for peace in Cambodia and its rehabilitation and reconstruction. I had the privilege to chair the Ministerial Conference on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia held in Tokyo last month. Significant achievements were made at this meeting; the Tokyo declarations on the peace process and rehabilitation and reconstruction, were unanimously adopted; and pledges of assistance totaling $8.8 million were made. The latter far exceeded prior expectations. We thank all countries again for their forthcoming cooperation which made these results possible. We believe that all participants shared the recognition that there will be "no peace without reconstruction" and that there will be "no reconstruction without peace." Japan strongly wishes that each Cambodian party complies with collective desire of the international community to establish a durable peace, as was expressed in the Tokyo Declaration on the peace process. Yet we cannot help expressing serious concern at the present situation where the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (DK) continues its refusal to enter phase II of the cease-fire, and as a result, is creating an impasse in the peace process. It is urgent for DK to give serious consideration to the 11-point proposal prepared at the Tokyo Conference which takes into account, inter-alia, the DK's claims, and for it to cooperate actively with the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) for the full and expeditious implementation of the Paris Peace Agreement on Cambodia. UNTAC will be a crucial test case for the U.N.'s peace-keeping ability in the post-Cold War period. Therefore, all countries must further strengthen their support to UNTAC; we must ensure that UNTAC can smoothly fulfill its functions, and maintain the cease-fire, demobilize the troops, and repatriate the refugees so that Cambodia can promptly embark upon its reconstruction under the new government to be established through the free and fair election due next year. Japan considers it important that substantive discussions were conducted on the peace in Cambodia at this past ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, and hopes that significant discussions will also be conducted at these Post-Ministerial Conferences. Japan intends to continue active efforts in order to facilitate the peace process and, to promote the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia, in close collaboration and consultation with all the countries concerned.

Japan would like to extend assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia in tandem with the ASEAN countries. As then Prime Minister Kaifu stated during his visit to ASEAN countries in May last year, Japan and ASEAN enjoy a partnership in which both think and act together not only concerning their mutual relations but also for the peace and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region at large. We are now studying whether we could implement a joint project to assist in the resettlement of refugees through "tripartite cooperation," which combines our financial and technological capacity with ASEAN's experience and knowledge and which takes full account of Cambodian needs. We expect that the materialization of such projects would introduce a new dimension to the forms of Japan-ASEAN cooperation.

With the enactment of the International Peace Cooperation Law we shall consider in the concrete assistance in personnel we would extend to UNTAC in response to a request from the United Nations. We would like to emphasize here that Japanese cooperation under this law will be made only in response to U.N. resolutions or requests from international organizations, and only to cooperate on efforts for international peace which center around the United Nations; we cannot and will not conduct such cooperation of our own accord. In making such contribution in personnel, we are determined to take into account the lessons of the past based on a full and accurate grasp of history, to firmly uphold our peace constitution, to never embark again on the road toward a military power, and we would like our friends in Asian countries to understand our resolve to continue to abide by these basic principles.

The serious problem of Indochinese refugees should not be forgotten when considering the situation in Indochina. Japan has been cooperating actively by such means as making the largest contribution to the budget concerning Indochinese refugees of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in order to alleviate the burden of the affected countries, and it will continue to respond in an appropriate manner to this issue.


Ladies and gentlemen,

The leaders of the ASEAN countries agreed at the Singapore Summit to intensify external dialogue on political and security matters by using the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences. The Japanese Government welcomes the decision, since it corresponds with the proposal made last year at these conferences by then Japanese Foreign Minister Nakayama concerning the "political dialogue designed to increase the sense of security felt by all parties." Japan has, from the past, considered that a subregional approach, carefully considered to suit the particular circumstances of each case, is required for the solution of unresolved problems in this region. At the same time, we consider that promoting in parallel region-wide political dialogue, which encompasses a broader spectrum of countries, is also important. This "two-track" approach was recently mentioned in a speech by Prime Minister Miyazawa in Washington. Existing fora should be used for region-wide political dialogue, given the fact that diverse frameworks of international cooperation already exist in this region in a multi-layered manner. We consider using the Post-Ministerial Conferences as the most suitable forum for this dialogue, and hope that substantial discussion on political matters will be conducted hereafter at these conferences.


Ladies and gentlemen,

The presence and involvement of the United States remains extremely important for the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region amid the changing international environment. The presence of American forces serves as a stabilizing factor of the region not only in military but also political terms. Japan strongly wishes that the United States continues in the future to maintain its forward deployment in this region. Therefore, it is Japan's policy to maintain steadfastly the Japan-U.S. security arrangements, and to make further efforts to ensure their smooth operation and enhance their credibility through various means such as host-nation support. Japan's host-nation support has reached $4 billion in fiscal 1992, and is projected to account for 70 percent of the non-salary cost of the United States forces in Japan by fiscal 1995. We welcome the cooperation also being made by ASEAN countries for the maintenance of forward deployment by the United States.

Apart from Cambodia, which I have already mentioned, there remain in this region disputes and conflicts in the Korean peninsula, the South China Sea and other areas. The reduction of tensions in the Korean peninsula is one of the most important tasks at present concerning the security of the Asia-Pacific region. Dialogue between North and South Korea form the main pillar of efforts toward this end, and we cannot hope more that these talks will pave the way toward reconciliation. At the same time, it is important for neighboring countries to cooperate in assisting in this dialogue.

Serious concern is being entertained on the possible development of nuclear weapons by North Korea, and this is serving as a destabilizing factor in this region. Although North Korea's acceptance of the inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signifies some progress, mutual inspections by North and South Korea have fallen into a deadlock over the method. The international society, Asia-Pacific countries above all, needs to work in unity in order to lead North Korea to dispel all concerns through the realization of these inspections. Japan is determined to strive toward this end by maintaining in its normalization talks with North Korea the position that there can be no normalization of relations with North Korea without a solution to this issue.

The South China Sea forms a crucial route between Northeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. Differences over territorial claims to islands in the area are becoming highlighted among the parties concerned. We are keenly observing the informal workshops which are being promoted under Indonesia's initiative and which aim to reduce tensions, and also the fact that a declaration was issued at this past ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, from the viewpoint that it is important for the parties to exercise self-restraint and seek a peaceful solution through discussion. We strongly hope that the continuation of such efforts would lead to the reduction of differences in this region.


Ladies and gentlemen,

Economic growth of the countries within is also an indispensable factor when contemplating the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region. The ASEAN countries are moving toward strengthened regional cooperation by such means as the formation of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). Japan believes that the strengthening of economic relations within ASEAN could contribute to economic development not only of the region but also of the whole world. From this viewpoint, we welcome the leadership exercised by the ASEAN leaders at the Fourth ASEAN Summit. We hope that the ASEAN will continue to uphold GATT principles as stated in the Singapore Declaration, and also that AFTA will contribute to maintaining and strengthening the open, multilateral trading system.

It goes without saying that the maintenance and the strengthening of an open, multilateral trading system through an early and successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round negotiations is a key to further economic development of the Asia-Pacific region as well as the whole world, and is naturally a policy matter of great importance. Japan believes that an agreement on the Uruguay Round could be reached before the end of this year, as stated in the Economic Declaration of the Munich Summit. Although it is facing various difficulties, Japan is resolved to make its utmost efforts for the early conclusion of the Uruguay Round through mutual cooperation among all the parties, and hopes that other countries would also make further endeavors for progress in the negotiations.

In light of the importance of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region, Japan intends to continue its active efforts on Official Development Assistance (ODA) which centers on bilateral assistance, and multilateral economic cooperation centering on Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), as well as to work on expanding relationships in trade and investment. Japan has consistently striven to expand the volume of its ODA. In addition, the Japanese cabinet has recently adopted the ODA Charter as a means to further the efficient implementation of ODA and public understanding on it at home and abroad. In the Charter, we have made clear that we shall provide ODA taking into account comprehensively the socio-eonomic conditions of the recipient and its bilateral relations with Japan, as well as by paying full attention to the following principles: (1) Environmental conservation and development should be pursued in tandem; (2) Any use of ODA for military purposes or for aggravation of international conflicts should be avoided; (3) Full attention should be paid to trends in recipient countries' military expenditures, etc., their development and production of mass destruction weapons and missiles, their export and import of arms, etc., so as to maintain and strengthen international peace and stability, and from the viewpoint that developing countries should place appropriate priorities in the allocation of their resources on their own economic and social development; (4) Full attention should be paid to efforts for promoting democratization and introduction of a market-oriented economy, and the situation regarding the securing of basic human rights and freedom in the recipient country. We seek full understanding by Asian countries on the above. In addition, the Charter states that Asia continues to be a priority region for Japan's ODA, and that it takes full account of such factors as the closeness of relations between Japan and Asian countries, and in particular, the importance of economic development among ASEAN countries for that of the whole world.


Ladies and gentlemen,

Japan is ready to continue its work, in cooperation with all countries, on global issues such as environment and drugs. As for Japanese policies on the environment. Japan shall strive to drastically increase its volume of ODA, as it announced at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), to around \900 million to \1 billion during the five years from fiscal 1992, with a view to improving the capability of developing countries to conserve the world's greenery, waters, and atmosphere, and to tackle environmental problems. In the process, Japan will strive to find, formulate and implement good projects through policy dialogue with recipient countries. Japan will also make efforts to put the Statement on Principles on the Conservation of Forests into practice. The drug problem is also a serious global problem which the international society should tackle in unity. The illicit production, transaction and use of drugs in Southeast Asia are becoming increasingly serious and we consider that efforts by all countries to resolve these problems need to be strengthened.


Ladies and gentlemen,

The democratization of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is now the focus of international attention. Yet, important changes have also begun in Asia and the Pacific. Although these changes tend to be overlooked in the Euro-Atlantic Community, shaping a cooperative relationship befitting this region is very important for the peace and prosperity of the world. At the recent Munich Summit, considerable discussion on this region was conducted at the various meetings, and in the political declaration, the common recognition among the participants that "in the Asia-Pacific region, existing regional frameworks, such as the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, have an important part to play in promoting peace and stability" was confirmed. We would like to engage in exceedingly closer contacts and consultations than before, in order to reflect the interests and concerns of Asia Pacific countries in the discussions at the next G-7 Summit, to be held in Tokyo.

I should like to close by stating my wish that substantial discussions at these Post-Ministerial Conferences would bring fruitful results.

Thank you very much.



(7) Statement by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Koji Kakizawa at the Fourth APEC Ministerial Conference


(Bangkok, September 10, 1992)


Mr. Chairman,

It gives me great pleasure to attend this APEC Ministerial Meeting for a second time with Minister for International Trade and Industry Mr. Kozo Watanabe. I should first of all like to state my sincere appreciation to our host, the Thai Government and people, for their devoted efforts in holding this Conference. Furthermore, I should like to express my deep gratitude for the honor we were given yesterday of an audience with His Majesty King Bhumipol Adulyadej, and the pleasure and privilege of attending the dinner hosted by His Excellency Prime Minister Anand Panyarachun.

Permit me also to convey the message to you entrusted to me by Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Michio Watanabe that he wishes this Conference every success and eagerly looks forward to seeing you on the earliest possible occasion.


Mr. Chairman,

Amid the historic changes facing the international community following the end of the Cold War, mankind has within its grasp the chance to create a more peaceful and prosperous world. The countries of the Asia-Pacific region are adapting to these changes ably and with realism, and are opening their own path toward the future. Here in Southeast Asia, the process toward a durable peace and national reconstruction has begun in Cambodia. In June I had the privilege to chair the Ministerial Conference on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia in Tokyo. Significant progress was made at this meeting. The Tokyo declarations on the peace process and rehabilitation and reconstruction were unanimously adopted, and assistance totaling US$880 million was pledged. That amount far exceeded expectations. We believe that all participants fully shared the recognition that there can be "no peace without reconstruction" and that there can be "no reconstruction without peace." In Cambodia, efforts on rehabilitation and reconstruction are entering their main phase. Against this backdrop, the present impasse in the peace process, caused by the lack of cooperation by the Party of Democratic Kampuchea, needs to be broken. Japan strongly hopes that all countries further strengthen their support for UNTAC, and that each of the Cambodian parties complies with the collective desire of the international community and discharges fully and expeditiously its obligations under the Paris Peace Agreement.

While respecting the diversity which lies among them, the countries of the Asia-Pacific region have increased their interdependence. We expect the region to continue to develop economically as the most attractive and free area in the world. APEC achieved the participation of China, Hong Kong and Chinese Taipei last year, and has grown into a body of regional cooperation whose members collectively account for about half of the world's GNP. International expectations on APEC's further development are reflected in the Political Declaration of this year's Munich Summit of the G-7, whicb states that APEC has "an important part to play in promoting peace and stability" in the Asia-Pacific region, together with other regional frameworks such as the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conferences.

Since the previous Ministerial, APEC activities have expanded remarkably. Cooperation in such fields as human resources development and telecommunications, which is of major importance for the future of this region, has become much m ore active at the working groups. Meanwhile, the need for a new approach to the environment, based among others on the results of UNCED, is being called for in such fora as the working group on marine resource conservation and the ad hoc economic group meetings. At the APEC Education Ministers' Meeting held in Washington last month, useful discussion was held which initiated study on human resources development from a new angle. It is evident that APEC's activities will expand further.

This Ministerial Conference, which seeks to reach an agreement on establishing a secretariat and a budgetary system, is very important. We hope that the foundations necessary for future promotion and strengthening of APEC will be firmly established.


(Economic Outlook of the Asia-Pacific Region; Trends in the Japanese Economy)

Mr. Chairman,

As stated in the report by the ad hoc economic group meeting held last month in Tokyo, economic growth among the Asian NIEs and ASEAN countries remains strong, while the economies of North America and Oceania have begun to show steady recovery.

Taking a look at trends in Japan itself, the economy, which enjoyed strong growth since 1987, began to slow down at a gradual pace from the end of 1990, and since the second half of last year entered an adjustment phase. While there is recovery in housing construction, the Japanese economy is experiencing slow growth at present, particularly in final demand, indicated by the ebbing growth of individual consumption and low levels of plant and equipment investment. Other factors such as the plunge in the prices of stocks and real estate has made the situation serious. In order to counter this situation aptly and promptly, decisions were made on 28 August to implement a "Package of Economic Measures" whose main component is fiscal measures, already explained by MITT Minister Mr. Kozo Watanabe, exceeding a budget of \10 trillion (about US$87 billion), consisting of public investment and other measures.

It is to be expected that this Package would benefit greatly the sustained growth without inflation of our economy, pulled chiefly by domestic demand, and in turn contribute to stable growth of the world economy, which, as stated in the Economic Declaration of the Munich Summit, is showing increasing signs of recovery. 


(The Uruguay Round)

Mr. Chairman,

It need not be repeated here that the early and successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round negotiations is the most urgent task concerning the economy of the Asia-Pacific region, considering that the economic dynamism of this region is founded upon the open multilateral trading system. As stated in the Economic Declaration of the Munich Summit, Japan, too, expects that an agreement can be reached at the Round before the end of this year. I should like to reiterate that Japan, while facing various difficulties, is resolved to make every effort toward an early conclusion of the negotiations through mutual understanding and cooperation among all the parties involved.

The recent agreement on the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) caught the world's attention. Japan respects the efforts made by the countries concerned to conclude the negotiations. Meanwhile, it believes in the need for NAFTA: (a) to be consistent with GATT provisions; (b) to take full consideration of the interests of third countries; and (c) not to lead to a regional bloc.

With regard to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), we welcome ASEAN's initiative which led to its formation, and hope that AFTA will contribute to strengthening the open, multilateral trading system.



Mr. Chairman,

It is evident that, in addition to economic cooperation through APEC, and economic exchanges by the private sector, Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is mostly conducted on a bilateral basis, is important for the economic development of the Asia-Pacific region. As stated in the Japanese ODA Charter, Asia will continue to be a priority region for Japan's ODA.

The role of the economies of this region continues to expand as we approach the next century, which is sometimes called that of the Asia-Pacific region. In this regard, one of the new challenges facing us is assistance to the former Soviet republics which are striving to reform their internal and external policies in politics and economics. Many of these countries, which lie across the Eurasian continent, have strong historic and cultural ties with the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, Japan will host the Tokyo Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States on October 28-29th which will be chaired by Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe. The Government of Japan wishes to extend invitations to all the foreign ministers of APEC countries to take active part in this Conference.

I should like to conclude my statement by expressing Japan's strong desire to see APEC make steady progress toward the next century, directed by its basic ideal of "cooperation open to the world," and Japan's resolve to make every possible contribution toward this end.

Thank you.



(8) Address by Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa at the National Press Club


(Washington, D.C., July 2, 1992)


President Spears,

Distinguished Guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen,


It is a privilege to speak in this tradition-honored club.

I first became involved in Japan-U.S. relations in 1939. As a member of the Japanese delegation to the Japan-America Student Conference, I came to the United States to discuss the future of Japan-U.S. relations with American students. Flora Lewis, who is dear to you all, is one of the American alumni from those years.

Throughout my experiences in the various chapters of the relationship between our two countries, the free, resilient and well-balanced ethos of American society, especially the American press, has never ceased to impress me. I am sure you agree with me that Flora Lewis is living proof that intellectual curiosity keeps one active, alert and young. If I have managed to remain a young "new leader" in Japanese politics for such a very long time, I owe it largely to the intellectual stimuli that I gained through my exposure to America and my American friends.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

With the Cold War behind us, we have an historic opportunity to create a more peaceful and more prosperous world where life is better for an ever-greater number of people of this and succeeding generations. The key to our success is international cooperation. Above all, the cooperation between Japan and the United States, which together account for 40 percent of the world's GNP, is of crucial importance.

Recognizing this, President Bush and I announced last January in Tokyo our resolve to pursue the Global Partnership, in which Japan and the United States will cooperate on a broad range of international issues ranging from political and economic cooperation to scientific probes into the unknown.

In fact, our Global Partnership is unfolding worldwide, from assistance to the New Independent States (NIS) to our joint endeavors in Central and South America, the Middle East and Africa as well, of course, as in Asia. The most recent case in point is the announcement Japan made in the course of Vice President Quayle's visit to Japan last May. In close cooperation with American Enterprise Funds, which are providing $450 million of assistance, we will extend up to $400 million of additional financing to Eastern and Central Europe. Japan's financial support to Eastern and Central Europe since the collapse of the Berlin Wall already exceeds $4.5 billion.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

Today I wish to focus on the Asia-Pacific region to illustrate how Japan intends to expand this Global Partnership with the United States. I do this because I feel that, although the democratization and economic reform in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are now the focus of international attention, momentous changes are also occurring in the Asia-Pacific region. These changes are often overlooked by the Euro-Atlantic Community, but I believe that these changes will play an important part in our search for new international cooperative relationships for the peace and prosperity of the world.

Many countries in the region feel that Japan and the United States are well placed to help them seize the opportunity to bring about more enduring peace and greater prosperity to the region.

The Asia-Pacific region is characterized by its cultural, linguistic, and economic diversity. And yet the economies are closely inked. Drawing strength from this diversity and interdependence, the region has registered phenomenal economic growth in recent years, as exemplified by the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) and the ASEAN countries. According to a projection, the Asia-Pacific region may develop into a market as large as Europe or North America by around 2015. There is no doubt that the region's economic dynamism will continue to provide strong momentum for the expansion of the world economy in the rest of the century and beyond.

Japan has been actively cooperating with these countries in their nation-building efforts. In fact, half of Japan's ODA is directed every year toward the developing countries in the region. Not only do we intend to continue such economic cooperation, but we also hope to play a positive role in promoting this region's political stability.

The United States, of course, has been engaged in the Asia-Pacific region since the last century. American involvement has been a central factor for the region's peace and prosperity. The economic ties between the United States and this region are getting ever more important and far-ranging. U.S. trans-Pacific trade far exceeds its Atlantic trade, and its investment in Asia has also increased substantially in recent years. Given the region's economic potential, they are expected to expand further.

Needless to say, the U.S. presence and engagement remain vitally important for the peace and prosperity of the region. It is broadly perceived in the region that the presence of U.S. forces serves as a stabilizing factor not only in military terms but also in political terms. It is earnestly desired that the United States will maintain its forward deployment in the region.

The Japan-U.S. security arrangements provide the essential support for this forward deployment. The "Overseas Family Residency Program" in Japan for the crews of 15 U.S. naval vessels including an aircraft carrier greatly facilitates the presence and operation of U.S. forces in the region. Japan's host nation support amounts to $4 billion in fiscal 1992, and is projected to account for 70 percent of the non-salary cost of U.S. forces in Japan by Fiscal 1995.

I consider such support by Japan to be an essential prerequisite to the continued U.S. commitment to Asian-Pacific security. The Japanese Government will strive further to ensure the smooth operation of its security arrangements with the United States and to enhance the credibility of these arrangements through various means including the further improvement of its host nation support.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

Political cooperation between Japan and the United States, based on these economic and security underpinnings, is also a vital component of our partnership in the Asia-Pacific region. It is in this context that we should consider the potential conflicts and disputes which still persist in the region. Some of these involve military tension, as in the cases on the Korean Peninsula or in Cambodia. The solution in each of these case requires a carefully considered approach best suited to the particular circumstances.

On the Korean Peninsula, over 1.4 million ground troops remain in a state of confrontation across the 38th parallel. The reduction of this tension is the most pressing task today for the security of the Asia-Pacific region. The North-South dialogue for reconciliation needs to be supported by the close cooperation among the four major powers involved, that is, Japan, the United States, China and Russia. The trilateral cooperation now underway among Japan, the United States and the Republic of Korea on the question of North Korea's nuclear weapons development signifies the beginning of such multilateral cooperation.

Serious concern persists about North Korea's possible nuclear weapons development. If this should prove to be true, it would be a serious destabilizing factor for the security of East Asia and of the world. North Korea's acceptance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection signals some progress. However, all the concerned parties must work on North Korea to dispel fully the suspicion of the international community. Japan, for its part, is resolved to work to this end by firmly maintaining the position in its normalization talks with North Korea that there can be no normalization of relations with North Korea without a solution to this issue.

The other urgent security issue is Cambodia's peace process. I cannot help but express grave concern over the fact that one Cambodian party of late is impeding the smooth progress of the peace process. The ongoing operation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) is an unprecedented grand undertaking. Its success or failure will be a crucial test case for the United Nations' peace-keeping ability in the post-Cold War period. We must further strengthen our support for the peace process; we must ensure that the cease-fire be maintained, troops be demobilized, and refugees be repatriated, so that Cambodia can promptly start its reconstruction under the new government to be established through the free and fair election to be held next year.

Less than two weeks ago, Japan hosted in Tokyo the Ministerial Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia. With cooperation from the participants, the Conference put together a total pledge of $880 million of assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Cambodia. In addition, the Conference participants, including all the Cambodian parties, reconfirmed the importance of the full and timely implementation of the Paris Peace Agreement. I earnestly hope that this will favorably affect the peace process. The outstanding role the United States played with Japan in this Conference was a telling example of our Global Partnership.

With the International Peace Cooperation Law enacted, Japan envisages future participation in the UNTAC process through personnel support, thus contributing to the nation-building of postwar Cambodia.

In parallel with these bilateral and sub-regional approaches to the instabilities in the region, it is also important to build a region-wide framework for political dialogue encompassing a broader spectrum of countries. I believe that the Post-Ministerial Conference of ASEAN (ASEAN-PMC), at which ASEAN foreign ministers meet their counterparts form the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the EC, and the Republic of Korea, may, for now, most usefully serve this purpose. I heartily welcome the decision of the ASEAN Summit last January which points in this direction.

The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ministerial meeting provides another possible framework for dialogue. APEC was originally intended to promote economic cooperation, but in the Asia-Pacific region, where many of the countries are developing, economic cooperation is an important means to achieve regional stability.

With the participation of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan last year, the three-year-old APEC now involves almost all major economic entities in the Asia-Pacific region, and its aggregate GNP accounts for roughly half of the world's output. Japan is resolved to work together with the United States and other participants to invigorate the activities of APEC, which strives for open regional cooperation. We will spare no efforts, as part of the Global Partnership, to see that the APEC ministerial meeting to take place next year in the United States will be successful and productive.

In sum, I believe that the most effective approach to Asian-Pacific security is a two-track approach, that is, the promotion of sub-regional cooperation to settle disputes and conflicts and region-wide political dialogue to enhance the sense of mutual reassurance.

The task remains for the future to involve China and Russia in such process of dialogue and cooperation as constructive participants. It goes without saying that the stability and development of China are significant for the peace and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region. I therefore applaud the decision of the U.S. Government to extend the MFN treatment to China for another year.

China is now at a great historic turning point. We must continue to encourage and support China's vigorous efforts for openness and reform in the economic sphere. In that process, we must also make our concern known to China about its political reform, including its human rights situation. At the same time, we need to appreciate that, for a country like China with more than one billion people and a low national income, the expansion of its national economy is indispensable for its domestic stability. Economic reforms should pave the way for political reforms.

We must also get China involved in the international efforts for peace. China's participation is particularly necessary in such areas as nuclear non-proliferation, the missile technology control regime and the control of transfer of conventional weapons.

Russia is, of course, an important neighbor of Japan. It is also vital for Asian-Pacific stability. Improved Russo-Japan relations are naturally essential for the stability of the region. We need to support Russia's efforts at democratization and the introduction of a market economy. Japan has actively joined the other industrialized democracies in assisting the Soviet Union and now the New Independent States. We have done this in spite of the unlawful occupation of Japan's Northern Territories by the Soviet Union and its successor, Russia. Japan is also stepping up its efforts to expand its dialogue and exchanges with Russia.

Let me be clear, however, that neither Japan nor Russia can hope to press ahead without solving the Northern Territories question. I can easily imagine how the Russian people, who have long been taught that these islands are Russian territory, may face a strong psychological block in coming to terms with the return of these islands to Japan. However, for our two countries to act as if the problem did not exist would only complicate the matter further and prolong the state of uncertainty in our relations. It is then necessary, in parallel with providing assistance to Russia, to help the Russian Government and people grasp fully the importance of settling this territorial issue.

This is not merely a bilateral issue between Japan and Russia. Whether Russia will solve this issue in accordance with law and justice as stated by President Yeltsin will test Russia's readiness to shed its Stalinist vestige and become a truly constructive member of the international community, which shares fundamental values with us. The Government and people of Japan highly appreciate the U.S. Government's firm support for Japan's position on this issue. President Yeltsin's planned visit to Japan this fall will be a very important opportunity toward the settlement of the Northern Territories issue, and we are seriously stepping up our efforts to prepare for it.

I look forward to further support from the United States, whose cooperative relationship with Russia has been strengthened through President Yeltsin's recent visit to the United States.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

Stable growth of the world economy is another important aspect of our Global Partnership. To secure harmonious economic development for all, our urgent task is to overcome the temptation of protectionism and closed regionalism, and to build more open international trade and economic systems.

Japan's most significant role in world economic management lies in ensuring sustained growth of the Japanese economy without inflation, and, against such background, in achieving a better quality of life for its people.

With the world economy still teetering on its recovery path, I intend to ensure sustained growth of the Japanese economy. For fiscal 1992 I have already compiled a budget with the maximum consideration given to the state of the economy. I have been exerting maximum possible efforts to effect additional expansionary measures including the front-loading of the public works projects. In case these measures do not bring sufficient effect, I will examine the situation and undertake every possible means including substantial additional fiscal measures, keeping in mind the objectives set out in the new Five-Year Economic Plan.

In the medium-to long-term, I consider it important to ensure that the Japanese people can live a rewarding life in keeping with the country's economic strength. If anything, the Japanese economy has tended to be producer-oriented. I believe that we must gradually shift our economy's focus from producers to consumers and to ordinary citizens and their families. For this purpose, we are endeavoring to shorten working hours, improve social overhead capital such as parks, greenery, and public facilities, so as to create high quality living environment. Our efforts to build an economy in which each individual can relish his or her daily life agrees with what the international community expects of Japan.

These Japanese efforts should make our bilateral economic relations more solid and enduring, the vital aspect of our overall relations. My focus on Asia-Pacific today should in no way be interpreted as a lack of attention to this vital aspect. I am well aware that our two countries are facing tremendous challenges in this area.

Our trade relations require strong political alertness and constant attention from both sides. In order for our Global Partnership to move forward, however, we cannot afford otherwise. It is exactly for this reason that President Bush and I announced The Plan of Action on our trade and economic relations last January.

Since then, my government has been working hard with Japanese businesses and industries in various sectors, particularly those mentioned in The Plan of Action, to increase market access opportunities for foreign products. We are making solid progress. Combined with our macroeconomic efforts as well as with American endeavors to cut budget deficits and enhance competitiveness, this exercise is expected to produce positive results.

Let me here make one point about economic and trade issues. Some people use an analogy of Cold-War military confrontation when analyzing international economic relations. They tend to view economic competition as something confrontational or adversarial. They even suggest that one country's economic success is a threat to another. However, the world economy is not a zero-sum game. It is a positive-sum game, in which all participants can gain. This is so because we are increasingly interdependent economically, and will be all the more so if we maintain and strengthen the open international economic system.


Ladies and Gentlemen,

The world is undergoing historical changes. So is America. America has always stood up to challenges of the time, upholding the ideals of its Founding Fathers. This has been possible because of the country's resiliency, vitality, and creativity; the traits I admire in the American people. I am confident that America, together with the rest of the world, will demonstrate once again its courage and resourcefulness in surmounting today's challenges.

The world needs American leadership. An isolationist America would be everyone's nightmare. The Japan-U.S. Global Partnership certainly expects the United States to retain its overseas commitment and remain internationally engaged. I assure you that Japan, on its part, will fulfill its roles and responsibilities commensurate with its national strength and international standing.

Thank you.



(9) Statement by Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe at the 47th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations


(New York, September 22, 1992)


Mr. President,

Distinguished delegates,

Ladies and gentlemen,


I should like, first of all, to extend my sincere congratulations to H.E. Mr. Stoyan Ganev on his election to the presidency of the 47th Session of the United Nations General Assembly. At the same time, T wish to express to H.E. Mr. Samir Shihabi my appreciation for the achievements made under his presidency during the last session. His visit to Japan in April 1992 further strengthened my country's close ties to the United Nations.

Last year, seven nations were admitted to membership in the United Nations, and this year, another 13 became members. On behalf of the Government and people of Japan, I extend my heartfelt congratulations to the representatives of the nations attending this General Assembly for the first time. Now counting 179 members, the United Nations is indeed a global organization. At the same time, its role in maintaining world peace and security is increasing dramatically, thus presenting the international community with unparalleled opportunities for realizing the ideals of the U.N. Charter.

Member States have extremely high expectations of Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali, who bears the awesome burdens of his office at a particularly crucial juncture. I take this opportunity to pledge Japan's full support for and cooperation with President Ganev and Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali as we pursue our common goals.


(The United Nations in the Present World Context)

Now, nearly half a century after the United Nations was founded, the international community has been freed from the constraints of East-West confrontation based on ideology and force. Nevertheless, this post-Cold War world is faced with such problems as those arising from the changing power relationship between the nations that dominated the old international order, the resurgence of regionalism, and the destabilization of regions by ethnic, religious and other strife.

The Gulf Crisis showed the high political and economic costs of restoring peace once it has been destroyed. Every day, countless refugees in what used to be Yugoslavia are being forced to flee their homes; every day brings numerous reports of atrocities there. In Somalia, the civil war, compounded by severe drought, is resulting in untold human suffering. Urgent efforts continue to be required to overcome poverty in many developing nations, home to the majority of the world's population. The preservation of the global environment for our children and grandchildren is another issue that demands our serious attention.

These challenges only underscore the need to seek solutions to problems in a spirit of conciliation and cooperation among nations. This conciliatory and cooperative spirit should be a key element in advancing us toward the creation of an international order for the new era while the United Nations assumes even greater importance as the center of our endeavors. Thus the time has come to review the roles and functions of the United Nations and seriously consider how they may be strengthened, and to reflect upon how each of its members might best contribute to that end.


(A Strategy for Peace)

The January 1992 Security Council Summit Meeting provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine, at the level of Heads of State and Government, the problems confronting the international community. In the light of the present world situation, the Secretary-General's report, "An Agenda for Peace," which was drafted on the basis of the deliberations at the Summit, is indeed a timely contribution. I hold Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali's initiative, which was realized with the diligent assistance of the Secretariat, in the highest regard.

In Japan's view, building a peaceful world will require the following five-pronged approach.

First, efforts must be made to ease international tensions.

The agreement reached at the U.S.-Russian summit meeting this past June to substantially reduce nuclear armaments is most welcome. It is hoped that this will lead to progress in nuclear disarmament by all nuclear-weapon states. The problem of proliferation demands that the regime of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be strengthened and made more universal. The NPT signatories should harmonize their positions so that when they meet in 1995 the smooth extension of the treaty will be ensured.

An important facet of non-proliferation is the provision of employment assistance to weapons scientists of the former Soviet Union. Toward this end, Japan is striving to make it possible for an International Science and Technology Center to begin operation promptly.

The conclusion of negotiations on the Chemical Weapons Convention at the Conference on Disarmament and the anticipated submission to this General Assembly session of the draft treaty convention on the prohibition of chemical weapons are an epochal step forward. Japan earnestly hopes that as many nations as possible will become original signatories to this convention.

Conventional weapons are another area where the vigilance of concerned nations is called for to prevent regional destabilization, especially in light of the major arms transfers that have already taken place in some regions. To increase the transparency of arms transfers and thereby strengthen trust among nations, it is important that the U.N. Register of Armaments, the establishment of which Japan proposed jointly with the EC and other countries last year, be implemented effectively. Japan and its partners in this effort plan to submit a resolution to this session of the General Assembly to call for the wide participation of Member States in this Register.

Second, stepped up efforts are needed to forestall the outbreak of conflicts.

Thus far, Japan has played an active role in the adoption of such General Assembly resolutions as the Declaration on Conflict Prevention and the Declaration on U.N. Fact-Finding. To strengthen the conflict prevention function of the U.N., the Secretary-General must have the capacity, among others, to conduct fact-finding missions, to issue early warnings, and to monitor constantly the situation in potential conflict zones. For this purpose, it is important that information about conflicts be made immediately available to the Secretary-General. In addition, I propose that there be set up within the U.N. Secretariat a "conflict information clearing house." This organ would collate information on conflicts collected through the fact-finding activities of the Secretariat or provided by Governments, and would present it in an objective manner to the Security Council as well as to Member States so as to help them formulate their judgments on the situation. I should also note here that Japan is in basic agreement with the concept of preventive diplomacy described in the Secretary-General's report, but that the idea of "preventive deployment" of, for example, U.N. Peace-keeping Operations with the consent of only one party to a conflict involves problems which require further study.

Third, stronger diplomatic efforts should be made by members of the United Nations to resolve conflicts peacefully.

Considering the recent spate of regional conflicts, efforts to resolve them by regional organizations and U.N. Member States are increasingly essential. The efforts led by the EC to restore peace in the former Yugoslavia and the efforts by the countries in the Asian region and the five permanent members of the Security Council to restore peace in Cambodia are examples of the kind of action to which I refer. The steps now being taken by the countries concerned toward peace in the Middle East also deserve to be hailed. Japan, for its part, also intends to play an active role in the multilateral consultations.

I intend to see that Japan continues to step up its diplomatic efforts to build peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. As far as peace in Cambodia is concerned, Japan has been playing an active role by, for example, hosting the Ministerial Meeting on the Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Cambodia in Tokyo this past June. In cooperation with other countries, Japan will continue its intensive and unremitting efforts to urge the Khmer Rouge to work with the other parties in Cambodia and with UNTAC to advance the peace process quickly. Japan also intends to take an active part in the Security Council deliberations on this issue. Easing tensions on the Korean Peninsula is of vital importance for peace and stability in East Asia, and Japan intends to contribute in every way it can to creating an environment conducive to dialogue between South and North Korea. In this connection, Japan welcomes the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the Republic of Korea and hopes that this will lead to ever broader exchanges between the two countries in the future.

I welcome the idea mentioned by President Roh Tae Woo of the Republic of Korea in his address earlier today of enhancing opportunities for dialogue among interested countries in Northeast Asia, an idea that is consistent with Japan's own thinking. I consider it vitally important for Japan's relationship with its neighbor, the Russian Federation, to expand in all its aspects on a balanced basis. In this connection, I believe that the building of a relationship of trust between Japan and Russia through the conclusion of a peace treaty will greatly contribute to the peace and stability of the region.

Fourth, Peace-keeping Operations, which are at the very center of the primary role of the United Nations, should be strengthened.

Extending to new areas of responsibility, and with an ever greater range of activity, U.N. Peace-keeping Operations have evolved both qualitatively and quantitatively in recent years. As mentioned in the Secretary-General's report, however, they are confronted with many problems, including increased demands for funding and a shortage of logistical personnel. More active cooperation by U.N. Member States is therefore essential. Last June, the Japanese Diet passed the International Peace Cooperation Law, which put in place domestic arrangements that finally enable Japan to participate in U.N. Peace-keeping Operations and international humanitarian relief operations. In addition to the financial contributions it has thus far extended, Japan intends to cooperate by sending personnel to the maximum degree allowed within the framework of this new law. In fact, a decision has already been made to send election monitors to UNAVEM II in Angola to oversee the elections there and to send military observers, a construction unit and civilian police to UNTAC in Cambodia. The first teams have already been dispatched. Japan also plans to send election monitors to Cambodia for the elections scheduled there next year.

Japan believes that the principles and practices of Peace-keeping Operations upheld by the United Nations for more than 40 years are still both appropriate and valid today and will continue to be so in the future. The idea of "peace-enforcement units," proposed in the Secretary-General's report, offers an interesting approach to future peace-making efforts of the United Nations, but requires further study because it is rooted in a mode of thinking completely different from past peace-keeping forces.

Fifth, in order to build peace throughout the world, dialogue and cooperation should be strengthened and developed as appropriate to the situation in each region.

Europe's regional cooperation mechanisms, typified by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, have grown out of efforts for confidence-building against a backdrop of past conflicts. They have evolved into frameworks for working together to achieve regional stability and prosperity, and have begun to work to prevent conflicts and augment their peace-keeping capability in specific ways.

Regional cooperation for peace and prosperity in other parts of the world has not yet matured to the same degree as in Europe. Ways should be explored to achieve forms of dialogue and cooperation that are well grounded in the political and geopolitical characteristics of each region and tailored to its needs. With respect to security in the Asia-Pacific region, Japan considers it important to maintain and strengthen the frameworks for dealing with issues either bilaterally or among several countries concerned, and, simultaneously, to seek to promote region-wide dialogue. I believe that, at the present time, one of the forums that has the greatest potential for such region-wide dialogue is the ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conference. Japan suggested last year that this forum be used for political dialogue of the type to which I am referring. In an effort to promote greater cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region which at the same time is open to the outside world, Japan has been contributing actively to the development of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).


(Responding to New Threats)

The threats facing humankind today are not all military: problems relating to the deterioration of the global environment, refugees, poverty, overpopulation, drugs, AIDS and other threats of a non-military nature are becoming increasingly serious. It is not enough simply to treat the symptoms; the United Nations and the international community must join hands to remove the causes of these ills. It is no exaggeration to say that the solution to these problems will demand the utmost of humanity's collective knowledge and the application of its highest ethical and moral standards.

In this connection, I wish to reemphasize the importance of respect for human rights. Fundamental human rights are not only a universally cherished value, but also are fundamental to ensuring a better life for each individual and the development of a democratic society. The lack of respect for humanitarian law and for the rights of minorities in recent conflict areas is deeply disturbing.

With the end of the Cold War, it is incumbent upon the international community to grapple more seriously with the problem of poverty in the developing world, since the maintenance of world order hinges largely upon whether and to what degree the North and South cooperate. The United Nations must redouble its efforts to combat poverty and to eliminate the causes of social instability - which is rooted in poverty - in the recognition that economic development raises standards of living and thereby enhances political stability. In addressing the poverty issue, we must bear in mind that conditions differ from country to country. The economies of some countries are about to take off, others are on the verge of solving their spiraling debt problems, and others - like the sub-Saharan countries - are still experiencing crushing economic difficulties. We must therefore search for an approach which is finely tuned to these differing circumstances. Japan intends to assist United Nations efforts to deal more effectively with these problems that affect all of humanity. For example, cognizant of its role as a responsible member of the international community, Japan plans to host an African Development Conference in autumn next year in Tokyo with the cooperation and participation of sub-Saharan nations, major aid donors, the United Nations and other international agencies to discuss the theme of economic development in Africa. Another timely event that addresses these problems is the United Nations Social Development Summit scheduled for 1995. Japan intends to cooperate actively in both these meetings to ensure that they will be genuinely fruitful.

Turning now to the subject of environment and development, it is very important to maintain the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recently held in Rio de Janeiro. Japan intends to make active contributions to the Sustainable Development Committee (the establishment of which is on the agenda of this General Assembly Session) and to such international environmental agencies as the U.N. Environmental Programme and the U.N. Development Programme. The process of making necessary domestic arrangements is now underway; Japan will soon finalize the draft of its national action program and is prepared to assist developing countries in the formulation of theirs. Under its stated goal of expanding its environment-related ODA to between \900 billion and \1 trillion (or, between US$7 and US$7.7 billion) over the next five years, Japan will strive to identify, formulate and implement the best projects through policy dialogue with developing countries. At this time, I wish to confirm Japan's proposal to hold a special session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to environmental issues before 1997 as a follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

Whereas refugees are returning to their homes in Cambodia and other parts of the world, the refugee problem remains extremely serious in the former Yugoslavia and in Somalia. The international community must unite to address such complex problems as shelter, emergency aid, and assistance in reintegrating refugees following their voluntary return home. Japan will continue to be active in extending humanitarian aid through the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other international agencies.

Population is another problem facing all humankind, a problem that demands the cooperation of both developed and the developing countries. In preparation for the 1994 World Population and Development Conference, Japan wishes to hold, with the cooperation of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the United Nations University, a meeting in 1994 of eminent authorities of the world on demographic issues.


(Steps toward the Revitalization of the United Nations)

The United Nations is currently faced with a number of structural problems. These relate to its organization - which has not adapted fully to the changing times - to the serious budget crisis, and to insufficient communication among the United Nations agencies.

First, what is most seriously required of the United Nations as a global organization today is legitimacy, trustworthiness, and efficacy.

If the United Nations is to realize the ideals and purposes of the Charter, including the maintenance of international peace and security, it must have the complete confidence of its members. In this respect, the United Nations is required to reshape itself in response to the epochal changes we have recently witnessed, changes that could not have been foreseen when the United Nations was founded. These include the rapid transformations in the international situation, the dramatic increase in U.N. membership and shifts in global power relations. However, the U.N. Charter itself still contains historical relics, such as the "former-enemies clauses." And the way the Organization is structured makes one question whether the United Nations can effectively meet expectations. With the aim, in part, of enhancing trust in and the efficacy of the Security Council, which bas a particularly important role in the maintenance of international peace and security, Japan believes it is necessary to consider seriously just how the United Nations Organization as a whole should be structured; this effort should include consideration of the functions, composition and other aspects of the Security Council. In my view, it is necessary for the United Nations itself to begin to deal with this issue in order to strengthen its functions. Nineteen ninety-five, which is the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, may prove to be an important juncture in the process of addressing this issue. The reexamination of the structure of the U.N. should also be accompanied by reform of the Economic and Social Council, which plays a role as important as that of the Security Council. The discussions on ECOSOC that are currently being carried out in this direction are a welcome development.

The second crisis facing the United Nations is that of the budget deficit.

The United Nations is on the verge of bankruptcy. If the Organization is to emerge from its chronic shortage of funds, Member States must honor their obligations and immediately pay their assessed contributions. It is imperative that those who are in arrears pay what they owe. The rapidly increasing demand for funds to conduct Peace-keeping Operations must be met. In particular, the availability of funding at the start-up stage of an operation is of crucial importance and could determine the outcome of the operation as a whole. Japan therefore plans to put before this session of the General Assembly a resolution to ensure that financial requirements for major Peace-keeping Operations at the start-up stage will be met without imposing new financial burdens on Member States. I sincerely hope this resolution will receive wide support from Member States.

The third problem concerns insufficient communication among United Nations agencies.

Better communication among the component agencies of the United Nations is necessary to ensure that the limited resources of the U.N. are used effectively and that the Organization's full potential is realized. Specifically, it is important to improve liaison between the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council, and communication between the Security Council and the General Assembly. The establishment, for example, of a mechanism for periodic exchanges of views and close contacts between and among the presidents of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the General Assembly - either two or three at a time - should be considered. Furthermore, it is important for the Economic and Social Council to have access to and provide the Security Council with information as provided in Article 65 of the U.N. Charter. Finally, whenever a major Peace-keeping Operation is undertaken that will entail a major financial commitment, it is essential that there be established a mechanism for consultations among the permanent members of the Security Council, the major sources of financial support, the countries providing large contingents of operations personnel and the countries of the regions concerned.


Mr. President,

The United Nations is entering an era of greater potential than it has ever experienced in its nearly half-century history. This is also a time, however, that will test whether the United Nations can evolve into a global organization with the capability to achieve peace and prosperity for all humankind. The very magnitude of the challenges and tasks that lie ahead demand that now, more than ever before, each Member State be keenly aware of its responsibilities and carry its share of the burden.

Attaching central importance to the United Nations and committed to its own ideals as a peace-loving state, Japan is determined to contribute to the international community in a manner that is commensurate with its position and responsibilities - in terms not only of financial resources, but also of personnel - and by enhancing its political role in the effort to build a new order of peace. And as a non-permanent member of the Security Council, Japan is striving to bring about a more peaceful world.

I would like to conclude with the pledge that I shall do my utmost to see that Japan, in a spirit of conciliation and cooperation, continues to enhance its active contributions to the international community.

Thank you.



(10) Opening Remarks by Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa at the Tokyo Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States


(Tokyo, October 29, 1992)


1. Opening Remarks

Mr. Chairman,

Distinguished delegates,

Ladies and gentlemen,

It is my great honor to welcome you all to the Tokyo Conference on Assistance to the New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. My special warm welcome is extended to all the delegates from the 12 nations who have become new members of the world community.

Their entry into the family of nations symbolizes the end of the Cold War, and marked, as well, the beginning of a new era in which the peoples of the world can truly share the same aspiration for democracy and free economy.

It is no easy task to make this aspiration a reality. But the fact that representatives from 70 countries and 20 international organizations are with us today demonstrates the firm commitment of the international community to assist the New Independent States in their efforts for socio-economic as well as political reforms. One eloquent proof of this commitment is the addition of new parts of the world compared to the Washington and Lisbon Conferences.

Further, this is the first international conference of this kind held in the Asia-Pacific region, a region known for its political stability and thriving economies; a region that not only occupies a wide expanse of the Eurasian continent but has shared, for many centuries, historical, cultural and religious heritages with the peoples of the New Independent States. We, the nations of the Asia-Pacific region, have had relatively new experiences as modern nation states. That is why I am confident that we can contribute meaningfully to the efforts of the New Independent States for political and economic changes.

The enormous challenges ahead of the NIS remind me of the similar challenges which Japan faced in the course of reconstructing the nation following the devastation of war. I was involved in that process as aide to a senior statesman. My experience imprinted in me the belief that it was the painstaking and persistent endeavor and the will on the part of the people, rather than the assistance rendered by the international community, that can, in the end, change the situation.


2. Significance of Reforms within the NIS

Ladies and gentlemen,

No historical event in the postwar period parallels in importance the fall of the Wall of Berlin in November 1989, and the birth of the 12 New Independent States in December 1991. This series of events opened a new page in the history of mankind that enabled us to work together for economic advancement in peace and stability.

The reform processes these new states are currently undergoing have a historic significance in three aspects. Firstly, it is a challenge to establish democracy based on the principles of freedom and pluralistic values. Secondly, it is a challenge to establish free market and open economies through the introduction of price liberalization, tight monetary and fiscal policies and privatization. Thirdly, it is a challenge to establish constructive and cooperative partnerships with the rest of the world.

These are not just challenges for the New Independent States, but, rather, challenges for all of us here today. They are a part of the process of increasing global interdependence. We are all working for a world where freer and more open economic and political systems, technological innovation and revolutionary developments in flows of information enable direct interactions among peoples, transcending national differences. However, socio-political instability and conflicts in some parts of the New Independent States are sources of grave concern to all of us because they could undermine the fruits of the reform efforts. In this crucial period of nation-building in the NIS, and construction of a new international structure for peace and progress, let me express my hope that these problems and differences will be addressed peacefully and with a maximum degree of patience and tolerance.


3. Japan's Policy to the New Independent States

Ladies and gentlemen,

The New Independent States have a great potential for economic development because they are endowed with resources indispensable for socio-economic advancement, such as abundant natural resources and well-educated population. At the same time, three quarters of a century of centrally-planned economic management made it impossible for their peoples to fully utilize these invaluable resources. All of us here today are concerned over the current situation in the NIS, and are committed to standing side by side with the peoples of the NIS as they grapple with their difficulties.

The technical assistance which the international community has been extending to the NIS under the Washington Process is conceived in the spirit of "help for self-help," without which any assistance can hardly bear fruit. I am convinced that bilateral and multilateral technical assistance programs should not just continue but should be accelerated further under the new coordinating framework, so that the NIS can accomplish their reforms effectively and efficiently. Japan, for one, has attached special importance to technical assistance, because, in our own experience, it was often technical assistance that truly motivated and pushed people forward along the path of progress. Japan has played an active role as co-chair of the Technical Assistance Working Group together with the United States and the European Community, and is determined to play an equally active role in the future coordinating process.


Ladies and gentlemen,

It was clear at the outset of the Washington Process that the New Independent States, adversely affected both by the severe winter and by the deterioration of socio-economic fabrics, needed emergency humanitarian assistance. With the approach of another winter only a few weeks away, this Conference is expected to assess the humanitarian situation and requirements as objectively as possible.

Any deficiency of food, medicine or energy could have devastating effects on certain regions, or socially vulnerable populace. If the situation were to worsen due to social unrest or ethnic strife, the results could be ominous. Let me thus stress that these conflicts should be settled through peaceful means. Let me also take this opportunity to assure you that the Government and people of Japan will extend additional humanitarian assistance to the peoples of the NIS with particular emphasis on the Russian Far East.


4. Conclusion

Mr. Chairman,

Distinguished guests,

It is my hope that this Tokyo Conference will mark not only the end of the Washington Process but also the beginning of a new coordinating mechanism of international assistance to the New Independent States with full support of all the peoples concerned. In concluding my remarks, allow me once again to extend my warm welcome to our friends from the New Independent States, and to wish that your brief stay in Japan will serve as the beginning of lasting friendship that leads to truly constructive and cooperative relations in the years to come.

Thank you very much.


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