Japanese Report on Implementation of the APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism
The APEC Leaders issued the Statement on Counter-terrorism in October 2001. The following description is the outline of actions taken by Japan in line with the Statement. This report was submitted to APEC by the Japanese Government in May 2002. (Reference notes provide information about the major development after the submission of this report.)
Paragraph 4 of the APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism: Leaders deem it imperative to strengthen international cooperation at all levels in combating terrorism in a comprehensive manner and affirm that UN should play a major role in this regard, especially taking into account the importance of all relevant UN resolutions.
Action by Japan: Diplomatic efforts to strengthen international solidarity
Description of Activity: Since the terrorist attacks of 11th September last year, the international community has been taking prompt actions at the United Nations and in many international and regional organizations and fora to prevent and eliminate terrorism. Determined to make the fight against terrorism a task of its own responsibility and to actively engage itself in that fight, Japan has been stepping up diplomatic efforts to strengthen international solidarity towards the prevention and eradication of terrorism, through such means as the dispatch of special envoys, official letters from the Prime Minister, as well as bilateral and multilateral meetings and telephone talks.
Action by Japan: Implementation of "Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law"
Description of Activity: Based on the "Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law", which was passed by the Diet of Japan on 29 October 2001, Self-Defense Forces (SDF) vessels are providing supply of fuel to U.S. and U.K. naval ships, and SDF aircraft are engaged in transportation support for U.S. forces as cooperation and support activity for Foreign Forces which aim to eradicate the threat of the terrorist attacks which took place on 11 September 2001 in USA.
Action by Japan: Prevention of Visa Issuance to Terrorists
Description of Activity: With the purpose of prevention of entrance into or transit through the territory of Japan by terrorists, the Government of Japan have ordered all its diplomatic establishments to examine visa applications more strictly.
Action by Japan: Refugee assistance
Description of Activity:
(1) Japan has provided relief supplies for Afghan refugees including 1,840 tents and 18,000 blankets to the UNHCR.
(2) Japan has contributed a total of approximately US$102.21 million to support assistance activities for Afghan refugees and displaced persons by the United Nations agencies and other international organizations.
Action by Japan: Assistance to countries surrounding Afghanistan
Description of Activity:
(1) On 21 September 2001, the Government of Japan decided to take emergency measures to assist Pakistan, which included bilateral assistance worth approximately US$40 million (4.7 billion yen). In addition, on November 16, the Government of Japan announced that it would provide US$300 million in grant aid to Pakistan, which includes the above-mentioned US$40 million, over approximately next two years to assist Pakistani government's efforts in such fields as education and health to reduce poverty.
(2) On 26 October 2001, Japan also decided to discontinue measures taken in May 1998 in response to the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in view of due achievement by them in the area of non-proliferation.
(3) Japan has extended assistance of approximately US$8 million to each of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Japan provided approximately US$2 million of emergency aid to Tajikistan in addition.
Action by Japan: Peace and reconstruction in Afghanistan
Description of Activity:
(1) Japan made a contribution of US$1 million to the UN Afghanistan Interim Authority Fund that was established within the UNDP.
(2) Japan held the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan on 21-22 January 2002 in Tokyo, where Japan pledged up to US$500 million aid over the next 2.5 years.
(3) Japan has set up the Advisory Council on Assistance to Afghanistan Women in order to develop strategies for integrating gender equality perspective into rehabilitation and reconstruction support program in Afghanistan. Some members of the Advisory Council jointed survey missions to Afghanistan on March and April in order to identify the needs of women. At the end of May, the Advisory Council will make recommendations on supporting gender mainstreaming in Afghanistan.
Action by Japan: Training program and seminars
Description of Activity:
(1) (Training Course on Immigration Control Administration) Japan has offered training programs on immigration control administration since 1995 to provide practical knowledge and training on immigration control administration. Japan doubled the number of participants of this training course in FY 2002.
(2) (Seminar on Aviation security) Japan has held seminars on aviation security to provide fundamental knowledge on aviation security and opportunities to exchange views among participants since 1986. Japan doubled the number of participants of this seminar in FY 2001 and FY 2002.
(3) (Seminar on international Terrorism Investigation) Japan has held seminars on international terrorism investigation, since 1995, to provide opportunities to exchange views and information on current situations of terrorist activities and counter-terrorism measures. Japan doubled the number of participants of this seminar in FY 2002.
Paragraph 5 of the APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism: Leaders commit to prevent and suppress all forms of terrorist acts in the future in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other international law, pledge to implement the UN Security Council Resolution 1368 and 1373 faithfully and immediately, strongly support all efforts to strengthen the international anti-terrorism regime, call for increased cooperation to bring perpetrators to justice, and also call for early signing and ratification of all basic universal anti-terrorist conventions including the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
Action by Japan: Ratification and implementation of anti-terrorism related conventions
Description of Activity: Japan has concluded 11 of the 12 UN conventions on counter-terrorism. Japan also signed the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism on 30th October 2001. The Japanese government is asking this plenary session of the Diet for the approval of the conclusion of that Convention and necessary or relevant bills for implementing the Convention and UNSCR (United Nations Security Council Resolution) 1373 described in (1)-(3) of the action "legislation" below (ref. note 1). Japan will strengthen surveillance and control of money flows related to terrorist acts, together with the criminalisation of terrorist financing, in compliance with the related laws.
(note 1) Japan concluded on 11th June the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. Now Japan is a party to all 12 UN conventions on counter-terrorism after the approval of necessary or relevant bills for implementing the Convention and UNSCR (United Nations Security Council Resolution) 1373.
Action by Japan: legislation
Description of Activity:
(1) To implement asset freezing more effectively, the Japanese government introduced a bill to amend the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law to the Diet on 12 March, 2002 (ref. note 2). The bill requires financial institutions to identify customers in foreign exchange transaction, including capital transactions. Financial institutions shall be legally obliged to identify customer's name, address and date of birth in case of a natural person, and customer's name and main office in case of a juridical person. Financial institutions shall also be legally obliged to record the data on customer identification and maintain the records for seven years. The bill also requires the close cooperation among relevant government agencies, to designate terrorists whose assets should be frozen, for example by speedily exchanging information among them.
(2) Regarding the criminalization of financing of terrorism, the Japanese government submitted, at this plenary session of the Diet, a draft law to implement the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and UNSCR1373 (ref. note 3). The draft law makes it possible to punish a person who provides or collects funds for a certain category of terrorist acts (hijacking, hostage-taking, etc.), even when a principal has not yet initiated such a criminal act. This law would also punish acts of financing that are committed outside the Japanese jurisdiction. At the same time, this law expands predicate offences of money laundering to cover such financing, so as to enable seizure or confiscation of funds used or allocated for financing of terrorism and to require financial institutions to submit suspicious transaction reports to the competent authority.
(3) In addition, a draft law for requiring financial institutions to confirm customer identification and keep transaction records for a certain period from a view point of effective implementation of measures against financing of terrorism was approved in the current Diet session (ref. note 4).
(note 2) The bill was approved at the Diet on 24th April.
(note 3) The bill was approved at the Diet on 5th June.
(note 4) The bill was approved at the Diet on 22nd April.
Action by Japan: Asset freezing
Description of Activity: Japan has taken measures to freeze assets of terrorists, based on the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law. So far, assets of 281 individuals and entities, including the Taliban and those associated with the Taliban have been frozen in accordance with UNSCRs 1267, 1333 and 1390. In addition, assets of 17 individuals and 5 entities have been frozen in accordance with UNSCR 1373 (as of 20 April 2002). (ref. note 5)
(note 5) As of 7 May 2002, assets of 291 individuals and entities, including the Taliban and those associated with the Taliban have been frozen in accordance with UNSCRs 1267, 1333 and 1390, and assets of 27 individuals and 5 entities have been frozen in accordance with UNSCR 1373.
Paragraph 6 of the APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism: Leaders are determined to enhance counter-terrorism cooperation in line with specific circumstances in their respective economies, through:
- Appropriate financial measures to prevent the flow of funds to terrorists, including accelerating work on combating financial crimes through APEC Finance Ministers' working Group on Fighting Financial Crime and increasing involvement in related international standard-setting bodies;
Action by Japan: Asset freezing
Description of Activity: Japan has taken measures to freeze assets of terrorists, based on the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law. So far, assets of 281 individuals and entities, including the Taliban and those associated with the Taliban have been frozen in accordance with UNSCRs 1267, 1333 and 1390. In addition, assets of 17 individuals and 5 entities have been frozen in accordance with UNSCR 1373(as of 20 April 2002).
Action by Japan: Increasing involvement in FATF (Financial Action Task Force) and APG(Asia Pacific Group on Money Laundering) and implementation of the FATF Special Recommendations on terrorist financing
Description of Activity: Japan is even more actively involved in the discussions and activities of FATF and APG to combat terrorist financing. In particular, with a view to fully complying with the FATF Special Recommendations on terrorist financing, Japan is intending to enact new laws and amend relevant laws (ref. Note 6). The aims of the new legislation are to complete criminalisation of financing of terrorism and to enhance measures to prevent financing of terrorism such as reporting of suspicious transactions and customer identification.
(note 6) Japan has enacted the new laws and have amended relevant laws.
- Adherence by all economies to relevant international requirements for the security of air and maritime transportation. Leaders call on Transport Ministers to actively take part in the discussions on enhancing airport, aircraft, and port security, achieve effective outcomes as early as possible, and assure full implementation and cooperation in this regard;
Action by Japan: Support for the initiatives within appropriate international organizations and active participation in their activities.
Description of Activity: Japan is fully supporting ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) initiatives and actively participating in its activities, such as (i) the High-level Ministerial Conference on Aviation Security held last February, (ii) review of international security standards, and (iii) security audits to be implemented from 2003. Japan is also supporting IMO (International Maritime Organization) initiatives.
Action by Japan: Ministerial Conference
Description of Activity: Japan held a Ministerial Conference on Transport in January 2002 in Tokyo, to exchange views on the environmentally-friendly transportation. In addition, all participating Ministers agreed to hold a special session on Transport and Counter-terrorism. The Ministers discussed issues on transportation security and were unanimous in their intention to send a strong message to the world, which confirmed their commitment to assure security in transportation through intensified coordination among the related entities, intensified international cooperation and increased support for the initiatives of relevant international organizations.
- Strengthening of energy security in the region through the mechanism of the APEC Energy Security Initiative, which examines measures to respond to temporary supply disruptions and longer-term challenges facing the region's energy supply;
Action by Japan: Strengthening Energy Security
Description of Activity: Japan has been making efforts to strengthen energy security by taking various measures. The diversification of energy sources and types has constituted an important pillar of such efforts. Japan has also contributed to energy security in the region by such measures as sharing its technology and experience of oil stockpiling through both bilateral and multilateral frameworks. Strongly supporting the Energy Security Initiative, Japan participated actively in the "Sea Lane Oil Disruption Simulation Exercise" organized by APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Center) in April.
- Strengthening of APEC activities in the area of critical sector protection, including telecommunications, transportation, health and energy;
Action by Japan: Supporting four proposals on security measures in TPT-WG (Transportation Working Group).
Description of Activity: Japan support four project proposals on security measures in Transportation Security Expert Group (TSEG) in TPT-WG, submitted to BMC (Budget and Management Committee) as urgent proposals in this March.
Action by Japan: Supporting TEL-WG (Telecommunications Working Group) activities including critical telecommunication infrastructure protection and other TEL's activities.
Description of Activity: Japan supports critical sector protection activities carried out by TEL-WG, including drafting the report on APEC economies' implementations of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 55/63"Combating the Criminal Misuse of Information Technologies" to the Ministerial Meeting on the Telecommunication and Information Industries in May, 2002.
- Enhancement of customs communication networks and expeditious development of a global integrated electronic customs network, which would allow customs authorities to better enforce laws while minimizing the impact on the flow of trade;
Action by Japan: (1) Exploring the utilization of the Regional Intelligence Liaison Office (RILO) of the World Customs Organization (WCO) as an APEC point of contact for Customs communication. (2) Promoting Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements or a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for mutual Customs cooperation.
Description of Activity: In February 2002, Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures (SCCP) started discussion on every possible option, including the utilization of the RILO for Asia and the Pacific, to meet the Leaders' instruction. Japan actively took part in this discussion as the host of the RILO.
- Cooperation to develop electronic movement records systems that will enhance border security while ensuring movement of legitimate travelers is not disrupted;
Action by Japan: Equipment with MRP (machine readable passports) Readers
Description of Activity: Japan has already equipped the ports of entry with MRP (machine readable passport) Readers which are capable of recording movement of travellers in an electronic manner.
Action by Japan: Developing a wide-area network system for visa issuance information
Description of Activity: Japan is now developing a wide-area network system for visa issuance information which makes it possible for relevant agencies to share, on a real-time basis, information especially on MRVs (machine readable visas) in order to prevent visa issuance to undesirable persons.
- Strengthening capacity building and economic and technical cooperation to enable member economies to put into place and enforce effective counter-terrorism measures; and
Action by Japan: Technical Assistance
Description of Activity: Japan has solid programs of bilateral assistance in counter-terrorism aimed at preventing terrorist acts, such as Training course on immigration control administration, Seminar on international terrorism investigation and Seminar on aviation security (see below). These programs are offered to officials from developing countries, mainly from APEC Economies. Up to the present, a total of 308 officials from more than 100 countries have participated in the programs.
Furthermore, Japan committed to double the number of participants in each above-mentioned program in 2002. Japan believes that such efforts will assist other countries including APEC Member Economies to implement UNSCR1373 (2001) fully and smoothly.
Action by Japan: Program and Seminar
Description of Activity: Japan has the following assistance programs.
(1) Training Course on Immigration Control Administration (for Asian Countries): The purpose of this training course is to provide participants with practical knowledge and training on immigration control administration by introducing the Japanese system, in order to contribute to the development of immigration control and a regional network mechanism in participating countries of Asia.
(2) Seminar on International Terrorism Investigation: The purpose of this seminar is to provide those who are leaders in charge of the prevention and investigation of international terrorism with an opportunity to discuss the international terrorist situation and anti-terrorism measures.
(3) Seminar on Aviation Security: The purpose of this seminar is to provide participants with fundamental knowledge of aviation security measures practiced in Japan, which include ICAO specifications.
- Cooperation to limit the economic fallout from the attacks and move to restore economic confidence in the region through policies and measures to increase economic growth as well as ensure stable environment for trade, investment, travel and tourism.
Action by Japan: Further Proceeding Structural Reform
Description of Activity: While carefully examining the development of global economic situation after the event on September 11, Japan has been proceeding Structural Reform which could contribute to increasing regional economic growth by achieving sustainable growth of Japanese economy.
Action by Japan: Provision of ample liquidity by Bank of Japan
Description of Activity: The Bank of Japan provided ample liquidity in order to ensure the smooth funds settlements and the stability of financial market.
Paragraph 7 of the APEC Leaders Statement on Counter-terrorism: Leaders also pledge to cooperate fully to ensure that international terrorism does not disrupt economies and markets, through close communication and cooperation among economic policy and financial authorities.
Action by Japan: Active participation in activities of Economic Committee and APEC Finance Ministers' process
Description of Activity: Japan actively participates in the activities of Economic Committee and APEC Finance Ministers' process with a view to contributing to promoting close communication and cooperation among economic policy and financial authorities.
Action by Japan: Cooperation among G7 Financial Ministers and Central Bank Governors
Description of Activity: Japan participated in the G7 Financial Ministers and Central Bank Governors' Meeting to address the impact of terrorist attacks on the global economy.
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