Official Development Assistance (ODA)

East Asia's Economic Development and Japan's ODA
- From Recipients to Partners

    In the countries of East Asia, Japan's assistance was directed toward areas such as economic infrastructure as well as education and human resource development. These areas, combined with foreign investment, have a bearing on developing export industries.

    Japan seeks to disseminate the East Asian development model to other regions. For example, Japan held the IDEA (Initiative for Development in East Asia) Ministerial meeting in 2002 in order to promote economic partnership and regional cooperation in East Asia.

    Among the Asian countries to which Japan has been providing assistance, there are some that have achieved remarkable economic development and already graduated from the position as a target country for assistance (Korea, Singapore, etc.), and there are some that, while continuing to receive assistance, also provide at the same time South-South cooperation in specific fields for other developing countries in cooperation with countries such as Japan, based on the accomplishments of their own development (Thailand, Indonesia, etc.).


ASEAN

Vietnam
Transportation Infrastructure Projects in Northern Vietnam
Today National Highway No. 5 has three lanes in each direction.
Today National Highway No. 5 has three lanes in each direction.

    Hai Phong, which is the largest port city in the northern region, is known as an international port, handling the second largest amount of freight in Vietnam. The port and National Highway No. 5, which connects Hanoi and the port, are key infrastructure for inbound and outbound shipments for the country.

    However, Hai Phong is a shallow port, making it difficult for large freighters to enter. In addition, the port did not have sufficient container facilities that could handle a large amount of goods. Also, National Highway No.5 could't manage the increase in traffic, since the national highway had only a single lane in each direction.

    The government of Japan provided yen loans to Vietnam for upgrading Hai Phong port and National Highway No. 5, making the delivery of shipments through these two important thoroughfares more effective. The total number of freighters handled at the "new" port has been rapidly growing and, in fact, more foreign firms based in Hanoi use the port for shipments.

    Overall, the project has contributed to the promotion of foreign direct investments to the northern region, creating new job opportunities for approximately 14,000 local people and further promoting industrial activities, particularly trading. In short, with this successful project, the northern region of Vietnam has achieved further economic development.

The Philippines
Agrarian Reform Infrastructure Support Project
An open sky dehydration facility and a storage house are part of the project.
An open sky dehydration facility and a storage house are part of the project.

    In order to achieve comprehensive development of the rural areas of the Philippines, Japan has conducted a rural development infrastructure project since 1995. In this project, new irrigation facilities and temporary storage houses for harvested agricultural products were established, and new roads, allowing local farmers easy access to the nearest large market, were built.

   In order to achieve better results, the project worked with local NGOs in helping organize local communities and water supply associations and providing technical support.

   The irrigation facilities were effectively used and high productivity varieties of rice were introduced; these contributed to improving agricultural productivity in the target rural areas, while technical support was effectively provided for the local farmers of the areas.

   Since a sufficient amount of water is supplied for agricultural activities, some farmers have been working on cultivation of commercially valued agricultural products other than rice, the target product in the project.


Korea

The latest technologies, such as a stainless body and an inverter control system, became standard for the Korean subway system.
The latest technologies, such as a stainless body and an inverter control system, became standard for the Korean subway system.
    In 1970s Japan provided a yen loan for Korea's first subway project in Seoul, the capital of Korea. In the 1980s, with the support of yen loans from Japan, the Korean government developed its subway network system in the capital in order to mitigate the traffic jams and automobile exhaust, due to the radical increase of population concentrations in the city.

    In the subway network system project, new model subway trains, manufactured under a joint venture between Korean and foreign companies, was introduced. In the course of the joint venture, the Korean manufacturer of the subway trains learned new technology.

    This became the cornerstone of the country's subway industry, which in turn became competitive in bids for subway projects in foreign countries, such as Indonesia and Malaysia.


China

Japan's ODA has contributed to improving China's public health systems.
Japan's ODA has contributed to improving China's public health systems.
    Japan started providing ODA to China in 1979. Since then, Japanese ODA has played a pivotal role in reducing bottlenecks in the coastal area, improving environmental management, securing the country's macro economic stability, upgrading basic human needs such as public health, and promoting human resources development.

    These have contributed to promoting China's sustainable economic development, open-door policies and other reform measures.




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    Contents
[Japan's ODA: Accomplishment of 50 Years]
Japan's ODA Contributing to World Development...4
East Asia's Economic Development and Japan's ODA...5
Japan's Contribution in Human Resource Development...6
[Progress of 50 Years of ODA]
System Development Period (1954-1976)...8
Systematic Expansion Period (1977-1991)...10
Policy and Philosophy Enhancement Period (1992-2002)...12
(Original ODA Charter Period)
Meeting the Challenges of a New Era (2003-Present)...14
(Revised ODA Charter)