Chapter 2. Basic Issues of Japan's Diplomacy
1. Implementation of a Multilateral Diplomacy through Dialogues and Cooperation
In 1972, Japan managed to settle various postwar issues in the diplomatic field, except the northern territorial issue, and it is now developing a multilateral diplomacy to play an inter-national role befitting its stature as a member of the world community. In a diversified and fluid international situation, Japan must take diplomatic measures to broaden the foundation for its own survival and prosperity by promoting a dialogue with other countries of the world, pursuing common interests while respecting each other's basic stand, and broadening fields of cooperation.
Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka's visit to various countries in1973 and early in 1974 were made essentially from this stand-point. It is necessary for Japan to continue to conduct its diplomacy extensively and multilaterally, including summit diplomacy as circumstances require, toward the Near and Middle East, Africa, Central and South America, in addition to North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania.
Japan also needs to make diplomatic efforts to expand fields of cooperation through dialogues with other countries with different social systems, including its neighbors, the Soviet Union and China. The establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the German Democratic Republic in 1973 was a manifestation of this policy of Japan.
Japan's firm relations of friendship and cooperation with the United States form the basis for the implementation of abroad and multilateral diplomacy. It is a reality that multilateral diplomacy works effectively in the international arena only when it is based on a solid foundation. Relations of friendship and cooperation between Japan and the United States, with the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty as the axis, also play an important role in the peace and stability of Asia and the Pacific region, including Japan. It is true that there has been some progress in various forms of dialogue between countries across the barrier of different social systems, following detente between the United States and the Soviet Union and also between the United States and China, and the so-called cold war structure is undergoing a transformation. However it must not be forgotten that these changes have been made possible through international power politics and the established framework that has regulated international relations up to the present.
2. Contributions toward the Creation of a New International Economic Order
In the international community today, relations not only between the advanced countries, but also between the advanced and the developing countries, as well as those between the developing countries themselves, basically have been deeply inter-woven into the fabric of a deep and broad interdependence among all nations. It is also a fact, however, that there are some aspects where their mutual interests conflict. The question of the moment, therefore, is how to solve such conflicts of interests through cooperation and mutual concessions and how to establish a new international order for the smooth development of these basic interdependent relations. Japan has been able to follow the road to prosperity after the war primarily because of the efforts of its people and also because the external environment has been favorable to Japan. Now that Japan has greatly increased its economic power, it is no longer possible for it to pursue prosperity for itself alone on the postulate that the international environment will remain as before. This is be-cause the behavior of Japan itself exerts a great influence, directly and indirectly, on the international environment through its economic power. Japan realizes its own position and responsibility in the world, especially in the international economic community, and endeavors to eliminate unstable factors in the international community through cooperation with other countries, thereby making positive contributions toward the creation of a harmonious order by which the world can share peace and prosperity. From this point of view, Japan contributed to the adoption of the Tokyo Declaration on the occasion of the GATT general assembly in Tokyo in September 1973, and participated in the Washington Energy Conference in February 1974 in an effort to create harmonious relations between the energy-producing and the energy-consuming countries.
Japan needs to make further efforts for this kind of inter-national cooperation because it depends on the organization of a free, responsible and healthy international social order for its survival and prosperity.
3. Positive Promotion of Cooperation with the Developing Countries
The promotion of economic and social development for the developing countries in order to solve the North-South problems one of the biggest problems for the world today.
The developing countries have strengthened their demands in recent years, and the problems between the developing countries themselves have become diversified because some of them have important natural resources while others do not and also because of the difference in their respective stages of development.
Under these circumstances, it is a great international responsibility for the advanced countries to weave the position of the developing countries into a harmonious international order and cooperate in their economic and social development.
Japan's relations with the developing countries in various regions of the world, whose relations among themselves are complicated in such a way, have become closer than ever before as its economic foundation has expanded on a global scale. Especially, Japan has traditionally put emphasis on its cooperation with the developing countries of Asia centering on its neighbors in Southeast Asia, and this policy will be firmly maintained in the years to come. At the same time, with a view to securing a broader foundation for its survival and prosperity, Japan must promote closer relations with the countries of the Near and Middle East, Africa, Central and South America.
Japan is now in a position to be able to offer not only industrial products but also capital, technology and experience to the developing countries. It is necessary for Japan to continue to construct carefully thought-out relations of mutual benefit and equality with the developing countries, and establish relations of extensive cooperation, including inter-governmental economic cooperation and cultural interchange, through a deep under-standing of their strong desire for nation-building. Especially, Japan must take measures concerning official development aid to help improve the welfare of the general public in these countries by improving aid qualitatively and quantitatively and in-creasing cooperation in such fields as agriculture, medicine and education.
4. Importance of Cultural Diplomacy
To assure lasting peace and friendly relations with other countries, it is essential for Japan to have a correct understanding of foreign countries and their people and to inform them of Japan's culture, history, traditions and national character for better mutual understanding. It will be impossible to create lasting and stable international relations only through bargaining over political and economic interests. Cultural as well as personnel exchanges will promote correct mutual understanding, give breadth and depth to the nation's diplomacy and enhance a lasting sense of solidarity within the international community.
Reflecting its own realization of its past failure to adequately grasp the importance of cultural interchange in the diplomatic field compared with the countries of Europe and America, Japan established the Japan Foundation in 1972 and has endeavored to expand its scale and functions. From the standpoint mentioned above, Japan made financial contributions through the Foundation to universities in Europe and the United States for the promotion of studies on Japan. It has also been carrying forward its "Southeast Asia Youth Ship" pro-gram and has invited the U.N. University to establish its head-quarters in Japan. This country needs to make further efforts to promote its cultural diplomacy.
As the activities of Japan and the Japanese people have expanded on a global scale and become diversified, its international contacts and exchanges on the private level have greatly in-creased in recent years. Not only the Government but the en-tire nation as well must deepen mutual understanding with the rest of the world and make continuous efforts to win lasting international trust and respect.
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