Section 7. United Nations Specialized Agencies



1.  Overview


(1)  Specialized agencies of the United Nations are carrying out operations to promote multilateral cooperation from professional and technical viewpoints in an extremely broad range of areas, such as labor, education, science, culture, agriculture and public health.

(2)  While discussions at specialized agencies, by their nature, should be purely professional and technical, international politics continued to filter into them also in 1986.

(3)  Japan, serving on governing bodies of all specialized agencies other than the World Health Organization (WHO), made active contributions to operations of each agency and provided large sums of voluntary contributions in addition to assessed contributions.



2.  Activities of United Nations Specialized Agencies


(1)  International Labor Organisation (ILO)

(a)  Between January 1986 and March 1987, the ILO held the 72nd session of the International Labor Conference and the 232nd through 235th sessions of the Governing Body.

The 72nd Conference adopted a Convention (No. 162) and a Recommendation (No. 172) on safety in the use of asbestos.

(b)  Japan contributed about $13.00 million to the ILO (10.23 percent of the total contributions) in fiscal 1986, and also made voluntary contributions of about \16.00 million for "a seminar concerning the diversification of training and employment for women" and "a survey concerning technical cooperation by the ILO" as technical cooperation under a multi-bi formula.


(2)  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

(a)  As a result of the withdrawal of the United States at the end of 1984, the 1986-1987 budget for UNESCO was reduced by 25 percent, or the equivalent of U.S. contributions to the budget. Following the withdrawal of the United Kingdom and Singapore at the end of 1985, the Executive Board at the 124th session in May decided to freeze another 4.9 percent of the budget, or the equivalent of contributions from these countries. At the 125th session of the Executive Board held from September to October, the Secretariat reported that the withdrawal of the three countries had necessitated the reduction of 655 Secretariat posts and the relocation of 270 staff employees but that everything was settled except for several employees. Japan strongly urged for the equitable treatment in the process of staff reduction and relocation regardless of the nationality of staff.

(b)  The Special Committee, which was given a mandate for monitoring and promoting reforms at UNESCO reported that recommendations for reforms were being carried out in accordance with the implementation schedules. Japan underlined the necessity of seeking further reforms.

(c)  Since the current term of office for Director-General Amadou Mahtar M'Bow ends in November 1987 (He was first appointed in 1974 and reelected in 1980.), the election of a new Director-General, including a possible third term for him, called attention. M'Bow announced he would not seek a third term at a closed meeting of the 125th session of the Executive Board. Procedures for the election is now under way, with several candidates already running for the post.

(d)  In addition to assessed contributions of $19.54 million (10.71% of the total assessed contributions) in fiscal 1986, Japan contributed about $890,000, including $300,000 for the Intergovernmental Program for the Development of Communication (IPDC), $100,000 for a regional cooperation project for basic science in Southeast Asia, $30,000 for a joint maritime survey project in the Western Pacific, about $160,000 for five project trust funds in the field of education, $20,000 for the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) in Southeast Asia and $110,000 for the Nubia-Cairo Museum project and a project to save the ruins of Mohenjodaro.


(3)  Commission on Human Settlements

The ninth session of the Commission on Human Settlements held in May at Istanbul, Turkey, discussed a report on the activities of the United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat), and adopted resolutions on such matters as promotion of activities for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless 1987, promotion of community participation in human settlements work, the importance of small-scale production of building materials, and the holding of the next session in Nairobi.

Upon recommendations by the Commission, the 41st session of the United Nations General Assembly also adopted a resolution concerning the 10th session of the Commission commemorating its 10th anniversary and another resolution on the promotion of activities for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless.

As in the previous year, Japan contributed $500,000 to the United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation (UNHHSF).


(4)  World Health Organization (WHO)

(a)  At the 39th session of the World Health Assembly in May 1986, discussions were held on AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), WHO's measures on smoking and the issue of increasing the number of members from the Western Pacific Region, to which Japan belongs, entitled to designate a person to serve on the Executive Board.

(b)  In April 1986, Conference on Leadership in Nursing for Health for All was held in Japan under the auspices of the WHO, in cooperation with the Foreign Ministry and other organizations. Dr. Halfthan Mahler, Director-General of the WHO visited Japan as a guest of the Foreign Ministry.

(c)  Japan provided the WHO with $24.93 million in assessment and made voluntary contributions of $2.70 million in 1986. Japan also paid about $631,000 in contributions to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, an associated agency of the WHO.


(5)  International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

(a)  ICAO held the 26th session of the Assembly in Montreal in September-October 1986 to decide on its annual budget for each of the fiscal years 1987, 1988 and 1989 and to examine its work programme for the years, matters on aviation security etc. In the election of contracting States to be represented on the Council, Japan maintained its membership on the Council by being elected in the first place along with Brazil under the first category for the States of chief importance in air transport.

(b)  As part of its active efforts to prevent terrorist action against civil aviation, the ICAO Council in June 1986 worked out a model clause on aviation security for insertion into bilateral agreements on air services. Also, in the light of the recurrent terrorist acts at airports in recent years the Assembly decided in particular to prepare a draft instrument for the suppression of unlawful acts of violence at airports serving international civil aviation.

(c)  Japan contributed $2,717,000 (9.02 percent of the total contributions) to ICAO in 1986.


(6)  Universal Postal Union (UPU)

(a)  The UPU Executive Council met in April-May 1986 and discussed its budget, personnel changes, postal services and technical cooperation. The Consultative Council for Postal Studies at its session held in October studied such matters as computerization and international business mails.

(b)  In 1986, Japan paid 1.15 million Swiss francs in assessment (5.1% of the total contributions).


(7)  International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

(a)  The ITU Administrative Council held its session in June 1986 and considered its budget and technical cooperation.

(b)  The second session of the World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) for the Planning of the HF Bands allocated to the Broadcasting service in February-March 1987 discussed the use of frequency bands allocated to short-wave broadcasting.

(c)  In 1986, Japan paid 6.95 million Swiss francs in assessement (6.5 percent of the total contributions).


(8)  World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

(a)  The 38th session of the WMO Executive Council took place in June 1986 and discussed the World Weather Watch Programme, World Climate Programme, Research and Development Programme, Applications of Meteorology Programme, Technical Cooperation Activities, the 1987 budget and the budget for the 10th financial period (1988-1991).

(b)  The Commission for Atmospheric Sciences held its ninth session in October 1986. Japan remained as an activity center for short- and medium-range weather forecasting and newly took up a role as an activity center for very short-range forecasting.

(c)  In 1986, Japan made contributions of $852,000 (5.41% of the total contributions).


(9)  International Maritime Organization (IMO)

(a)  The 57th session of the IMO Council was held in November 1986 and decided to set up an ad hoc committee to consider a proposal for a "Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Navigation (tentatively named). "

(b)  The Maritime Safety Committee continued its study on the introduction of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS).

(c)  In 1986, Japan contributed $1,154,000 (9.69 percent of total contributions).


(10)  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

(a)  A ceremony to mark the centennial of the Berne Treaty was held in September 1986 while the Coordination Committee was in session.

(b)  WIPO held expert committee meetings on protection from counterfeit products (May), harmonization of patent laws (May), international protection of integrated circuits (June) and international registration of trademarks (November).

(c)  A consultative committee meeting was held for the revision of the Paris Convention.

(d)  In 1986, Japan contributed 1,146,523 Swiss francs, including operational costs.


(11)  World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED)

WCED, an independent commission on environmental problems established at the proposal of Japan and headed by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, held its eighth and final meeting in Tokyo from February 23 to 27, 1987, and adopted a final report and the Tokyo Declaration. The final report was submitted to the United Nations General Assembly after discussions at the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program.

With contributions of $250,000 for the holding of the Tokyo session in 1986, Japan's total contribution to WCED came to $1.75 million. This represents the largest share, or about 30% of the total contribution.



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