Section 2. Technical Cooperation
Technical cooperation is a form of economic cooperation for the transfer of technology required for the economic and social development of developing countries through receiving trainees dispatching experts, etc. Because it is implemented through human contacts, it has a merit to deepen mutual understanding and friendship between the peoples of various countries.
The government-based technical cooperation is carried out mainly through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the semi-governmental organization under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, established in 1974. It implements projects based on treaties or other international agreements concluded by the Ministry and its budget is funded also by the Ministry.
Japan disbursed $847 million (\143,500 million) for technical cooperation on DAC basis in 1986 (an increase of 55% over the previous year).
When compared internationally on DAC basis, Japan's technical cooperation with $549 million in 1985 was ranked 4th among the 18 DAC member countries in terms of disbursement but 14th in terms of it's ratio to ODA disbursement. In order to improve her ODA quality, Japan is continuously expanding the quantity of technical cooperation.
2. Technical Cooperation through JICA
(1) Acceptance of Trainees
Acceptance of trainees is one of the most basic forms of technical cooperation. Under this scheme Japan receives engineers, government officials, researchers etc. from developing countries to provide them with opportunities to learn Japan's advanced technologies.
In 1986, Japan newly accepted 4,500 trainees, raising the total number of trainees received on governmental basis to 62,442 since 1954.
Japan started the third country training program in 1975 in Thailand. Under this type of program, with financial and technical assistance from Japan a developing country accepts trainees from neighboring countries with similar natural, social or cultural backgrounds. It has a merit to promote technical cooperation between developing countries. Since 1975 the number of programs and countries increased steadily and in 1986, 33 programs were carried out and 592 trainees were accepted in 16 countries (Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, South Korea, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru, Brazil, Egypt, Kenya, the Ivory Coast, Fiji and Papua New Guinea), raising the total number of trainees to 2,143.
Worthy to note is Japan's cooperation to the "Immediate Action Program of ASEAN-Pacific Cooperation for Human Resources Development."
Among the 32 Projects of the Program endorsed by the Post-Ministerial Conference in Kuala Lumpur, July 1985, Japan carried out 15 projects including third country training programs and a joint research.
(2) Dispatch of Experts
Dispatch of experts is also one of the most basic forms of technical cooperation. Under this scheme, Japan sends experts to the government agencies, public research institutes, etc. developing countries, who transfer technology through various activities such as planning, survey and research, guidance, propagation and advice.
In 1986, Japan newly dispatched 7,615 experts, bringing the aggregate number of experts to 79,582 (since 1955).
In order to recruit and train experts and strengthen their activities in recipient countries, JICA inaugurated the Institute for International Cooperation in October 1983. In 1986, 1,248 experts took part in medium-term and other training courses in the Institute.
(3) Provision of Equipment and Machinery
Under the equipment supply scheme, Japan provides equipment and machinery necessary for transfer of technology through dispatch of experts and Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, acceptance trainees, etc. This scheme is distinct from the provision of equipment under the project-type technical cooperation and is called "individual equipment provision."
On net disbursement basis, Japan supplied equipment worth \1,651 million in 1986.
(4) Development Survey
In the development survey program, survey teams are dispatched to developing countries and regions in order to formulate projects which would contribute to the overall public program for the area, and to make reports thereon.
Development Survey (fiscal 1986 result)
The survey is part of our technical cooperation in that it aims at transferring the know-how of formulating projects, but the survey also plays an important role in discovering and formulating projects for Japanese economic cooperation.
In fiscal 1986, \21.3 billion was spent for 238 surveys (F/S, M/P, and resource surveys, etc.)
(5) Project-Type Technical Cooperation
So-called "project-type technical cooperation" refers to comprehensive technical cooperation, which is implemented in the organic combination of the three basic elements, namely, the dispatch of experts, the acceptance of trainees and the provision of equipment and machinery in various sectors stated below. It is often carried out at training centers, research institutes, etc. in developing countries, which serve as bases for technical transfer activities. In order to make this type of technical cooperation more efficient, in many cases Japan provides financial grant aid for establishment of the centers, institutes.
The "ASEAN Human Resources Development Projects" being implemented in the five ASEAN countries are typical examples of this type of cooperation.
At present, the project-type technical cooperation is implemented in the following sectors.
(a) Social and Economic Development Sector
In this sector Japan implemented 32 projects in 20 countries, including the five ASEAN Human Resources Development Projects, with the budget of \7,387 million in 1896.
(b) Health and Medical Sector
In this sector Japan implemented 38 projects in 28 countries with the budget of \4,013 million in 1986.
(c) Population and Family Planning Sector
In this sector Japan implemented 6 projects in four Asian countries and two Central and South American countries suffering from population increases with the budget of \910 million in 1986.
(d) Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sector
In this sector Japan implemented 50 projects in 24 countries with a budget of \7,635 million in 1986.
(e) Industrial Development Sector
In this sector Japan implemented 17 projects in 12 countries with the budget of \1,720 million in 1986.
(6) Development Cooperation
This refers to the program in which funds are supplied under soft conditions and technology is supplied through the dispatch of experts, the acceptance of trainees and surveys to combine with economic cooperation carried out by the Japanese private companies in developing countries and regions from the viewpoint of contributing to the socioeconomic development of such countries and regions. Specifically, it covers the following projects for which it is deemed difficult to obtain loans from the Export-Import Bank of Japan or the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund: (1) projects aiming at construction of the infrastructure needed in keeping with various development programs and contributing to the development of adjacent areas (roads, water supply, drainage, hospitals, etc.), and (2) pilot projects that are the unlikely to be successfully carried out without improvement or development of relevant technologies (experimental cultivation of farm produce and experimental afforestation, etc.)
In fiscal 1986, about \1,400 million was invested or loaned, 29 surveys were conducted, 33 experts were dispatched, and 26 trainees were accepted.
(7) Dispatch of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV)
The dispatch of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) was started in 1965 as a part of Japan's technical cooperation. Under this scheme, Japan dispatches young volunteers, who transfer technical experts by living and working together with the people of the countries, thus contribute to their socioeconomic development as well as to promotion of friendly relations between Japan and these countries. Average term of dispatch is 2 years.
The Volunteers are dispatched under basic agreements between the governments of Japan and the recipient countries. In July 1986, Japan newly concluded such agreement with Panama. As of the end of March 1987, 40 agreements were in force. (However, dispatch to Cambodia, Laos, El Salvador and India had been suspended, while to Uganda and Panama yet to be started).
In 1986, Japan newly sent 786 Volunteers to 34 countries, raising the total number of Volunteers to 7,220 (1,421 females since 19765).
(8) Youth Invitation Program (Friendship Program for the 21st Century)
The "Friendship Program for the 21st Century" was launched by the former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone during his visit to ASEAN countries in 1983 and started in 1984 originally as the ASEAN Youth Invitation Program. Under this Program, the youth of developing countries, who will shoulder the task of future nation-building, are invited to Japan approximately for 1 month. It is anticipated that through this Program the youth of these countries and Japan foster friendship and mutual understanding, which is the cornerstone of long-lasting relationship between the countries in the 21st century.
Because this Program was highly appreciated both in the ASEAN countries and at home, in 1986 Japan extended the Program to Burma, Papua New Guinea and Fiji. In 1986, Japan invited 799 youths from ASEAN countries, including 50 from Brunei, 10 each from Burma, Papua New Guinea and Fiji.
(9) Dispatch of Japan Disaster Relief Team
In the event of large-scale disasters in overseas areas, Japan dispatched the Japan Medical Team for Disaster Relief (JMTDR) and technical experts of disaster relief measures and extended financial assistance. Taking lessons from her relief activities on the occasion of two major disasters in 1985-the earthquake in Mexico and the eruption of a volcano in Colombia, Japan improved the scheme to dispatch the Japan Disaster Relief Team (JDR) to facilitate comprehensive disaster relief activities, by including the search and rescue team in December, 1985.
In 1986, Japan dispatched 42 persons as JDR to the seven disasters, including the cyclone disaster in the Solomon Islands, the toxic volcanic gas leak disaster in Cameroon and the earthquake disaster in El Salvador.
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