4. Documents Related to the Venezia Summit


(1) Venezia Summit Conference

    Venezia Economic Declaration



1.  We, the Heads of State or Government of the seven major industrialized countries and the representatives of the European Community, have met in Venice from 8 to 10 June 1987, to review the progress that our countries have made, individually and collectively, in carrying out the policies to which we committed ourselves at earlier Summits. We remain determined to pursue these policies for growth, stability, employment, and prosperity for our own countries and for the world economy.

2.  We can look back on a number of positive developments since we met a year ago. Growth is continuing into its fifth consecutive year, albeit at lower rates. Average inflation rates have come down. Interest rates have generally declined. Changes have occurred in relationships among leading currencies which over time will contribute to a more sustainable pattern of current account positions and have brought exchange rates within ranges broadly consistent with economic fundamentals. In volume terms the adjustment of trade flows is under way, although in nominal terms imbalances so far remain too large.


Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange Rates

3.  Since Tokyo, the Summit countries have intensified their economic policy coordination with a view to ensuring internal consistency of domestic policies and their international compatibility. This is essential to achieving stronger and sustained global growth, reduced external imbalances and more stable exchange rate relationships. Given the policy agreements reached at the Louvre and in Washington, further substantial shifts in exchange rates could prove counterproductive to efforts to increase growth the facilitate adjustment. We reaffirm our commitment to the swift and full implementation of those agreements.

4.  We now need to overcome the problems that nevertheless remain in some of our countries: external imbalances that are still large; persistently high unemployment; large public sector deficits; and high levels of real interest rates. There are also continuing trade restrictions and increased protectionist pressures, persistent weakness of many primary commodity markets, and reduced prospects for developing countries to grow, find the markets they need and service their foreign debt.

5.  The correction of external imbalances will be a long and difficult process. Exchange rate changes alone will not solve the problem of correcting these imbalances while sustaining growth. Surplus countries will design their policies to strengthen domestic demand and reduce external surpluses while maintaining price stability. Deficit countries, while following policies designed to encourage steady low-inflation growth, will reduce their fiscal and external imbalances.

6.  We call on other industrial countries to participate in the effort to sustain economic activity worldwide. We also call on newly industrialized economies with rapid growth and large external surpluses to assume greater responsibility for preserving an open world trading system by reducing trade barriers and pursuing policies that allow their currencies more fully to reflect underlying fundamentals.

7.  Among the Summit countries, budgetary discipline remains an important medium-term objective and the reduction of existing public sector imbalances a necessity for a number of them. Those Summit countries which have made significant progress in fiscal consolidation and have large external surpluses remain committed to following fiscal and monetary policies designed to strengthen domestic growth, within a framework of medium-term fiscal objectives. Monetary policy should also support non-inflationary growth and foster stability of exchange rates. In view of the outlook for low inflation in many countries, a further market-led decline of interest rates would be helpful.


Structural Policies

8.  We also agree on the need for effective structural policies especially for creating jobs. To this end we shall:

    -  promote competition in order to speed up industrial adjustment;

    -  reduce major imbalances between agricultural supply and demand;

    -  facilitate job creating investment;

    -  improve the functioning of labour markets;

    -  promote the further opening of internal markets;

    -  encourage the elimination of capital market imperfections and restrictions and the improvement of the functioning of international financial markets.


Multilateral Surveillance and Policy Coordination

9.  We warmly welcome the progress achieved by the Group of Seven Finance Ministers is developing and implementing strengthened arrangements for multilateral surveillance and economic coordination as called for in Tokyo last year. The new process of coordination, involving the use of economic indicators, will enhance efforts to achieve more consistent and mutually compatible policies by our countries.

10.  The Heads of State or Government reaffirm the important policy commitments and undertakings adopted at the Louvre and Washington meetings of the Group of Seven, including those relating to exchange rates. They agree that, if in the future world economic growth is insufficient, additional actions will be required to achieve their common objectives. Accordingly, they call on their Finance Ministers to develop, if necessary, additional appropriate policy measures for this purpose and to continue to cooperate closely to foster stability of exchange rates.

11. The coordination of economic policies is an ongoing process which will evolve and become more effective over time. The Heads of State or Government endorse the understandings reached by the Group of Seven Finance Ministers to strengthen, with the assistance of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the surveillance of their economies using economic indicators including exchange rates, in particular by:

    -  the commitment by each country to develop medium-term objectives and projections for its economy, and for the group to develop objectives and projections, that are mutually consistent both individually and collectively; and

    -  the use of performance indicators to review and assess current economic trends and to determine whether there are significant deviations from an intended course that require consideration of remedial actions.

12. The Heads of State or Government consider these measures important steps towards promoting sustained non-inflationary global growth and greater currency stability. They call upon the Group of Seven Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to:

    -  intensify their coordination efforts with a view to achieving prompt and effective implementation of the agreed policy undertakings and commitments;

    -  monitor economic developments closely in cooperation with the Managing Director of the IMF; and

    -  consider further improvements as appropriate to make the coordination process more effective.



13. We note rising protectionist pressures with grave concern. The Uruguay Round can play an important role in maintaining and strengthening the multilateral trading system, and achieving increased liberalization of trade for the benefit of all countries. Recognizing the interrelationship among growth, trade and development, it is essential to improve the multilateral system based on the principles and rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and bring about a wider coverage of world trade under agreed, effective and enforceable multilateral discipline. Protectionist actions would be counterproductive, would increase the risk of further exchange rate instability and would exacerbate the problems of development and indebtedness.

14. We endorse fully the commitment to adopt appropriate measures in compliance with the principles of stand-still and rollback which have been reaffirmed in the Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round. It is important to establish in the GATT a multilateral framework of principles and rules for trade in services, trade-related investment measures and intellectual property rights. This extension of the multilateral trading system would also be beneficial to developing countries in fostering growth and enhancing trade, investment and technology transfers.

15. Basing ourselves on the Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round and on the principles of the GATT, we call on all Contracting Parties to negotiate comprehensively, in good faith and with all due dispatch, with a view to ensuring mutual advantage and increased benefits to all participants. Canada, Japan, the United States and the European Community will table a wide range of substantive proposals in Geneva over the coming months. Progress in the Uruguay Round will be kept under close political review. In this context the launching, the conduct and the implementation of the outcome of the negotiations should be treated as parts of a single undertaking; however, agreements reached at an early stage might be implemented on a provisional or definitive basis by agreement prior to the formal conclusion of the negotiations and should be taken into account in assessing the overall balance of the negotiations.

16. A strong, credible, working GATT is essential to the well-being of all trading countries and is the best bulwark against mounting bilateral protectionist pressures. The functioning of the GATT should be improved through enhancing its role in maintaining an open multilateral system and its ability to manage disputes; and through ensuring better coordination between the GATT and the IMF and the World Bank. We consider that it would be useful to have, as appropriate, in the course of the negotiations, a meeting of the Trade Negotiating Committee at the Ministerial level.



17. At Tokyo we recognized the serious nature of the agricultural problem. We agreed that the structure of agricultural production needed to be adjusted in the light of world demand, and expressed our determination to give full support to the work of the OECD in this field. In doing so, we all recognized the importance of agriculture to the well-being of our rural communities. In the past year, we have actively pursued the approach outlined at Tokyo, and we take satisfaction from the agreement in the Ministerial Declaration adopted in Punta del Este on the objectives for the negotiations on agriculture in the Uruguay Round.

18. We reaffirm our commitment to the important agreement on agriculture set out in the OECD Ministerial communique of May 13, 1987; in particular, the statement of the scope and urgency of the problem which require that a concerted reform of agricultural policies be implemented in a balanced and flexible manner; the assessment of the grave implications, for developed and developing countries alike, of the growing imbalances in supply of and demand for the main agricultural products; the acknowledgment of shared responsibility for the problems as well as for their equitable, effective and durable resolution; the principles of reform and the action required. The long-term objective is to allow market signals to influence the orientation of agricultural production, by way of a progressive and concerted reduction of agricultural support, as well as by all other appropriate means, giving consideration to social and other concerns, such as food security, environmental protection and overall employment.

19. We underscore our commitment to work in concert to achieve the necessary adjustments of agricultural policies, both at home and through comprehensive negotiations in the Uruguay Round. In this as in other fields, we will table comprehensive proposals for negotiations in the coming months to be conducted in accordance with the mandate in the Ministerial Declaration, and we intend to review at our next meeting the progress achieved and the tasks that remain.

20 In the meantime, in order to create a climate of greater confidence which would enhance the prospect for rapid progress in the Uruguay Round as a whole and as a step towards the long-term result to be expected from those negotiations, we have agreed, and call upon other countries to agree, to refrain from actions which, by further stimulating production of agricultural commodities in surplus, increasing protection or destabilizing world markets, would worsen the negotiating climate and, more generally, damage trade relations.


Developing Countries and Debt

21. We attach particular importance to fostering stable economic progress in developing countries, with all their diverse situations and needs. The problems of many heavily indebted developing countries are a cause of economic and political concern and can be a threat to political stability in countries with democratic regimes. We salute the courageous efforts of many of these countries to achieve economic growth and stability.

22. We underline the continuing importance of official development assistance and welcome the increased efforts of some of our countries in this respect. We recall the target already established by international organizations (0.7%) for the future level of official development assistance and we take note that overall financial flows are important to development. We strongly support the activities of international financial institutions, including those regional development banks which foster policy reforms by borrowers and finance their programmes of structural adjustment. In particular:

    -  we support the central role of the IMF through its advice and financing and encourage closer cooperation between the IMF and the World Bank, especially in their structural adjustment lending;

    -  we note with satisfaction the contribution made by the Eighth replenishment of the International Development Association (IDA);

    -  we support a general capital increase of the World Bank when justified by increased demand for quality lending, by its expanded role in the debt strategy and by the necessity to maintain the financial stability of the institution;

    -  in the light of the different contributions of our countries to official development assistance, we welcome the recent initiative of the Japanese government in bringing forward a new scheme which will increase the provision of resources from Japan to developing countries.

23. For the major middle-income debtors, we continue to support the present growth-oriented case-by-case strategy. Three elements are needed to strengthen the growth prospects of debtor countries: the adoption of comprehensive macroeconomic and structural reforms by debtor countries themselves; the enhancement of lending by international financial institutions, in particular the World Bank; and adequate commercial bank lending in support of debtor country reforms. We shall play our part by helping to sustain growth and expand trade. A number of debt agreements have allowed some resumption of growth, correction of imbalances, and significant progress in restoring the creditworthiness of some countries. But some still lack adequate policies for structural adjustment and growth designed to encourage the efficient use of domestic savings, the repatriation of flight capital, increased flows of foreign direct investment, and in particular reforms of financial markets.

24. There is equally a need for timely and effective mobilization of lending by commercial banks. In this context, we support efforts by commercial banks and debtor countries to develop a "menu" of alternative negotiating procedures and financing techniques for providing continuing support to debtor countries.

25. Measures should be taken, particularly by debtor countries, to facilitate non-debt-creating capital flows, especially direct investment. In this connection, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) should begin to serve its objectives as soon as possible. It is important to maintain flexibility on the part of export credit agencies in promptly resuming or increasing cover for countries that are implementing comprehensive adjustment programmes.

26. We recognize the problems of developing countries whose economies are solely or predominantly dependent on exports of primary commodities the prices of which are persistently depressed. It is important that the functioning of commodity markets should be improved, for example through better information and greater transparency. Further diversification of these economies should be encouraged, with the help of the international financial institutions, through policies to support their efforts for improved processing of their products, to expand opportunities through market access liberalization, and to strengthen the international environment for structural change.

27. We recognize that the problems of some of the poorest countries, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, are uniquely difficult and need special treatment. These countries are characterized by such features as acute poverty, limited resources to invest in their own development, unmanageable debt burdens, heavy reliance on one or two commodities, and the fact that their debt is owed for the most part to governments of industrialized countries themselves or to international financial institutions. For those of the poorest countries that are undertaking adjustment effort, consideration should be given to the possibility of applying lower interest rates to their existing debt, and agreement should be reached, especially in the Paris Club, on longer repayment and grace periods to ease the debt service burden. We welcome the various proposals made in this area by some of us and also the proposal by the Managing Director of the IMF for a significant increase in the resources of the Structural Adjustment Facility over the three years from January 1, 1988. We urge a conclusion on discussions on these proposals within this year.

28. We note that UNCTAD VII provides an opportunity for a discussion with developing countries with a view to arriving at a common perception of the major problems and policy issues in the world economy.



29. Further to our previous commitment to preserve a healthy environment and to pass it on to future generations, we welcome the report by the environment experts on the improvement and harmonization of techniques and practices of environmental measurement. Accordingly, we encourage the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to institute a forum for information exchange and consultation in cooperation with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Council of Scientific Union (ICSU), assisted by other interested international organizations and countries, so that continuing progress in this important field can be ensured. The priority environmental problems identified by the environment experts in their report should receive full attention.

30. We underline our own responsibility to encourage efforts to tackle effectively environmental problems of worldwide impact such as stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change, acid rains, endangered species, hazardous substances, air and water pollution, and destruction of tropical forests. We also intend to examine further environmental issues such as stringent environmental standards as an incentive for innovation and for the development of clean, cost-effective and low-resource technology as well as promotion of international trade in low-pollution products, low-polluting industrial plants and other environmental protection technologies.

31. We welcome the important progress achieved since Tokyo, particularly in the International Atomic Energy Agency, in enhancing effective international cooperation, with regard to safety in the management of nuclear energy.


Other Issues

32. We welcome the initiative of the Human Frontier Science Programme presented by Japan, which is aimed at promoting, through international cooperation, basic research on biological functions. We are grateful for the informal opportunities our scientists have had to take part in some of the discussions of the feasibility study undertaken by Japan. We note that this study will be continued and we would be pleased to be kept informed about its progress.

33. We welcome the positive contribution made by the Conference of High Level Experts on the future role of education in our society, held in Kyoto in January 1987.

34. We shall continue to review the ethical implications of developments in the life sciences. Following the Conferences sponsored by Summit governments-by Japan in 1984, by France in1985, by the Federal Republic of Germany in 1986 and by Canada in 1987-we welcome the Italian government's offer to host the next bioethics Conference in Italy in April, 1988.


Next Economic Summit

35. We have agreed to meet again next year and have accepted the invitation of the Canadian Prime Minister to meet in Canada.



(2) Chairman's statement on AIDS

(Text to be distributed to the press)


On the basis of the concern already shown in the past for health problems (London Chairman's oral statement on cancer and Bonn Chairman's oral statement on drugs), the Heads of State or Government and the representatives of the European Community affirm that AIDS is one of the biggest potential health problems in the world. National efforts need to be intensified and made more effective by international cooperation and concerted campaigns to prevent AIDS from spreading further, and will have to ensure that the measures taken are in accordance with the principles of human rights. In this connection, they agree that:

 - international cooperation will not be improved by duplication of effort. Priority will have to be given to strengthening existing organizations by giving them full political support and by providing them with the necessary financial, personnel and administrative resources. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the best forum for drawing together international efforts on a worldwide level to combat AIDS, and all countries should be encouraged fully to cooperate with the WHO and support its special programme of AIDS-related activities;

 - in the absence of a vaccine or cure, the best hope for the combat and prevention of AIDS rests on a strategy based on educating the public about the seriousness of the AIDS epidemic, the ways the AIDS virus is transmitted and the practical steps each person can take to avoid acquiring or spreading it. Appropriate opportunities should be used for exchanging information about national education campaigns and domestic policies. The Heads of State or Government and the representatives of the European Community welcome the proposal by the United Kingdom Government to co-sponsor, with the WHO, an international conference at ministerial level on public education about AIDS;

 - further cooperation should be promoted for basic and clinical studies on prevention, treatment and the exchange of information (as in the case of the E.C. programme). The Heads of State or Government and the representatives of the European Community welcome and support joint action by researchers in the Seven countries (as in the case of the joint programme of French and American researchers, which is being enlarged, and similar programmes) and all over the world for the cure of the disease, clinical testing on components of the virus, and the development of a successful vaccine. The Heads of State or Government and the representatives of the European Community welcome the proposal by the President of the French Republic aiming at the creation of an International Committee on the ethical issues raised by AIDS.



(3) Statement of East-West Relations

(June 9, 1987)


1.  We, the Heads of State or Government of seven major industrial nations and the Representatives of the European Community, have discussed East-West relations. We reaffirm our shared principles and objectives, and our common dedication to preserving and strengthening peace.

2.  We recognize with pride that our shared values of freedom, democracy and respect for human rights are the sources of the dynamism and prosperity of our societies. We renew our commitment to the search for a freer, more democratic and more humane world.

3.  Within existing alliances each of us is resolved to maintain a strong and credible defence which threatens the security of no-one, protects freedom, deters aggression and maintains peace. We shall continue to consult closely on all matters affecting our common interest. We will not be separated from the principles that guide us all.

4.  Since we last met, new opportunities have opened for progress in East-West relations. We are encouraged by these developments. They confirm the soundness of the policies we have each pursued in our determination to achieve a freer and safer world.

5.  We are following with close interest recent developments in the internal and external policies of the Soviet Union. It is our hope that they will prove to be of great significance for the improvement of political, economic and security relations between the countries of East and West. At the same time, profound differences persist; each of us must remain vigilantly alert in responding to all aspects of Soviet policy.

6.  We reaffirm our commitment to peace and increased security at lower levels of arms. We seek a comprehensive effort to lower tensions and to achieve verifiable arms reductions. While reaffirming the continuing importance of nuclear deterrence in preserving peace, we note with satisfaction that dialogue on arms control has intensified and that more favourable prospects have emerged for the reduction of nuclear forces, we appreciate US efforts to negotiate balanced, substantial and verifiable reductions in nuclear weapons. We emphasize our determination to enhance conventional stability at a lower level of forces an achieve the total elimination of chemical weapons. We believe that these goals should be actively pursued and translated into concrete agreements. We urge the Soviet Union to negotiate in a positive and constructive manner. An effective resolution of these issues is an essential requirement for real and enduring stability in the world.

7.  We will be paying close attention not only to Soviet statements but also to soviet actions on issues of common concern to us. In particular:

    -  We call for significant and lasting progress in human rights, which is essential to building trust between our societies. Much still remains to be done to meet the principles agreed and commitments undertaken in the Helsinki Final Act and confirmed since.

    -  We look for an early and peaceful resolution of regional conflicts, and especially for a rapid and total withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan so that the people of Afghanistan may freely determine their own future.

    -  We encourage greater contacts, freer interchange of ideas and more extensive dialogue between our people and the people of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

8.  Thus, we each seek to stabilize military competition between East and West at lower levels of arms; to encourage stable political solutions to regional conflicts; to secure lasting improvements in human rights; and to build contacts, confidence and trust between governments and peoples in a more humane world. Progress across the board is necessary to establish a durable foundation for stable and constructive relationships between the countries of East and West.



(4) Statement on Iraq-Iran War and Freedom of Navigation in the Gulf

(June 9, 1987)


We agree that new and concerted international efforts are urgently required to help bring the Iraq-Iran war to an end. We favour the earliest possible negotiated end to the war with the territorial integrity and independence of both Iraq and Iran intact. Both countries have suffered grievously from this long and tragic war. Neighbouring countries are threatened with the possible spread of the conflict. We call once more upon both parties to negotiate an immediate end of the war. We strongly support the mediation efforts of the United Nations Secretary-General and urge the adoption of just and effective measures by the UN Security Council. With these objectives in mind, we reaffirm that the principle of freedom of navigation in the Gulf is of paramount importance for us and for others and must be upheld. The free flow of oil and other traffic through the Strait of Hormuz must continue unimpeded.

We pledge to continue to consult on ways to pursue these important goals effectively.



(5) Statement on Terrorism

(June 9, 1987)


We, the Heads of State or Government of seven major democracies and the representatives of the European Community assembled here in Venice, profoundly aware of our peoples' concern at the threat posed by terrorism;

 - reaffirm our commitment to the statements on terrorism made at previous Summits in Bonn, Venice, Ottawa, London and Tokyo;

 - resolutely condemn all forms of terrorism, including aircraft hijackings and hostage-taking, and reiterate our belief that whatever its motives, terrorism has no justification;

 - confirm the commitment of each of us to the principle of making no concessions to terrorists or their sponsors;

 - remain resolved to apply, in respect of any state clearly involved in sponsoring or supporting international terrorism, effective measures within the framework of international law and in our own jurisdictions;

 - welcome the progress made in international cooperation against terrorism since we last met in Tokyo in May 1986, and in particular the initiative taken by France and Germany to convene in May in Paris a meeting of Ministers of nine countries, who are responsible for counter-terrorism;

 - reaffirm our determination to combat terrorism both through national measures and through international cooperation among ourselves and with others, when appropriate, and therefore renew our appeal to all like-minded countries to consolidate and extend international cooperation in all appropriate fora;

 - will continue our efforts to improve the safety of travellers. We welcome improvements in airport and maritime security, and encourage the work of ICAO and IMO in this regard. Each of us will continue to monitor closely the activities of airlines which raise security problems. The Heads of State or Government have decided on measures, annexed to this statement, to make the 1978 Bonn Declaration more effective in dealing with all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation;

 - commit ourselves to support the rule of law in bringing terrorists to justice. Each of us pledges increased cooperation in the relevant fora and within the framework of domestic and international law on the investigation, apprehension and prosecution of terrorists. In particular we reaffirm the principle established by relevant international conventions of trying or extraditing, according to national laws and those international conventions, those who have perpetrated acts of terrorism.



The Heads of State or Government recall that in their Tokyo Statement on International Terrorism they agreed to make the 1978 Bonn Declaration more effective in dealing with all forms of terrorism affecting civil aviation. To this end, in cases where a country refuses extradition or prosecution of those who have committed offences described in the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation and/or does not return the aircraft involved, the Heads of State or Government are jointly resolved that their governments shall take immediate action to cease flights to that country as stated in the Bonn Declaration.

At the same time, their governments will initiate action to halt incoming flights from that country or from any country by the airlines of the country concerned as stated in the Bonn Declaration.

The Heads of State or Government intend also to extend the Bonn Declaration in due time to cover any future relevant amendment to the above Convention or any other aviation conventions relating to the extradition or prosecution of the offenders.

The Heads of State or Government urge other governments to join them in this commitment.



(6) Chairman's Summary on Political Issues

(June 10, 1987)


The Venice Summit has provided us with the opportunity for a useful exchange of views on the main international political issues of the moment. Our discussions took place in the same spirit of constructive cooperation which inspired yesterday's statements on East-West relations, the Gulf conflict, and terrorism and confirmed a significant unity of approaches.

In the field of East-West relations, particular attention was paid to a number of regional issues.

On the subject of Afghanistan, emphasis was placed once again on the need to keep up pressure so that the Afghan people can very soon determine their own future in a Country no longer subject to external military occupation.

It was noted that the presence in Kampuchea of foreign troops continues to be an obstacle to the peace and tranquillity of South-East Asia.

In the Pacific, newly-independent island states are faced with difficult economic situations. We have stressed the need to support their development process in conditions of complete freedom from outside political interference.

In Asia, we agreed that particular attention should be paid to the efforts for economic reform undertaken by China. We reviewed the situation in the Korean peninsula, in the belief that the next Olympic Games may create a climate favourable to the development of a more open dialogue between North and South. In the Philippines, the democratic government is involved in a courageous attempt at economic and social renewal which deserves our support.

As regards Africa - a continent with enormous potentialities but facing extremely serious economic, social and political problems - we viewed the situation in South Africa with particular concern. We agreed that a peaceful and lasting solution can only be found to the present crisis if the apartheid regime is dismantled and replaced by a new form of democratic, non-racial government. There is an urgent need, therefore, to begin a genuine dialogue with the representatives of all the components of South African society. At the same time we noted the importance of humanitarian assistance initiatives for the victims of Apartheid and of supporting the efforts by SADCC (Southern African Development Coordination Conference) member states to develop and strengthen their own economies.

Serious concern was expressed at the continuing dangerous tensions and conflicts in the Near and Middle East and at the absence of concrete progress toward a solution to the Arab-Israeli dispute. The need for action to create conditions for a just, global and lasting peace was reaffirmed.

Concern was also expressed at the situation in the occupied territories.

The situation in Lebanon, with its serious internal tensions and the persisting problem of the Palestinian camps, continues to give cause for concern. In this connection we reaffirmed our hope that genuine efforts be made towards national reconciliation.

With regard to Latin America, the discussion highlighted the need to promote appropriate initiatives aimed at supporting democratic governments and encouraging the return to democracy and its consolidation throughout the continent. There was also agreement that efforts toward regional integration will help open up a fruitful and constructive dialogue with the West: they therefore deserve support.

With regard to developments in Central America, it is hoped that the forthcoming Summit to be held in Guatemala can play a positive role in paving the way to peace and stability.

Finally, we turned to the problems of the United Nations Organizations and, in particular to its current financial difficulties and considered possible ways of overcoming them.



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