Chapter 2. Keynotes of Japanese diplomacy
Section 1. Basic Problems
As discussed in Chapter 1, a remarkable trend toward detente marked the developments of the world in fiscal 1972 mainly because of the rapid improvement of relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China and between the United States and the Soviet Union, the realization of a cease-fire in Vietnam and progress in the dialogue between Eastern and Western Europe. A new age was dawning in postwar history.
In 1972, Japan solved two major pending problems-the reversion of Okinawa and the normalization of relations with the People's Republic of China. These events marked an end to the age of solving Japan's postwar problems except for the northern territorial issue, and Japan's diplomacy was entering a new stage.
Within these given situations, Japan must endeavor to assure its own security and prosperity and contribute to the peace and prosperity of the international community by carrying out prudent and yet positive diplomatic measures.
1. Implementation of a well-balanced diplomacy
Diplomatic relations have become complex with the multipolarization of international relations and the expansion of interchanges between countries. Japan must appraise the international environment which surrounds it with a sternly objective attitude and implement a thoroughly realistic diplomatic stance by correctly grasping a sense of perspective while assessing its national power accurately.
Needless to say, it is important for Japan to carry out well-considered measures to promote friendly relations with all countries of the world. As Japan's modern diplomatic history shows, it has achieved its growth through its interdependence and interchange with the United States and other developed countries, China and other Asian countries, and the Soviet Union. Therefore, its relations with these countries are particularly important.
From this point of view, it becomes necessary for Japan to maintain the closest relations of friendship and cooperation with the United States, promote its traditionally friendly relations with the countries in the Asia-Pacific area as well as the Western European countries and develop friendly relations with China and the Soviet Union.
Japan will be able to carry out a well-balanced diplomacy by taking various measures conducive to its intrinsic national interests by taking this kind of attitude.
2. Japan in Asia
As a nation in Asia, Japan views its relations with other Asian countries as a matter of the greatest concern.
Asia, like Europe, has a long history and old traditions. However, unlike Europe, it has little homogeneity in politics, culture and religion, and it has long remained in a state of stagnation amidst poverty and political instability. It is not easy for Asia to rid itself of these conditions. In Asia, important political events, such as the Sino-American summit talks, the start of a dialogue between North and South in the Korean Peninsula, the normalization of relations between Japan and China and the conclusion of the Vietnam peace agreement, occurred in the past year. The countries of Asia are approaching a major turning point.
Many of the Asian countries are still beset with stern political and economic difficulties, and tensions still persist in various parts of Asia. However, in terms of international relations as a whole, the trend in Asia may also be shifting from confrontation to dialogue and from passiveness to independence, and thereby Asia is heading for peace and stability. Under such circumstances, Japan should welcome this trend in Asia and cooperate with the countries concerned and make due efforts so that the detente in Asia will be realized through talks among the countries concerned.
Of equal importance, Japan should offer economic cooperation for the economic independence of Asian countries which will form the foundation of peace and stability in the region. Japan must fully recognize that the peace and prosperity of Asia will profoundly influence its own future and must endeavor to promote economic cooperation with other Asian countries and take well-considered diplomatic measures, including the promotion of mutual understanding by increasing personnel and cultural interchange.
3. Expanding fields for Japan's contributions
Japan's economic power has greatly increased in recent years. In order to secure its own economic growth in the future, Japan must make positive contributions, working together with the United States and the EC countries, toward the maintenance and development of international economic order.
Japan must also endeavor to extend as much cooperation and aid as possible to the developing countries to encourage their efforts toward self-development, thereby making due contributions toward solving the North-South problem.
Moreover, Japan must widen its perspective and intensify its cultural exchanges with various countries, to say nothing of those in the political and economic fields, and promote personnel exchanges in particular over a wide range of field. By so doing, Japan will be able to deepen mutual understanding with other nations and make further contributions toward increasing the intellectual and cultural assets of mankind.
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